Despite traditional notions of meritocracy, higher education has a long history of exclusionary practices. This chapter explores connections between such practices and racial ideology in the United States, including the recent concept of “post-racialism.”
Critical race theory has emerged as a powerful critique of color-blind ideology but has failed to adequately explore the colonial history and neocolonial legacies within the claims for a Black citizenship. This article argues for an anticolonial analysis of citizenship based on Carter G. Woodson’s Appeal.
This chapter details how slavery, segregation, and racism impacted the educational experiences of African Americans from the colonial era to the present. It argues that America has yet to be a truly post-slavery and post-segregation society, let alone a post-racial society.
This chapter chronicles the experiences of three friends who journey from being students in teacher education to junior faculty in the field. Using critical race theory as an analytical tool, the three friends highlight the ways in which racism exists and is manifested in three different teacher education programs.
Drawing from the theories of racial formation theory and race marking, this chapter explores the durability of racial discourses in school curriculum over time in the United States. The authors’ inquiry focuses on racial discourses located in two sources of curricula knowledge: children’s literature and U.S. history textbooks.
This chapter examines the charter school policy and planning network and how this network is helping to grow urban charter schools and related advocacy organizations across the United States.
In light of the current mainstream contention that the United States has entered a post-racial epoch with the election of the first African American president, this work posits that post-racial rhetoric obfuscates the continued racialized experiences of Black families regardless of class status.
This chapter provides a critique of the post-racial discourse that emerged after the election of President Barack Obama as the first African American president of the United States. Using personal narrative, I extend this critique of the post-racial within the context of a multicultural education graduate program.
Using Howard Winant’s racial dualism theory, this chapter explains how race was discursively operationalized in the recent U.S. Supreme Court higher education antiracial diversity case Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin.
The purpose of this autoethnography was to examine how school district-level administrators respond to investigations and findings of racism in their districts. We examined administrators’ responses to our requests about their districts’ racialized disciplinary data, and their responses to our sharing of these findings. We describe four technical–rational practices through which school district administrators maintain blindness toward racial inequities and thereby allow racism to continue in their districts.
Perceptions of justice, fairness, and order can influence pro-social behavior, psychological well-being, healthy interpersonal relationships, and educational progress and success for students. It is also known that students’ perceptions of school justice can vary by race, ethnicity, and gender. What remains uncertain is how the fastest-growing segment of the United States, students in immigrant families, perceive the school justice, fairness, and order within their school. This study utilizes data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 and incorporates multilevel analysis to examine how students in immigrant families perceive justice, fairness, and order at their school. Findings do suggest that the students’ perceptions of justice, fairness, and order are indeed moderated by immigrant generation, race, ethnicity, and gender. The implications of the evident racial, ethnic, and gender, as well as generational, disparities in students’ perceptions of justice, fairness, and order in the United States school system are discussed more broadly.
This is a historical study of the formation and role of the Vietnamese student organizations at the University of California, Irvine from 1980 to 1990.
This qualitative study explores the relevance of high school messages and curricular placement on the transition of Latino students into a university, particularly as they consider the meaning of the challenges they face in their first year of college.
This study examines the effects of metropolitan school district fragmentation―the proliferation of public school districts within a metropolitan area―on the trajectory of racial/ethnic school segregation between 2002 and 2010.
Teachers' perceptions of students' academic ability vary significantly by the race of the student. This study examines how students' test scores and teacher reports of students' social and behavioral skills explain black-white differences in teacher perceptions of students' academic ability. Using teacher fixed-effects models and the ECLS-K data from the fall and spring of kindergarten, this study finds that racial differences in teachers perceptions of students' academic ability are mostly explained by test scores, teacher reports of students' social and behavioral skills, and teachers' perceptions of academic ability from the beginning of the year. Behaving well at the beginning of the school year is especially important for teacher perceptions of black students' academic ability.
This article explores the extent to which students’ precollege exposure to racial/ethnic difference within schools, neighborhoods, and friendship groups predicts their complex racial attitudes upon entering college.
This chapter presents an overview of Aboriginal education in Canada that focuses on linking the transgenerational effects of colonialism with current issues. Educational models, partnerships, and programs already exist that make an enormous impact on outcomes for children and youth in and from Aboriginal communities. Examples of six successful programs that were developed in partnership with Aboriginal communities and range from elementary school through post-secondary school are highlighted.
In this article, I examine the experiences of 22 postsecondary educators facilitating dialogues about racial issues in classroom settings. Findings reveal four main strategies participants employed: using group work and discussions, incorporating an integrated assortment of resources, inviting students to apply racial concepts to their lives, and having learners debrief following each dialogue session.
Drawing on longitudinal interview data collected on 72 Chinese immigrant children and their parents, we examined how immigration reshapes parental involvement in mostly working-class Chinese immigrant families. Our findings include multiple challenges parents face after migration in school involvement, parental feelings of powerlessness, and children’s forced precocious independence.
This study captures the background characteristics of HBCU leaders in order to lay the groundwork for future studies on HBCU presidents. It also seeks to understand the role these leaders play in grooming and mentoring the next generation of HBCU leaders.
The authors draw from the historical aspects associated with the formation of Freedom Schools during the Civil Rights era and the concept of school as sanctuary to understand the pedagogical and philosophical underpinnings associated with the establishment of Freedom University. The findings demonstrate that Freedom University is a postsecondary space with characteristics resembling a sanctuary school by centering students’ experiences within the curriculum, using Civil Rights history to complicate contemporary anti-immigration sentiments, and enacting transformational resistance by both students and faculty. The authors suggest that, by creating sanctuaries of learning on a postsecondary level, students without documentation are afforded a space to continue their education for the sake of learning but not for a college degree.
After decades of research that repudiates the thesis of Asian Americans as model minorities, the visibility of Asian Americans in higher education continues to reinforce essentialist paradigms about their presumed success. This article presents the most recent educational pipeline for Asian Americans while examining disparities in attainment across race, class, gender, citizenship, and earning power as a method to further policy discussions on education and civil rights.
This article examines the way Cuban teachers address racism in their professional practice, with a specific focus on teacher home visits to address issues of racism with parents and guardians. Using critical race theory and a reconsideration of the ecological systems theory, this article analyzes the relationship between Cuban teachers and the families of students they teach based on in-depth interviews and a survey of Cuban teachers.
In this article the author explores the mathematics and life experiences of 13 Black elementary education pre-service college students, encompassing both their reflections as students of mathematics and as future mathematics teachers of most likely Black and Latino students. Their “voices” suggest that these Black pre-service students generated constructions that include considerations of race and racism as part of their shared African American experience in the United States; that is, a mathematics learning experience and future mathematics-based teaching ideologies structured, in part, by larger negative and unjust race relations existing in US culture, in spite of early at-home mathematics support.
We use the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, a nationally representative sample of high school sophomores, to examine patterns of social engagement in friendships and extracurricular activities among racial/ethnic minorities and immigrant adolescents. Results show that racial/ethnic minority adolescents, as well as first- and second-generation adolescents, are less engaged in friendships than their third-generation White counterparts, and there is no clear pattern of advantage or disadvantage in extracurricular activity participation.
This article examines the social production of racial identity for four White men and explores how their racial identities were dependent on relations with real and imagined racial others.
This article problematizes the concept of “diversity” by exploring how one racially mixed high school’s vision for diversity was mismatched with the reality of apparent inequities within the school. Students of color who transferred to the high school for better opportunities were ultimately resegregated to racially isolating structures. The study’s findings align with scholars who call for further critique of what it means to be truly diverse or integrated, and suggest current policies designed to achieve diverse schooling fail to chisel at mechanisms that inevitably sustain the inequitable racial and social order within schools.
This comparative paper analyzes the historical development of Black-focused education in Toronto and London from 1968 to 2008 as a response by Black parents and community activists to the historic underachievement of African Caribbean students (particularly males) in the public schools of both cities. I situate the development of Black-focused education in each city within the larger social, political, and national policy contexts, trace critical incidents that fueled the development of race-based school district policy, and explore how the “politics of place” has influenced the trajectory of Black-focused education in each city.
We conclude this special issue reflecting back on the history of desegregation and questioning how we move forward in trying to achieve racially integrated school settings. The epilogue includes a conversation with Dr. Michael A. Middleton, an expert in civil rights and employment discrimination and served as the lead counsel for plaintiffs in the St. Louis metropolitan school desegregation litigation. Dr. Middleton discusses the history, current status, and future of school desegregation.
This study used a developmental approach to investigate the relationship between academic and ethnic identities among ethnically diverse college students. The findings indicate that Students of Color perceive a greater connection between their academic and ethnic identities compared to White students, and that this difference can be partially explained by differences in ethnic identity.