This chapter explores the basis of rationality, arguing that critical thinking tends to be taught in schools as a set of skills because of the failure to recognize that choosing to think critically depends on the prior development of stable sentiments or moral habits that nourish a rational self. Primary among these stable sentiments are the delight of recognition and the surprise of uncertainty. The creative act of imagination that sparks the delight of recognition is an invitation to begin rational enquiry. A flash of insight provides a motive for valuing the principle of truthfulness, which in turn provides a basis for a community of enquiry. While acknowledging that in the current climate of accountability-through-assessment there are good reasons for teachers to believe that the aim of nourishing the stable sentiments that support rationality is out of their reach, the chapter argues that students become independent rational reasoners only because they have lived in a community or classroom in which the surprise of uncertainty is valued more than a right answer, and the delight of recognition is more celebrated than a test score.
The purpose of this chapter is to understand the spiritual dimensions of teaching by elucidating the cardinal and forgotten virtue of reverence. Reverence has a power beyond a typical understanding of it as something religious. Reverence involves a sense of wonder and awe for something or someone that meets at least one of the following conditions: (1) something we cannot control; (2) something we cannot create; (3) something we cannot fully understand; (4) something transcendent, even supernatural The chapter shows reverence in a wider context that does not diminish its spiritual connotations, but rather shows its importance and relevance to teaching in today’s classrooms.
The chapter examines John Dewey’s concepts of society and the public in the context of digital technology and its potential to transform society and the moral ethos of the public school. I argue that Dewey’s theory of society and the public, though articulated for an industrial age, are, like his moral vision of social democracy and public education, still of perennial importance as a ethical lens to frame and critique the emerging network society and publics.
In this chapter, the author proposes to imagine the aims of the school in light of a cosmopolitan philosophy of education. The first section that follows provides a summary account of what the author takes cosmopolitanism to mean. The second section frames a philosophy of education that stems from this account. The third and penultimate section sketches a conception of the school and its moral and ethical aims in light of this philosophy of education. The discussion will foreground normative ideals. Such ideals can be dangerous if they blind people to realities. They can be disappointing if failure to attain them weighs down hard on people. But if ideals are understood as sources of direction rather than as destinations, they can assist educators to sustain their course in the face of obstacles. The author’s core purpose here is to highlight why a cosmopolitan orientation can inspire, encourage, and help guide educators in realizing schools for our time.
This chapter presents a conceptual argument that positions two broad areas of educational scholarship—the moral and ethical dimensions of teaching and social justice education—as being quite separate, different, and ultimately antithetical, despite contemporary trends towards merging them in both theoretical and practical ways. It argues that an emerging tendency in social justice education to position its political agenda as a moral or ethical endeavor, especially within teacher education, is problematic in that it complicates, rather than enhances, the conceptualization of teaching as moral practice; it further distracts teachers and student teachers from fully engaging with the ethical aspects of their daily professional work.
This paper endorses the overall argument of the preceding contributions. It argues for an approach to teacher education focused more strongly on the nature of the educational enterprise and the why, wherefore and how of teaching specific subjects. The importance of distinguishing between the provisional nature of knowledge claims and relativism is stressed, as is the distinction between the uncertain and the arbitrary.
This study provides a detailed portrait of typical induction support provided to beginning elementary school teachers during the 2005-2006 school year in 17 high-poverty urban school districts around the country.
This article examines the efforts of the Commission on Interracial Cooperation to have Black history taught in White southern schools from 1928 to 1943. The author raises questions about teachers’ activism and the impact of curriculum on shaping teachers’ and students’ attitudes and beliefs.
Arizona’s Structured English Immersion (SEI) four-hour model has negative implications for English language learners (ELLs). Students, who are subjected to a prescriptive model that has resulted from a convergence of major laws, mandates, and policy decisions of the past decade, are faced with receiving an education unequal to that of their mainstream peers.
In the Horne v. Flores Supreme Court decision of June 25, 2009, the Court wrote that one basis for finding Arizona in compliance with federal law regarding the education of its English learners was that the state had adopted a “significantly more effective” than bilingual education instructional model for EL students ‐‐Structured English Immersion (SEI). This paper reviews the extant research on SEI, its definitions, origins, and its effectiveness, particularly in contrast to other instructional strategies.
This is a study of the segregation and isolation of English learners in Arizona schools, which is exacerbated by the mandated four-hour English Language Development program required by the state. The study finds this program harmful to EL students and suggests research-based alternatives.
The present report reviews achievement gaps in both reading and math between ELL and non-ELL students in Arizona, a state with restrictive language policies, over the period 2005-2009 and during the first year of implementation of the 4 hour ELD block, 2008-09. It also compares the progress of Arizona’s ELL population towards academic proficiency relative to ELL students in two cities and states that do not place as restrictive legislation on ELL instruction: Utah and Washington, DC, two educational entities with vastly different spending policies.
This article examines the relation between school-level academic performance and dropout rates under North Carolina’s accountability system. Using data on every public school student in the state over an 8-year period, we examine (1) the relation between changes in academic performance and the subsequent dropout rate, and (2) the relation between changes in the dropout rate and subsequent performance.
This article examines students’ sense of belonging in secondary schools offering different tracks and the role played by the faculty’s trust in the students.
This study finds a larger stock of unrealized academic potential among African American high school seniors than their White counterparts. The results show that teachers and schools play important roles in this racial gap in the realization of academic potential.
This article examines the terms “culturally deprived” and “disadvantaged” in light of their popular use in the sixties and following decades, particularly in the ethnic and mainstream press.
This biographical study of Dr. George I. Sánchez, a leading Mexican American educator, intellectual, and activist from the 1930s through the 1960s, opens up the idea of compensatory education—the prevalent notion of the 1960s that schools use specialized instructional programs to combat the alleged cultural deprivation of some children, particularly minorities—to a wider focus.
This article is a case study of compensatory education as it was developed and implemented by an innovative urban school principal in the early 1960s.
In this article, Edward Zigler, interviewed by Barbara Beatty, talks about a turning point in the history of Head Start that reveals how policy choices, bureaucracy, and science came together when he was told to phase out the program in 1970.
The author focuses on the role of preschool intervention and developmental psychology researchers in defining the concept of the “disadvantaged child” and in designing and evaluating remedies to alleviate educational “disadvantages” in young children.
A commentary on the special issue.
This article appreciates and critiques the contributions to the special issue of the TCR on compensatory education. I argue that compensatory education neglected desegregation as a legitimate policy option and that these articles do not counter than neglect.
A commentary on the special issue.
This paper presents survey results from rural U.S. teacher education programs regarding the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education diversity standard. Results illustrate the struggles programs experience given their institutional, demographic, and cultural specificities, and reflect rural teacher educators’ emphasis on socioeconomic status and exceptionalities as priorities for teacher preparation.
This article focuses on the lived experiences of middle-class African American male students attending affluent White suburban schools. The findings reveal that although these young Black males were confronted with disillusionment and conscious and dysconscious racism on the part of students and school staff, they were nevertheless resilient and resolute in their determination for academic and athletic success.
This article presents an analysis of Black male teachers’ perspectives on workplace gender politics with women colleagues and administrators. The findings shared in this article point to several important considerations for teacher education programs and urban school districts that are interested in supporting Black male teachers’ negotiations of gendered power dynamics in the teaching profession.
The core hypotheses and presumptions of modern research on racial difference are not new, but spring from a two-century-old program of research that has sought to demonstrate racial differences in socially valued traits.
This study demonstrates the role of positive intergroup relations with peers and teachers in enabling students, especially minority students, to stay on in school.
This article describes how educators transferred high-stakes accountability pressures from the classroom to an intervention program for immigrant parents of lower achievers. Though the program did not influence student test scores in reading as intended, the program had unintended benefits that underline the importance of a relational approach to parent involvement programs.
This article explores the ways American conservatives have sought to revise the history of American education to bolster their vision of what education should be. The historical vision of four postwar activists—Milton Friedman, Max Rafferty, Sam Blumenfeld, and Henry Morris—is examined in detail.