This chapter delineates three models of democracy, noting the role that alternative education plays within each model. Then, from the perspective of the participatory democracy model, I examine various initiatives to foster democracy in alternative learning contexts, drawing relevant examples from the literature to highlight critical issues, tensions, and dilemmas, and lessons learned.
This chapter shares a model of afterschool development created by the not-for-profit All Stars Project. Central to the model are self-conscious and collective acts of performing and pretending that help youth living in high poverty, urban areas grow as learners and builders of their lives and their communities.
The chapter explores the space–time configuration of youth-voice driven science practices outside of school that are part of an emergent field of study known as informal science education (ISE). Education is an emergent phenomenon grounded in a relational geography of youths’ complex space–time configurations. A focus on youths’ mobilities offers new insights into the manner youth contribute to their own learning and becoming.
This chapter examines models of youth-based enterprises in which adolescents take leadership in organizational roles, creative design, and community building. Central to this work is the need for both public and private creative input and financing to develop and support learning environments that engage adolescents in extended projects based in science and art that are socially beneficial to local communities.
This chapter focuses on recognizing humor as a powerful resource for visitors from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds who are new to learning contexts, such as museums and aquariums. By using humor, visitors negotiate hybrid learning spaces, as well as gain authority in informal settings.
This chapter explores the practice framework guiding the practice of workers at Jabiru Community College, a community-based school in Brisbane, Australia. The chapter articulates the findings from a dialogical inquiry begun by the three authors with input from workers and youth. Seven dimensions of the framework being used by workers are described.
A transformative activist stance is a theoretically grounded model for educational research based on a radically revised theory of human development and learning. Its purpose is to advance a transformative agenda that contributes to the creation of equitable futures for students, especially those from disadvantaged populations. A collaborative project conducted in a group home for youth in foster care provides a dramatic illustration for this approach.
This chapter brings together cultural-historical approaches to human development with interpretive and multi-sited ethnography in order to: (a) develop ethnographic tools that attend to the ways young people learn within and across multiple contexts; (b) draw from and contrast the methodological insights of single and multi-sited ethnography; and (c) glean principles that help constitute a “multi-sited sensibility” appropriate for taking a more expansive approach to learning that advances conceptions of learning as movement.
Comprehensive, multi-year mass fundraising campaigns in American higher education began with the Harvard Endowment Fund (HEF) drive, which extended from 1915 to 1925. Based on the first thorough study of the archival records, this essay reveals that the campaign established novel features of university fundraising through contentious negotiations among conflicting groups, prompted the university administration to centralize and control alumni affairs and development efforts for the first time, and, above all, introduced today’s ubiquitous episodic pattern of continuous fundraising, in which mass comprehensive campaigns alternate with discrete solicitations of wealthy donors, whose dominant roles have never changed.
The authors draw from the historical aspects associated with the formation of Freedom Schools during the Civil Rights era and the concept of school as sanctuary to understand the pedagogical and philosophical underpinnings associated with the establishment of Freedom University. The findings demonstrate that Freedom University is a postsecondary space with characteristics resembling a sanctuary school by centering students’ experiences within the curriculum, using Civil Rights history to complicate contemporary anti-immigration sentiments, and enacting transformational resistance by both students and faculty. The authors suggest that, by creating sanctuaries of learning on a postsecondary level, students without documentation are afforded a space to continue their education for the sake of learning but not for a college degree.
This article examines the Westinghouse Science Talent Search over its first sixteen years. Although the contest’s organizers emphasized its meritocratic quality, the selection process that it employed systematically discriminated against certain students. Ultimately, the Science Talent Search reflected social and cultural forces that shaped the science professions, and may have represented a lost opportunity to make scientific training more meritocratic.
This study analyzes the association between the presence of old for grade and retained peers and the propensity for seventh-graders to engage in deviant behaviors in school. We also examine the propensity of students to receive an out-of-school suspension, one of the more severe consequences for disciplinary infractions. Consistent with peer influence theories of adolescent behavior, we find that students who attend school with many old for grade or retained students are more likely to commit offenses in school and to be suspended. Furthermore, we find that the vulnerability of students to these peer influences on behavior tends to vary by age, gender, race, and retention status.
Nearly 60 communities nationwide have been awarded Promise Neighborhoods grants from the U.S. Department of Education. This article uses a case example approach to illustrate how variations in trust between and among parents, school staff, and community institutions in one Promise Neighborhood may hinder or facilitate the success of the initiative.
This study explored engagement in interpersonal relationships within the context of combined group and one-on-one mentoring.
A societal sector perspective looks to a broad array of actors and agencies responsible for creating the community contexts that affect youth learning and development. We demonstrate the efficacy of this perspective by describing the Youth Data Archive, which allows community partners to define issues affecting youth that transcend specific institutional responsibilities and to ask and answer questions using combined administrative records in an effort identify opportunities for joint action.
This chapter is a case study of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching’s Pathways™ program. The goal of the Statway®™ and Quantway®™ pathways is to improve the success rate of community college students who place into developmental mathematics. What makes these programs unique is their strategy of building a particular kind of professional network, what Carnegie refers to as a Networked Improvement Community (NIC), to organize and lead an array of continuous improvement processes. NICs are a social mechanism through which the collaborative designs and practical theories produced by design-based implementation research (DBIR) can become live resources for the improvement of systems. NICs are comprised of highly structured groups of education professionals, working in collaboration with designers and researchers, to address a practical problem. Driver diagrams are introduced as a tool for organizing the improvement work of NICs. After briefly describing several drivers behind the Pathways program, the chapter details the main elements of the network organization driver as a distinct approach to building communities aimed at improving education.
This article presents a case for the importance of engaging youth as active researchers and
narrators in their educational experiences through the Council of Youth Research, a youth participatory action research (YPAR) program. When given the tools and support to unpack their experiences with critical research methodologies, youth move from the peripheral to the center by becoming lead agents and advocates for their school community.
This study used three large datasets to investigate links between immigration and educational quality and opportunity in México. Results suggest opportunities afforded to individuals in schools can be consequential for immigration decisions and patterns.
This graphic medium manuscript presents research from a three-year study of feminist pedagogy in an undergraduate preservice teacher education course. Specifically, this manuscript focuses on two course assignments: an analysis of a post 9/11 audiostory about a Muslim family in New Jersey and a city bus ride around the teacher education students' university town. The co-creators of this manuscript use theories of the body to argue that teacher educators and scholars should tend to the body, and body-in-place, when making sense of and aiming for justice oriented education.
Putting the word moral in the title of this volume carries some risk, because moral is an unusually slippery as well as powerfully evocative word. For some, it is a grim and proper word, suggesting the constraint of a moralistic or rule-bound view of life, summed up in a narrow compendium of “thou shalt not’s.” For others, it is a sacred word that implies (as it did for many of the early supporters of the common school in the US) the necessary superiority of Christianity over any other view of life. For others, it is a nostalgic word, calling to mind a better day and bringing an invitation to lament the decline of civility or the corruption of the social order.
This chapter argues that schooling neglects virtue through the dominant quest for right answers. This is not only intellectually disreputable in presuming the correctness of what is taught, but it undermines the development of necessary intellectual virtues, such as open-mindedness, impartiality, and accuracy in the school curriculum, and it fails to create the intellectual and moral framework for the democratic citizen, specifically in the development of tolerance, social responsibility, and prudence. This neglect of virtue in schooling is primarily visible in the intellectual characteristics and attitudes of the college freshman.
This chapter examines the gap between the widespread acknowledgment that teaching is a moral endeavor, on the one hand, and the lack of explicit, systematic teacher education research and practice to support preparing teachers for the moral aspects of teaching. After providing an initial description of the aforementioned gap, the chapter surveys the evidence that such a gap exists, then takes up a number of themes found in the literature bordering the gap. It concludes with a discussion of possible paths for teacher education research and practice to move forward.
This chapter contrasts the aims of progressive and traditional state-mandated schooling, and argues that the former represents a new form in the history of Western education, oriented to individual, social and moral reconstruction rather than reproduction, and guided by the evolutionary possibilities inherent in human neoteny. The school is identified as a key site for the reconstruction of civic virtue in its role as a “just community” or embryonic society grounded in the principles and practices of participatory democracy.
“Aesthetics” is often taken to be the study of art, but it has come to mean a variety of rather different things in contemporary educational theory and practice, such as: (i) sensory education; (ii) appreciation of beauty; (iii) education in appreciation of the arts. The danger of running these different senses together is explored and the main argument of this chapter is that the moral significance of the aesthetic dimension of works of art lies in its direct engagement with the affective or emotional aspects of moral development.
This chapter looks at John Dewey’s consideration of childhood as a platform from which to view the significance of childhood in moral life. It argues that the concept of childhood is integral to our thinking in the teaching and learning relationship. When we consider childhood from Dewey’s platform, we see that childhood is relevant to society both because it is a source of continued renewal and growth for our society and because its plastic and imaginative grounding enables children and their childhoods to fundamentally change educational relationships.
To teach for instrumental and innovative growth for both student and teacher is not simply a technical challenge. It is a moral task, requiring intimacy in the service of developing autonomy. It involves moral sensitivity and moral perception in prompting and framing responsible pedagogical action. It is an emotionally fraught enterprise, one that runs headlong into the human resistance to development and growth (Bion, 1994). What follows is an uncovering of this pedagogical responsibility. As we shall show, the way in to the moral dimensions of a teacher’s work is the same path that leads to academic effectiveness. Taking the moral seriously is not a diversion from the preparation and development of effective teachers, nor is it an added consideration; it is central to the very possibility of responsive and responsible education.
This chapter explores the basis of rationality, arguing that critical thinking tends to be taught in schools as a set of skills because of the failure to recognize that choosing to think critically depends on the prior development of stable sentiments or moral habits that nourish a rational self. Primary among these stable sentiments are the delight of recognition and the surprise of uncertainty. The creative act of imagination that sparks the delight of recognition is an invitation to begin rational enquiry. A flash of insight provides a motive for valuing the principle of truthfulness, which in turn provides a basis for a community of enquiry. While acknowledging that in the current climate of accountability-through-assessment there are good reasons for teachers to believe that the aim of nourishing the stable sentiments that support rationality is out of their reach, the chapter argues that students become independent rational reasoners only because they have lived in a community or classroom in which the surprise of uncertainty is valued more than a right answer, and the delight of recognition is more celebrated than a test score.
The purpose of this chapter is to understand the spiritual dimensions of teaching by elucidating the cardinal and forgotten virtue of reverence. Reverence has a power beyond a typical understanding of it as something religious. Reverence involves a sense of wonder and awe for something or someone that meets at least one of the following conditions: (1) something we cannot control; (2) something we cannot create; (3) something we cannot fully understand; (4) something transcendent, even supernatural The chapter shows reverence in a wider context that does not diminish its spiritual connotations, but rather shows its importance and relevance to teaching in today’s classrooms.
The chapter examines John Dewey’s concepts of society and the public in the context of digital technology and its potential to transform society and the moral ethos of the public school. I argue that Dewey’s theory of society and the public, though articulated for an industrial age, are, like his moral vision of social democracy and public education, still of perennial importance as a ethical lens to frame and critique the emerging network society and publics.
In this chapter, the author proposes to imagine the aims of the school in light of a cosmopolitan philosophy of education. The first section that follows provides a summary account of what the author takes cosmopolitanism to mean. The second section frames a philosophy of education that stems from this account. The third and penultimate section sketches a conception of the school and its moral and ethical aims in light of this philosophy of education. The discussion will foreground normative ideals. Such ideals can be dangerous if they blind people to realities. They can be disappointing if failure to attain them weighs down hard on people. But if ideals are understood as sources of direction rather than as destinations, they can assist educators to sustain their course in the face of obstacles. The author’s core purpose here is to highlight why a cosmopolitan orientation can inspire, encourage, and help guide educators in realizing schools for our time.