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by Benjamin Ladner — 1984
The primary issues for those areas of study called the humanities are also the central concerns of both education and contemporary culture in the last part of the twentieth century. Put simply, what are our efforts to educate (educere) "leading" from and toward? What image of humanitas, of the human condition and its possibilities, are we espousing by arranging the relations of adults and children under the rubric of education? What kind of world do we adults understand ourselves to inhabit; and what world do we imagine we are fashioning by introducing its forms and meanings to our children, even as we introduce new beings into the world as it presently is?

by Robert Coles — 1984
The humanities ought to offer young people in school a means of fitting various pieces of knowledge into a larger view of things--to draw upon a Latin phrase: sub specie aeternitatis. The humanities have to do with perspective—the long haul of time; and they have to do also with values, with a sense of what ought be as well as what is. The humanities begin with language—the distinctive attribute of human beings. We are the ones who become self-conscious, through words; who begin to ask questions as well as respond to reflexes; who gaze and wonder, then put into talk what crosses our minds. With language comes distance, a capacity to draw back and render an account of what is and has been taking place: history.

by John McDermott — 1984
In our time and in our nation, public precollegiate education is in serious disarray. It is now a nationally observed phenomenon that despite good intentions on the part of teachers and generally intelligent students, even those students who proceed on to colleges and universities seem culturally deprived. They exhibit a staggering ignorance of history and letters, and their symbolic resources for imaginative reconstruction seem bankrupt. It is as if the soul has disappeared, leaving only a more or less satisfactory standardized test as the approach to learning.

by Benjamin DeMott — 1984
My thinking about the role of the humanities in secondary schools focuses on the teaching of literature, and can be summarized, in credo form in five main points.

by Alan Purves — 1984
It is the purpose of this volume to consider literacy issues and the ways by which reading and the teaching of reading may be reconsidered and reintegrated into the broad scheme of education.

by Jerome Harste & Larry Mikulecky — 1984
Our understanding of literacy is distorted by some unsubstantiated beliefs about the benefits of literacy and by several significant changes in literacy demands during this century. To comprehend what literacy means and how literacy operates calls for an expanded context for viewing literacy. This context must include recognition of the role language plays in knowing as well as a sense of the changes that have occurred in literacy demands and the population of literate Americans.

by Kenneth Goodman — 1984
This chapter will essay a unified theory of reading based on theory and research from the past and present in a wide range of fields. It will integrate the knowledge that is emerging concerning the reading process, based on the premise that, regardless of differences in vantage point and focus, the phenomena of reading are the same for all who study them.

by Richard Beach & Deborah Appleman — 1984
In this chapter, we will posit three basic points regarding different types of reading: (a) that texts, including expository and literary texts, differ considerably according to their organizational structure; (b) that these different structures require different reading strategies; and (c) that readers' ability to employ these strategies varies with their cognitive skills and prior knowledge.

by P. Pearson & Robert Tierney — 1984
Within this metaphorical framework, we will try to persuade those who read our text of the truth of our perspective. We plan to accomplish this persuasion in three steps. First, we give our perspective (theory is too generous a label) on the reading/writing relationship. Second, we offer a composing model of reading, delineating the key authorial roles every thoughtful reader must play: the planner, the composer, the editor, and the monitor. Third, we extend our metaphor of thoughtfulness into the classroom by offering suggestions about some admittedly conventional and some less conventional strategies teachers can use to help students learn how to become thoughtful to themselves, to authors, and to texts.

by Harold Herber & Joan Nelson-Herber — 1984
Expressed throughout this book in a variety of ways is the belief that the development of proficient readers is a never-ending process, that a person is never finished learning to read. The definition of literacy changes as society's expectations for literacy increase. As the level of literacy rises, as the comprehension of increasingly varied and sophisticated print materials is required, and as technology extends the means of communication, society expands its demand for and its definition of literacy. Thus, a citizen is always becoming a reader in a complex society.

by Jeanne Chall & Sue Conrad — 1984
This chapter is concerned with resources for instruction in reading: materials that have been widely used in past years, those found in classrooms at the present time, and those that current trends suggest will continue or increase in use during the near future. Included are various print materials (readers, exercise books, content textbooks, trade books, magazines, and newspapers) and nonprint media (films, television, video tapes, and computers).

by Roger Farr & Robert Wolf — 1984
The evaluation of secondary reading programs is almost always tantamount to a psychometric assessment of student outcomes. Usually, an evaluation consists of using one or more of a variety of different instruments including norm-referenced tests, teacher-made tests, criterion-referenced tests, or sometimes a combination of these three. Regardless of the particular tests that are used, they tend to dominate the evaluation effort.

by Margaret Early — 1983
I begin this chapter by explaining why a curricular model in language and literature is usually stated in goals and themes. I shall look at the influences on the curriculum in English (that is, language and literature), referring to curricular models that have been recommended over the years, especially those emanating from the National Council of Teachers of English.

by David Holbrook — 1983
The greatest advantage of teaching English as a humanities subject is in the way it encourages children's natural abilities to express themselves creatively in words and to empathize with others. The history of the creative movement in Great Britain is traced through various literature.

by Karen Zumwalt — 1982
In this chapter, present trends in research on teaching will be examined for the unique contribution they might make to teacher education. After describing the two major directions which research on teaching has recently taken, the potential use and limitations of both types of research for preservice and in-service teacher education will be explored.

by Eliot Chapple — 1981
The language of the central nervous system (the brain) differs from logical structures of language. Sound and movement together make up the total response patterns of the individual. In order to investigate the properties of interaction rhythms, verbal and nonverbal, the expressive and performing arts must be understood.

by David Bohm — 1981
Silicon-based intelligence (SBI) and carbon-based intelligence (CBI) are now working together in inseparable union, in ways that could not even have been conceived of in earlier periods. Even so, primitive memories in CBI occasionally still tend to stir, but the new quality of undivided intelligence is able to deal with these before they can run away with themselves and once again dominate everything with their irrationalities and absurdities.

by Huston Smith — 1980
The humanities are described as the custodians of the human image. Today's humanities have burdens which are social and conceptual. Higher education training in critical thinking works against the image of man, which keeps civilization vital.

by Alan Bullock — 1980
Humanistic studies are defined by several characteristics: the temporal view of values and a refusal to repudiate the past as irrelevant; the importance of human actions and beliefs; and the dual qualities of objectivity and subjectivity.

by Morris Eson & Sean Walmsley — 1980
The terms "cognitive" and "psycholinguistic" may have come to suffer from the phenomenon known as semantic satiation, that is, a loss of meaning resulting from constant repetition. It would be useful, therefore, to consider the range of meanings of these terms at the outset of our discussion.

by Gordon Brossell — 1977
The process of language learning and some central strategies for promoting it in the classroom are the subjects of this chapter. The chapter will relate the primary process of language learning and the secondary process of language education in terms of natural human growth and will discuss that growth in terms of developmental stages. It will explore the organization of language education and set forth some major procedures and sequences for developing linguistic power and expressiveness. Following a consideration of talk and small-group process, two fundamental classroom activities, it will conclude with a discussion of the most significant language learning modes--drama, reading and responding to literature, and writing.

by Helen Lodge — 1977
Courses of study, textbooks, and teachers' statements of their instructional goals all assure the reader that concern with building moral values is an important outcome of the study of English. Despite changes that have altered landmarks in English instruction in the last twenty years, the examination of values and the gradual formulation of a coherent code of ethics have remained a desired outcome of instruction in the English language arts.

by Evelyn Copeland, Kenneth Donelson, Mary Galvan & Elisabeth McPherson — 1977
The what of teaching cannot easily be distinguished from the how of teaching as the contributions to the Yearbook readily indicate. Yet the content parameters of English have so expanded over the past two decades that any review of current developments would seem incomplete without direct consideration of the changing nature of the discipline. In selecting five areas for special consideration in this chapter, the authors illustrate the gradual broadening of subject matter that has occurred both as a result of scholarly and professional developments and as a response to new instructional requirements. That many of these changes have precipitated controversies in individual communities is perhaps less significant than their demonstration of the vitality of English studies in a changing social and educational setting.

by David Bronson — 1977
From the study of communication the following principles may be applied to a theory of teaching: 1. that communication is exchange; 2. that information resolves uncertainty; 3. that guessing is pattern-matching; 4. that patterns are more or less inclusive. This paper offers a discussion of the four principles cited above.

by George Brown — 1975
A major problem in considering affective roles is that the great bulk of empirical and theoretical treatment of the roles of teachers and the training of teachers inevitably has an affective component somewhere involved, whether it is implicit or covert. So for purposes of focusing this chapter, we will only deal with programs, studies, and writing which explicitly mention affective factors as part of the work.

by Mary White — 1974
The author describes four routes by which a teacher can find out if her pupils are learning: 1. By asking them questions in class; 2. By checking their homework; 3. By scoring their tests which she devises; 4. By computing their scores on standardized tests.

by Harley Parker — 1974
When the visual logic replaces the aural paralogic--as it has in our culture--direct perception is hindered by a priori assumptions. In downgrading perception, we have too often packed students with knowledge but with too little ability to perceive or to meaningfully relate their knowledge to the world outside. Concepts are built upon concepts without either being built upon perception. This is a dangerous game. Sooner or later the cantilevered extension will become too long, and they will once more find themselves back in the game of perception but with inadequate skills to be successful.

by I. Richards — 1974
In theoretically distinguishing the educator's, the teacher's, and the learner's special, other than ordinary uses of language from ordinary use, it is no less necessary to insist that to distinguish is not to separate. Any user of language—from moment to moment—may find himself in a situation imposing upon him some special use. The educator's duties constantly require in him a clinical, evaluative attitude towards meanings and the transactions they mediate. But we may, most of us, find ourselves at any moment in a situation in which we have to be educators. So, too, we may, almost all of us, have to teach. And certainly we do, all of us, have to learn. What special use is requisite is determined by the character of the situation governing the communication.

by J. Bowen — 1970
Language is without question the most universal of human characteristics. It has occurred in a wonderful variety of forms wherever man has lived in the world, regardless of the level of sophistication shown by any other human activities or developments. Nor can any correlation be found in terms of relative complexity between language and other aspects of human culture. It is certainly not true that so-called primitive peoples have "primitive" or underdeveloped languages. On the contrary, the languages of many aboriginal peoples seem, from the point of view of the speaker of an Indo-European language, to be enormously complicated systems.

by H. Wilson — 1970
There are many reasons why people who can understand each other more or less well speak their language differently. There are such factors as education, social group, and age, but one of the most striking ones is difference of location. This does not mean that climate, soil types, or differences in mineral deposits in the geological substrata—or even the stars—dictate the way in which we speak. Separation of two groups which once spoke alike can guarantee that in time they will develop different ways of speaking their language. These ways of talking may be further differentiated by association with other groups of speakers of the same or another language, but separation alone is enough.

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Resources
  • Discourse and Sociocultural Studies in Reading
    This article seeks to develop an integrated perspective on language, literacy, and the human mind, a perspective that holds important implications for the nature of reading, both cognitively and socioculturally.
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    Essays in Education is a peer-reviewed electronic journal that seeks to explore the multitude of issues that impact and influence education.
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