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by Melanie Sperling — 1998
Bestowed with a baton (at once sturdy and delicate), the teacher-reader can be seen as a sensitive interpreter of text, filtering as well as animating the range of sensibilities that are reflected in the reading of a single composition. As fanciful as the orchestral image may be, the fact is that two to three decades of writing research focusing on the teacher as reader and responder to students' writing, as well as the evolving theories of writer-reader relationships that have both shaped and reflected this research, invite our serious consideration of this image as a metaphor for reading students' work and directing the social interchanges that may shape it, even though the old image may linger.

by Paul Prior — 1998
The research on response has identified three key communicative problems. First, teachers' interpretations of students' texts are often problematic. These interpretations are based on students' texts that may not communicate well. They are often grounded in knowledge, beliefs, and values that students do not share, and they are produced through reading practices that are often less than optimal. Second, teachers' responses to students' texts often do not communicate effectively to students what the teacher believes they have done well, what they have done poorly, how the text might be revised, or, for that matter, what they have done at all. Third, teachers' responses appear to be problematic because their negative focus and tone convey too effectively to many students that their writing is bad—a message that seems to discourage rather than encourage further engagement and growth in writing ability.

by George Newell — 1998
In this chapter, I will argue that the nature of the writing task and the kinds of learning from text that writing may foster are keys to understanding the importance of writing in academic learning, making writing an important tool as well as a "central skill" in the secondary school curriculum. Perhaps more important, I will argue that, when any school reform agenda asks teachers to select writing activities to promote learning, attention must go to the diverse nature of the cultural and institutional contexts that complicate a writing-to-learn agenda.

by Robert Calfee — 1998
The teacher's role is to provide further information and analysis, typically through lectures, and to promulgate assignments. Students are expected to work independently on complex tasks. What happens in the middle? I address this question in this chapter, not because an enormous amount of research is available (it is not), but because the question is important for theory and practice, and because tools developed for other purposes bear on the issues.

by Richard Beach — 1998
Discussions of writing about literature inevitably raise questions about the ultimate purpose or value of such writing. In this chapter, I argue for the value of a dialogic approach to writing about literature. This dialogic approach goes beyond much of traditional formalistic analysis of character, setting, plot, and theme.

by Maureen Mathison — 1998
In this chapter I consider the genre and practice of critique not only in English studies but in other areas of study, where responding to other writers' texts is also a part of the educational process.

by Nancy Nelson — 1998
This chapter centers on one fairly recent development: the adoption of a constructivist orientation toward communication, which portrays reading and writing as the building of meaning from and for texts.

by Joel Taxel — 1997
This article explores the tensions surrounding multicultural literature for children and traditional literary values and considers the challenges posed for those concerned with the creation, production, distribution, and consumption of children’s literature.

by Allan Luke — 1995
Using historical and contemporary perspectives, the paper argues that reading is a malleable social practice with identifiable moral and ideological consequences

by Kris Gutierrez & Brenda Meyer — 1995
Several studies of reform-oriented literacy instruction have examined how teachers and students constructed a classroom community of learners and, further, how such communities positively influence the teaching and learning of literacy among elementary and middle school immigrant Latino and other ethnically diverse students. Additional studies have inquired into the nature of teaching and learning in specific classrooms, the role of interaction in literacy instruction, the role of ethnicity in classroom interaction, and the kinds of activities, classroom settings, and assistance that help to create reflective teachers and effective practice) Ultimately, these studies were concerned with how communities of effective practice are created for both teachers and students.

by Robert Slavin & Nancy Madden — 1995
This chapter describes Success for All, a program designed to ensure the reading success of all students in high-poverty schools. The program and the research done to support it are discussed in light of the question, "What would it take to create on a broad scale schools and classrooms in which all children can read?"

by Sophie Haroutunian-Gordon — 1989
The essays which make up Section One of this volume draw our attention to teachers who appear in the works of Plato, John Dewey, Charles Dickens, and Charlotte Brontë. Each of the teachers studied here differs dramatically from the others, as does their creator's view of education. And so, these essays arouse in us a succession of queries, worries, puzzlements, and perspectives on the subject of teaching. We find ourselves wondering about such things as the nature of the ideal teacher, the effects of teachers upon students, and the consequences of teaching for the teachers themselves. The power of these essays to provoke our thought derives in part from the fact that they take moving portrayals of educators as their subjects.

by Terrence Whaley — 1989
Dickens creates mythic characters, representations so large, familiar, and memorable as to alter the way we perceive our institutions and cultural experience. Because of the continuous popularity of his novels and the peculiar strength of his portrayal of teachers and teaching, schooling is one such institution shaped in our imaginations by the influence of his work. I shall examine this portrayal in order to account for the nature and strength of its influence, a negative one, as I will show, which has armed the detractors of teachers and teaching in our society with some of their most damaging images and notions about schooling.

by Margret Buchmann — 1989
The basis for my presentation will be two literary masterpieces: Charlotte Brontë's Villette and Mrs. Gaskell's biography of its author, The Life of Charlotte Brontë. Villette is Charlotte Brontë's last, most mature work, and its heroine, Lucy Snowe, is a barely veiled portrait of the author. Based on Mrs. Gaskell's Life, my prelude follows Charlotte Brontë almost to the boat that takes her to a girl's school in Belgium which is the place of action in Villette. Here Lucy Snowe, a waif, starts out as nursery governess and progresses to becoming a teacher, dreaming of a school of her own. My epilogue returns to the author's life. Gathering up the events of her middle years, I will trace the twists of fate that yielded us Villette. And I will try to determine just why it is that Mrs. Gaskell calls Charlotte Brontë a woman of extraordinary genius and noble virtue.

by Philip Jackson — 1989
This section deals with the way texts of various kinds are used and might be used in classrooms. It extends the notion of texts to include not only conventional written materials but also physical objects, such as paintings and sculpture, as well as the kind of information transmitted by computers and video cassettes. It is addressed to both practitioners and researchers but the emphasis throughout is on practice. By revealing gaps in our knowledge it points the way to future research.

by Amy Kass — 1989
My thesis is that the self-presentations of the lives of exemplary or especially typical Americans, carefully considered, can serve as models or instruments in educating the reader for democratic citizenship by (a) promoting understanding of our civic principles and practices, (b) cultivating social consciousness and civic self-consciousness, and (c) fostering public-spiritedness.

by George Hillocks, Jr. — 1989
If we value literature as a unique way of knowing and if we wish our students power to respond to literary texts above the level of greeting card verse, then we need to ask some hard questions about the nature and effect of instruction in literature. To contribute to that process, the remainder of this paper will examine what appears to be a standard pattern of instruction in literature and an alternative to it.

by Harvey Siegel — 1989
In arguing for these points, I will be offering answers to several questions concerning the ways texts teach, including these: How can fiction teach? What are the pedagogical possibilities of fiction? What sorts of lessons can be taught? How can a work of fiction teach us contradictory lessons, as when different characters express contradictory viewpoints? How are the lessons of fiction, or literature more generally, different from more usual sorts of lessons? In answering these questions, I will be utilizing Dostoyevsky's great text to illustrate claims concerning successful fictional texts more generally—claims concerning the sorts of lessons they teach and the way in which those lessons are taught.

by William Proefriedt — 1988
The process of learning to teach is comparable to learning to write because the fundamental activities in which teachers take part are in many ways like the activities of writers. Implications for teacher education are discussed, especially with regard to the trend to establish a scientific knowledge base for teaching.

by Stephen Norris & Linda Phillips — 1987
The verbalized thinking of two sixth grade children while reading is analyzed using schema theory. An outline of a critical thinking theory is given and contrasted with schema theory. Conclusions for reading theoreticians are discussed.

by David Bartholomae — 1986
This book is immediately addressed to those involved with issues in education but who are not located within the community of writing teachers and researchers: legislators, supervisors, principals, researchers from other disciplines, parents (we would hope), concerned citizens generally. The authors were given the task of taking an issue or area of instruction that they knew well, something of immediate concern to the profession, and of representing it to those on the outside. I hope those readers will come to this book, look (at least first) at the big puzzling picture, and ask, "What manner of men and women are these?"

by John Gage — 1986
The ideological, or philosophical, assumptions behind composition will concern me in this essay. It is necessary that I write somewhat abstractly, although I do not wish to ignore some practical implications that follow from such a concern. I trust that the essays in the rest of this volume will adequately survey available techniques of teaching composition. In discussing the justifications that might support such techniques, however, I would like to begin with a reminder that these justifications are not of recent origin. They are not responses to any recent "literary crisis," but echo the earliest attempts to reason about human knowledge and its relation to the written word. I want to begin, therefore, with a sketch of some ancient responses to the question "Why write?" These responses raise issues that are never resolved once and for all but require rethinking by every generation.

by Anne Gere — 1986
When the editors of this Yearbook asked me to write a chapter on current models of composition pedagogy, an image came immediately to mind. I would portray the dominant model as King Kong standing on the Empire State Building. Like the beast who swats biplanes away as if they were flies, this model remains impervious to the challenges of other approaches, dispatching them with the brutish power born of preeminence. Or so I thought before I began looking more closely at discussions of what goes on in the majority of composition classes today. First there was the problem of what to call this dominant model. In discussions of research, classes employing experimental procedures are usually contrasted with the "traditional" class, and names for these traditional classes include "formalist," "discipline-centered," and "current-traditional."

by Patricia Bizzell — 1986
Composition scholars agree that the composing process exists or, rather, that there is a complex of activities out of which all writing emerges. We cannot specify one composing process as invariably successful. Current research in the field is beginning to draw a detailed picture of these composing processes.

by George Hillocks, Jr. — 1986
Studies of the composing process seek to discover the kinds of knowledge writers use as they write. Studies of instruction examine how writers best learn particular kinds of knowledge and how and to what extent that knowledge affects writing. This essay will examine four major types of knowledge that appear to be important in composing.

by Arthur Applebee — 1986
In this chapter, I will address the success of process approaches against three criteria: (a) How widely have they been adopted? (b) When adopted, how successfully are they implemented? and (c) When implemented, do they lead to noticeable improvement in students' writing? I will evaluate process-oriented instruction against each of these criteria in turn and will find it seriously wanting on two of the three counts.

by Mary Giacobbe — 1986
My sense is that learning to write and writing to learn are both going on at the same time in classrooms where teachers are focusing on writers who are also learners. Learners need time, choice, and response. I do not think teachers need to choose between learning to write or writing to learn. A productive classroom in any subject should provide opportunities for the student to wonder, to pose questions, to pursue possible answers, to discuss with others, to come to some conclusions—all in writing and all in an attempt to come to a greater understanding of what they are trying to learn.

by Miles Myers — 1986
In this chapter, I will describe three program changes which seem necessary if secondary writing courses are to begin to provide the instruction necessary for the new standards of literacy. First, I will describe three teaching approaches that successful writing teachers use, approaches which appear to be validated by research findings and which take secondary writing instruction beyond words, phrases, and sentences, and beyond the narrow tradition of "assign it, correct it, return it."

by Paul Kameen — 1986
In this essay I would like to sketch some of the more prominent moments in the coming of age progress, not so much to describe the "state of the art" in composition, though that too will be part of my project, as to document the renovation of the estate in which that "art," if it can in fact be called one, is currently practiced.

by Bertram Bandman — 1985
A response to Moshman's article, Faith Christian v. Nebraska: Parent, Child, and Community Rights in the Educational Arena. Faith Christian as it stands does not present a rational alternative that calls for First Amendment protection. Faith Christian lacks the kind of epistemic credibility that comes from appropriate evidential backing.

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Resources
  • Discourse and Sociocultural Studies in Reading
    This article seeks to develop an integrated perspective on language, literacy, and the human mind, a perspective that holds important implications for the nature of reading, both cognitively and socioculturally.
  • Journal of Language, Identity and Education
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    The National Council of Teachers of English is devoted to improving the teaching and learning of English and the language arts at all levels of education.
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    A new solution to the problem of failing public schools is emerging: takeover by outside authorities, who prescribe a standardized field-tested curriculum. This runs counter to our long-standing tradition of autonomy for local schools and teachers, but it works.
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    The National Research Center on English Learning & Achievement (CELA) is the only national research and development center funded by US Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI) to conduct research dedicated to gaining knowledge to improve students' English and literacy achievement in schools across America.
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  • Essays in Education
    Essays in Education is a peer-reviewed electronic journal that seeks to explore the multitude of issues that impact and influence education.
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