This article reports the results of two related studies that investigated the effects of a 10-week reading intervention program in which culturally relevant texts were used for instruction on urban African American children’s reading achievement.
This article examines the results of a ten-week formative experiment to investigate how eighth-grade history instruction could be aligned with literacy goals. We give specific focus to our collaboration with the history teacher and her implementation of an instructional intervention to scaffold students’ reading and analysis of historical texts.
The current study focuses on the long-term English language outcomes of a sample of first-generation child immigrants from Asian, specifically Chinese, ethnic backgrounds.
The label Long-Term English Learner (LTEL) is used to describe students educated in the U.S. for many years but still not meeting English proficiency criteria. In this mixed methods study, the author uses eight years of district-wide, student-level longitudinal data to determine characteristics and overall patterns of academic achievement for LTELs in a medium-sized California district. In addition, case study research methods examine the experiences of three LTELs within this same district in greater depth.
Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study examines high-school English language learners’ pathways to four-year colleges in order to explore why ELLs’ access to four-year college is so limited.
This article describes practices that distinguish elementary schools whose ethnically and linguistically diverse students consistently exceed expectations on English language arts assessments. Results of the multicase study show that higher achievement correlates with policies and practices that are coherently supported and sustained across classroom, school, and district levels.
This mixed-methods study describes the changing social networks of adolescents participating in an extracurricular dual-language program.
This research evaluates whether English Language Learner (ELL) classmates are associated with the social skills outcomes of students with disabilities in kindergarten. Using a national large-scale sample of kindergarten students, the results show that having a greater number of ELL classmates has a positive effect on the social skills outcomes for students with disabilities.
This study constitutes the secondary analysis of data collected as part of classroom instruction in a prior practitioner inquiry study. Consequently, IRB approval, parental consent, and participant assent for the present study were obtained after the conclusion of the original study.
Common Core proponents and detractors debate its merits, but students have voiced their opinion for years. Using a decade’s worth of data gathered through design-research on youth voice, this article discusses what high school students have long described as more ideal learning environments for themselves—and how remarkably similar the Common Core ideals are to what kids say they want and need to learn best.
This article explores portrayals of social class in international, translated literature for children. The authors outline a framework for analyzing class in children’s literature and suggest that books with global origins may provide complex and realistic images of issues related to class.
Because metacognitive knowledge includes knowledge about adequate learning strategies, and an effective use of learning strategies is associated with higher levels of performance, substantial relationships can be assumed between metacognitive knowledge, strategic behavior, and performance. The discussion considers the validity of metacognition indicators (knowledge and strategy use) and practical implications of the findings.
The authors of this study examined how attitudes toward reading mediated the relationships between Korean adolescents’ reading environments and reading behaviors, using a nationally representative sample from the PISA 2009 database. Gender, home literacy resources, parents’ reading attitude, and parental support for reading were all significant predictors of Korean adolescents’ reading attitude.
This article presents findings from a research study to determine predictors of elementary-school teachers’ use of research-based instructional strategies with English Language Learners.
This study examines the empirical link between teachers’ perceptions of principal support for change and teachers’ reports of the degree of collaboration and communication with one another around literacy in Reading First schools. Multilevel analyses showed a significant and positive association between principal support for change and the degree of collaboration and communication.
The synthesis of the current literature presented in this paper provides an important starting point for identifying the knowledge that regular classroom teachers will need to develop in order to address the learning needs of their ELL students. The paper identifies Disciplinary Linguistic Knowledge (DLK) as a specialized knowledge base needed by teachers and teacher educators and proposes that DLK be required in order to model for ELLs how language is used to communicate meaning and to engage them in disciplinary discourse.
This chapter explores the implications of the new digital media for communicating and representing meaning. The chapter discusses the possible pedagogical responses to this changing context, with particular reference to the work of teachers participating in the Learning by Design project.
This article is an interpretive analysis of recent research that suggests the following: the work of students who self-identify as users and producers of multimodal digital texts is rarely visible to their teachers, institutional contexts for secondary schooling and literacy teacher education may wittingly or unwittingly contribute to this invisibility, and yet, despite this invisibility, classroom teachers, school library media specialists, and teacher educators are increasingly becoming aware of the instructional implications of young people’s uses of multimodal digital texts to construct online literate identities.
This paper examines the significance of changing multimodal resources and practices of annotation in subject English textbooks and the UK secondary school English classroom, with particular attention to the role of digital technologies.
The article looks at the variety of practices that different societies (Britain, Quebec, Ontario, the United States, and Belgium) have adopted to foster the mastery of the host language by immigrant students, with a special focus on the degree to which such endeavors follow an immersion or a specific services formula and on the role they grant to heritage languages.
Schools can and should provide access to purposeful,
transformative, empowering experiences that move students from the ability to read to full literacy.
This is an account of reading instruction in the twentieth century.
It will end, as do most essays written in the final year of any century,
with predictions about the future. My hope is to provide an account of
the past and present of reading instruction that will render predictions
about the future transparent. Thus I begin with a tour of the historical
pathways that have led us, at century’s end, to the rocky and highly contested
terrain we currently occupy in reading pedagogy. After unfolding
my version of a map of that terrain, I will speculate about pedagogical
journeys that lie ahead of us in a new century and a new millennium.
By examining the big issues in early reading research, the authors draw lessons suggesting the importance of the synergy between previously warring factions.
numerous points of contact through the years and various efforts to
connect the two, a schism has often existed between reading and writing
in theory and research, and reading and writing have often been
taught as unrelated subjects. If it were not for this long-standing separation,
so much importance would not be given to possible connections.
This chapter on historical context is intended to demonstrate the
significance of the topic as well as to highlight points of convergence
and divergence between reading and writing in American education.
While writers usually keep thoughts like the above to
themselves, they are nonetheless driven by audience considerations. I
want to make a very strong claim about the preeminence of audience
in composing: writing is at its essence a social act, a rhetorical act, an
act of communication,
and thus affecting an audience in one way or
another is the very point of writing. Audience considerations can
affect those other aspects of writing typically included in models of
composing, such as retrieving prior knowledge about subject matter,
inventing or discovering new content, and applying knowledge of discourse
patterns and conventions.
In this chapter I will first discuss the nature of rhetoric and its traditional
use in teaching, before turning to the implications for the
Rhetorical issues will be the focus of this chapter. Instead of the
more typical focus—how writers think about readers—I will consider
how readers come to think of authors and what difference such thinking
makes in their understandings of the texts they read. I will examine (1)
the place of the author in literary theory, (2) the role of the author in
disciplinary discourse, (3) features of text that make the author more visible,
and (4) the concept of author in children's literacy development.
In prior work in the intermediate grades, we had repeatedly seen
students experiencing difficulty in understanding their textbooks and
blaming themselves for not understanding the material. Our observations
came from a series of studies, conducted in fifth to eighth grades,
in which we probed students' interactions with textbook passages and
interviewed students to trace their understandings of social studies
topics they had studied in school, chiefly through reading textbooks.
Bestowed with a baton
(at once sturdy and delicate), the teacher-reader can be seen as a sensitive
interpreter of text, filtering as well as animating the range of sensibilities
that are reflected in the reading of a single composition. As
fanciful as the orchestral image may be, the fact is that two to three
decades of writing research focusing on the teacher as reader and
responder to students' writing, as well as the evolving theories of
writer-reader relationships that have both shaped and reflected this research, invite our serious consideration of this image as a metaphor
for reading students' work and directing the social interchanges that
may shape it, even though the old image may linger.
The research on response has identified three key communicative
problems. First, teachers' interpretations of students' texts are often
problematic. These interpretations are based on students' texts that
may not communicate well. They are often grounded in knowledge,
beliefs, and values that students do not share, and they are produced
through reading practices that are often less than optimal. Second,
teachers' responses to students' texts often do not communicate effectively
to students what the teacher believes they have done well, what
they have done poorly, how the text might be revised, or, for that matter,
what they have done at all. Third, teachers' responses appear to be
problematic because their negative focus and tone convey too effectively
to many students that their writing is bad—a message that seems
to discourage rather than encourage further engagement and growth
in writing ability.