In the foregoing chapters there have been presented certain problems, some selected practices, and a statement of a theory relating to safety education. Furthermore, this new claimant for school attention has been considered a subject of instruction which is immediately related to industry, to transportation, to the home, and to the school. It has also been viewed in its broader aspect as a new human emphasis in industrial and social relations. Safety education has been clearly shown by striking arrays of facts to be a part of the job of keeping physically alive, as well as being associated with the general problem of living together well in organized society. The purpose of this chapter is to make a brief summary of what has preceded and to suggest future problems.
This bibliography is not exhaustive. The purpose has been to furnish a useful, working bibliography of readily available material, bearing directly upon the safety problem and safety education in the schools.
It is a significant sign of the times that so much attention is being paid to the health of school children. Medical societies, sanitarians, and public-health officials are concerning themselves seriously with the physical defects of children and with the spread of contagious diseases through the schools. Economists are accumulating a great body of statistics to show the enormous wastage of human life through the diseases of infancy and childhood, and the economic loss to the nation from this mortality, as well as from the serious weakening in efficiency and earning power, due to preventable and remediable defects.
We are familiar with the redundant statements and appeals of Pestalozzi, Froebel, and Spencer regarding the education of parents in the care and training of children, and the oft-quoted comments of English and American pediatricians of high authority on the ignorance of mothers as among the chief causes of infant mortality.
The investigation in school of the health condition of the pupil was undertaken at first for the purpose of detecting and isolating cases of contagious disease. In a few instances statistical studies were made to determine the effect of school life upon health. Comparatively early, investigations of eyesight were undertaken. Great credit is due to Dr. Cohn and others for thoroughgoing pioneer work in this field. Greater emphasis up to the present has been given, in the health examinations, to medical inspection for contagious and infectious diseases than to detection of chronic or permanent defects.
School sanitation has to do with making the material environment of the school favorable to the pupils' health. The school building should be the most sanitary structure in the community.
Modern education attempts to give the pupil cultural training in preparation for citizenship, and for social and industrial efficiency. Characterized at different times by these and other guiding motives, the work of the schools has gone on through the ages. During more recent times spasmodic attempts have been made to so arrange this school process that it would not, while attempting to accomplish its ambitious and worthy purposes, be harmful to the biologic values which the pupil represents. The hygiene of instruction considers the effects of the educational process itself upon the health of the individual, and would so control and adjust the various factors which collectively make up school work that the pupil's health will not be injured while he is being prepared for future usefulness. That the process of education is always carried on without danger to the pupils' health, even the school men themselves sometimes doubt.
This is one of the most perplexing problems in education today. No phase of instruction seems more important than to teach the child how to live in a healthful manner. No subject is taught, on the whole, so unsuccessfully. In considering the traditional and present methods of teaching physiology and hygiene, several purposes appear to have exercised varying degrees of control over such teaching.
The term physical education is employed in some institutions and by some thinkers and writers to include all the different factors in education which have to do with the health of the pupil or student. Physical education is used here more narrowly and technically as referring to the supervision of large fundamental motor activities, expressed in play, games, dancing, swimming, gymnastics, and athletics.
There are able writers who refuse to discuss the care and control of infancy in connection with education, since the element of formal instruction is wanting and the subject is relatively passive. We need not here quarrel with this view, and we do not insist that this early regulation of life should be called education. Thus we avoid a fruitless controversy. We are sure that all well-informed teachers will recognize the immense importance of those habits which are started in infancy, even from the hour of birth or before. Citations from medical authorities will make the nature and extent of this factor very clear.
The gifted Dr. F. H. Montgomery, in a conversation with the author shortly before the death of that honored physician, urged the preparation of a circular for the Society of Social Hygiene which should make its appeal more directly to the ethical, aesthetic, and religious interests of boys and men. His worthy life and his professional position gave weight to this counsel. Some parts of this volume are written in response to his earnest charge.
Having already considered what needs to be done in relation to personal hygiene and general training, we now approach the delicate problem raised by a theoretical interest, never entirely free from a prurient element caused by specific appetite in youths and adults. Ignorance is not the only cause of excess, abuse, and vice; for natural appetite, especially when perverted, is a force even in spite of knowledge, and many a man gratifies his impulses although he knows well all the evil consequences. Yet ignorance is one important factor, and knowledge, if rightly imparted, is a help to the nobler life.
Social Diseases and Marriage by Dr. Prince A. Morrow is an authoritative, scholarly, readable volume that should be in the library of every institution training teachers. No one undertaking the responsibility of preparing children for citizenship, whether as parents or as teachers, is justified in ignorance of the facts concerning the prevalence of the micro-organisms of Neisser and of Schaudinn, and the appalling results to wifehood and childhood-in the last analysis to modern nations as to ancient ones.
Sex education in the United States remains stuck in a conceptual deadlock between discourses of abstinence and the promise of scientific rationality. In both versions, however, sexuality is understood as a risk from which youth must be protected. What remains obscured in this debate are the challenges youth face interpreting emotional experiences of sexuality experiences in excess of the language of biology, psychology, public health, and religion. We argue that sex education must be an opportunity for youth to think through the emotional experience of sexuality and to develop new perspectives on the sexual dilemmas they encounter.
More than 300,000 sport-related concussions occur annually among school age athletes. A concussion produces brain damage with consequent cognitive symptoms affecting attention, concentration and memory. During the recovery interval, the common symptoms of headache, dizziness, confusion low energy, light and sound sensitivity and the emotional reactions that accompany these impaired functions interrupt the injured student-athlete’s class attendance and significantly limit his/her academic performance. Educators must appreciate the factors underlying the abrupt transition of their “student” into a “problem student” after he/she sustains a concussive injury. The educator’s role in facilitating recovery and re-integration of the injured athlete into the classroom is a vital part of the healing process and the therapeutic efforts of the medical team. These concepts are discussed.
The authors introduce sports counseling as a
close and newly discovered younger relative of sport psychology. They explore the evolution of sport counseling services and how these services may differ from more mainstream and psychology. They point out the differences and similarities of services that sport psychology and counseling provide and how both are critical to athletes.