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by David Conrad — 1995
The author examines the community mural movement as an educational activity, reviewing the history of the modern mural movement, noting its democratic direction, and concluding that community murals can potentially educate artists and non-artists.

by Jaye Darby & James Catterall — 1994
Sprinkled throughout education journals and books is a lively discourse about the importance of the arts in every child's education. However, most of this work has been addressed to the already committed: arts educators and educationists focused on arts education. The purpose of this article is to bring together recent theories, research, and developments in arts education in order to broaden the base of discourse.

by Margery Franklin — 1994
This article examines relationships between child and adult art, proposing an exploration of meanings of children's art activity by examining relationships between art-making and other activities of the same developmental period. The paper posits some basic human needs and considers how various activities might serve as instrumentalities to realize such goals.

by Judith Burton — 1994
This article examines why art is important in students' lives, features of artistry that captivate the mind, and reasons why arts should be fully integrated into school curricula. Change in art education should be grounded in substantive insights about artistic content, child development, teaching methods, and curriculum as a meeting ground.

by Maxine Greene — 1994
This paper discusses how art and aesthetic education open people to visions of the possible, creating a community of distinctive individuals.

by Rika Burnham — 1994
This article explains how to encourage students to respond to art rather than talk at them about what they should know.

by Philip Jackson — 1994
The author presents a new perspective on how to integrate the arts back into education and how to make art education part of the school reform process. The perspective would teach only artistic insights that would best serve children at different times in their development, stressing the continuity between art and life.

by Willard Boyd — 1993
The author describes museums as deeply rooted educational institutions. The large comprehensive museum has a "student body" more diverse than any school, college, or university. Museums are also more accessible. Although museums can never be an alternative to "schooling," they can be significant complementary centers of lifelong learning.

by Bennett Reimer & Ralph Smith — 1992
This volume discusses aesthetic cognition under four headings: the antecedents of contemporary thinking about aesthetic knowing and arts education; the nature of aesthetic knowing itself; the problems of teaching and learning; and curriculum change.

by George Geahigan — 1992
Of all the forces that have affected American education, perhaps the most immediate and enduring has been the drive towards universal mass education). The rise of the common school movement in the nineteenth century and the rapid growth of the secondary school in the twentieth created enormous pressures to expand and diversify the curriculum to meet the needs of an increasingly heterogeneous student body. It was during these periodic phases of expansion that the arts were introduced into the public school curriculum.

by Bennett Reimer — 1992
What philosophical stances have been devised not only to justify the presence of the arts in education but also to answer the practical question of what about them is most worth knowing? A good many attempts have been made to answer that question because it is itself rather complex and can be approached in a variety of ways. I focus here on three influential arguments.

by Ralph Smith — 1992
Since other contributors to this volume discuss arts education from the point of view of human development, I will concentrate on the substantive dimensions of aesthetic understanding. First, however, it will be helpful to indicate the basic situation around which we should organize teaching and learning in the arts. This situation is one in which persons confront works of art for the sake of realizing the worthwhile benefits such works are capable of providing.

by Michael Parsons — 1992
Other chapters in this volume chronicle the several versions and past history of this paradigm. In this chapter I am more interested in its future possibilities. I identify changes occurring in the environment of art education and discuss the changes they call for in our thinking. I suggest that we can no longer take for granted much about children's abilities and the goals of art education that the cognitive movement did take for granted. I suggest that the idea of cognition in the arts should be understood more radically as interpretation, and I discuss, with examples, what that would mean.

by Jessica Davis & Howard Gardner — 1992
In this chapter wc draw on the visual arts for examples, but the story we tell could be broadened to include various art forms. We begin with a description of some of the brute facts, that is, examples of the constant phenomena that constitute early artistic behavior and invite different interpretations. Next we consider the main tenets of the cognitive revolution that has transformed our conception and cnhanced our understanding of that behavior. We review the impact of this new way of thinking on aesthetics, and on the investigation of child art, as well as upon general and aesthetic education. In conclusion, revisiting the brute facts, we reconsider the precognitivist perspective in terms of the insights these recent changes in thought have yielded.

by David Hargreaves & Maurice Galton — 1992
In this chapter we attempt to maintain a balance among three sometimes conflicting, sometimes complementary points of view: those of the psychologist, the educator, and the teacher. It will become • apparent that the concerns of the first two are currently fairly disparate, but we shall argue that a bridge can be built between them by a careful and reflective consideration of the teacher's point of view.

by Marcia Eaton — 1992
My own experience points to two "lessons" of bad art education: (1) art is not connected to the important aspects of life, and (2) art is mindless activity; one handles art either passively or purely manually. Thought plays no role. Although there are signs that the situation is changing, the questions of how thinking, and, more importantly, critical thinking, can be a part of art education, and how art can be rightfully positioned at the core, not at the periphery, of life (and hence of education) still need attention. The role that the critical analysis of aesthetic puzzles might play here is the subject of this chapter.

by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi & Ulrich Schiefele — 1992
In this section we have shown that there are important differences between rational thought, as it is represented by the sciences and mathematics, and aesthetic knowledge produced by creating or responding to art. It was our intention to show that the two domains complement each other, by fostering cognizance of different dimensions of reality. Our analysis suggests that creating, responding to, or learning about art have more relevance for people's everyday life experience and their existential struggles than do the natural and technical sciences.

by John Goodlad — 1992
I shall attempt in this chapter to do three things. First, I shall seek to show how the dominant conception of the role of schools in this country creates an inhospitable context for the arts. Second, I shall seek to show how the conduct of teacher education perpetuates organizational and curricular arrangements and reinforces an ethos in schools that is disadvantageous to the arts. Third, using a concrete example of a faculty group in a junior high school, I shall endeavor to show the obstacles innovative proposals—such as those that include the arts—confront because of community expectations and the regularities of schooling. I conclude on a somewhat upbeat note by suggesting how arts educators might join the mainstream of teacher preparation in the simultaneous renewal of schools and the preparation of teachers.

by David Carr — 1991
Examines the shared cognitive dimensions of cultural institutions like museums, libraries, and parks, suggesting they make similar situations for transmitting information. This article encourages a critical understanding of public cultural institutions to enlarge the potential for discourse about their analysis and criticism. Heuristic questions for understanding cultural institutions are presented.

by Elizabeth Vallance — 1991
A case study of an Iowa junior high school describes how the school and community identified their resources and used them to create successful arts education programs from ordinary resources. This article examines four types of commitment that shaped school practice, noting effective teaching practices and administrative policy.

by Elizabeth Vallance — 1989
Three cases of public encounters with art are described below. The three cases are isolated and unrelated incidents, but they are not atypical for what they can tell us about the role of "the object" in teaching the public about art. In this chapter, we examine the question of the museum object as text, using these cases and other instances as examples of the ways visual works of art are used by viewers in informing their own conceptions of "art" and their reactions to it. Implications for teachers' use of the object as text are drawn from these cases and from the lessons they offer.

by Arthur Efland — 1988
I will argue that general education is influenced by canons and that the history of recent curriculum movements is one that demonstrates how the priorities of socially influential groups affected the arts and physical education. The movements to be surveyed include those based on the "structure of the disciplines" of the 1960s and on the "accountability" movement of the 1970s. I conclude with some comments on the roles these subjects play in the overall maintenance of balance in the curriculum.

by Elliot Eisner — 1985
An examination of the relationship between the form and content of the opening paragraph in Barbara Tuchman's Guns of August will help us understand what the phrase "aesthetic modes of knowing" alludes to. Before examining this relationship I wish to mention now a theme that I will return to later. The phrase, "aesthetic modes of knowing," presents something of a contradiction in our culture. We do not typically associate the aesthetic with knowing. The arts, with which the aesthetic is most closely associated, is a matter of the heart. Science is thought to provide the most direct route to knowledge. Hence, "aesthetic modes of knowing" is a phrase that contradicts the conception of knowledge that is most widely accepted. 'I hope to show in this chapter that the widely accepted view is too narrow and that the roads to knowing are many.

by Harry Broudy — 1983
In view of the title of this volume, the common curriculum is to be constructed in the light of individual differences. Here we encounter controversy as to what shall be denoted by the term. Should it be confined to the contents of instruction, the process, or both? In this essay, I have chosen the first meaning. The choice entails another, as to what shall vary with individual differences, for contents and process can both be varied. As indicated in the closing remarks of this chapter, I have chosen to argue for varying the process and have indicated a few ways of doing so.

by Robert Sardello — 1982
We have not learned to experience beauty as an essential, pervasive dimension of our actions. Aesthetic sensibility represents the child in us imbued with spontaneity, imagination, and unity of soul and action. This sensibility makes it possible to reevaluate the world in terms of metaphor, image, fantasy, and dreams.

by Peter Abbs — 1981
The educational role of the artist is close to that of the dreamer in the sense that they are active collaborators in the extraordinary process through which instinct and bodily function are converted into image and fantasy. The development of an image can release powerful flows of intellectual energy.

by Maxine Greene — 1977
Inclusion of arts and humanities as a central part of any curriculum is defended by their ability to create critical awareness, to develop a sense of moral agency, and to foster conscious engagement with the world.

by Rudolf Arnheim — 1974
Throughout this brief survey we shall have to keep in mind the active as well as the passive use of the various media. Passive use serves the dispensing of knowledge. Pictures carry images of the world into the classroom. They offer the raw material for factual information. However, the pictures or models have been made by experts somewhere else. They arrive ready-made. Student and teacher act as consumers. Their acts are responses.

by E. Gombrich — 1974
Ours is a visual age. We are bombarded with pictures from morning fill night. Opening our newspaper at breakfast, we see photographs of men and women in the news, and raising our eyes from the paper, we encounter the picture on the cereal package. The mail arrives and one envelope after the other discloses glossy folders with pictures of alluring landscapes and sunbathing girls to entice us to take a holiday cruise, or of elegant menswear to tempt us to have a suit made to measure.

by Sol Worth — 1974
The purpose of this paper will be an attempt, first, to clarify some of the causes of the current confusion, which is characterized by seemingly irreconcilable goals, theories, and statements of purpose as to what film is and what it should be in education; second, to present a description of film as a process of communication that can be used in subsequent discussion; third, to discuss how film is used in the classroom; fourth, to present some evidence supporting several new directions in the use of film as a means of instruction related to the notion that film is a means of communication; and fifth, to suggest lines for future research in education relating to such uses of film.

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  • American Journal of Dance Therapy
    The AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DANCE THERAPY, the official publication of the American Dance Therapy Association, is designed to meet the needs of clinicians, researchers, and educators in dance therapy. The Journal welcomes articles from dance therapists and related professionals on theory, research, and clinical practice in dance therapy. Selection of articles is based on originality, adequacy of method, significance of findings, contributions to theory, and clarity of presentation.
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