Our aim here, as philosophers of art, is to specify the range of
activities that may be relevant in determining a peculiarly aesthetic
domain of future educational research. In so doing we shall be attempting
a necessary first step toward a broadened concept of educational
research, one that is defined materially by criteria of relevance
set up by related subject matter disciplines and, consequently,
one that would indicate the limits within which any formal method may appropriately be applied, if our restriction of prior intelligibility
is to be met.
Seeking artistic forms to express experiences
Two poems, This We Call Wonder and Autumn Poem.
A poem, In His Place.
A poem, Clint Kahlil Strommen: A Birth Poem.
A poem, Grim Reapings.
A poem, This We Call Wonder.
Baskin and his imagist colleagues are not sanguine about society.
There are no remedies suggested in their art or notebooks, there is
no direction for art education in them. But these artistic commentaries
can be interpreted by educators seeking in them worthy tasks.
The artist who shows himself repulsed by brutality, by emotional
frigidity, is urging educators to make a new society peopled by
men and women who can love and be compassionate.
In marking our environment with their creations, architects
contribute more than shelter to our existence. For inspirational
qualities and visual richness are also their concern. Many (Aalto, ·
Breuer, Gropius, Jenny, Latrobe, Maybeck, Nervi, Neutra, Richardson)
have contributed to the development of American architecture.
The roots of mid-twentieth-century architecture have been nourished
in various soils, both native and foreign. Among the pioneers
of modern architecture, four names stand out: Sullivan, Wright,
Mies van de Rohe, and Le Corbusier.
The recent history of art education takes on greater meaning
when viewed against a more extensive background of historical
development, and this perspective has been considerably enlarged
since 1940. Scholarly studies by Pevsner, Logan, Hauser, Larkin,
and Marron have added to our knowledge of the training of the
artist and the growth of the visual arts as a significant part of general
The subject of child art is of much interest to educators and
psychologists today, for the visual imagery of young children is
one of the most extraordinary phenomena found in the patterns of
human growth and development. Amazing figurative depictions
coming from the very young are indicative of the unlimited creative
potential that all children possess. There seems to be no one
explanation of how these mental images are formed or what their
significance is; yet, obviously, they are closely identified with
Just as the healthy individual is best prepared to undergo surgery,
so is the properly conditioned individual prepared for adolescence.
If we can get the child immediately prior to adolescence to
express himself spontaneously, freely, and sincerely with an awareness,
sensitivity, and confidence in his ability to do so through line,
shape, value, texture, and color organized in a consistent manner,
he will undoubtedly undergo the period of adolescence without
difficulty, or perhaps even without hesitation, in his creative art
Art courses and activities in the senior high school contribute to
the general education of youth and also provide prevocational experiences
for those contemplating careers in the visual arts. The
quantity, quality, and types of art curricula and instruction which
evolve to fulfil this dual role are usually the result of a constellation
of conditioning forces; namely: the nature of the adolescent learner;
the training, experience, and predispositions of the art teacher; the
appraisal of school and community regarding the relative value of
art experiences within the senior high school; the particular expectations
which the school culture holds for both art class and art
teacher; the current status and needs of society; and the practices
that are in vogue in the professional art world.
The present rapid rate of increase in the size and mobility of
the American population concerns art education as imperatively as
it concerns all education. High birth rates among the low-income
groups, the rapidly increasing shift of population from rural to
urban areas, and the rise in economic status of peoples still denied
social equality occur while mass media urge the achievement of
status and "happiness" through acquisition of material things. These
factors, together with others, contribute to the situation in which
those who face social rejection and economic privation find themselves.
The rejection of economically and socially deprived children,
by the same society that makes them go to school .to prepare
for a life they are not encouraged to enter, increases their hostility
to society and tends to lead to withdrawal from it. Appropriate
education can help these children improve the quality of their experience,
and art education has a particularly import~nt role to play
in their education.
The supervision of teachers is increasingly being looked upon as
an important part of a school program. As a result, more and
more supervisors are being employed by school systems throughout
the country. Because of the variety and complexity of the
arrangements of the educational enterprise, the duties and responsibilities
of supervisory personnel vary from system to system. It
is difficult to define, in terms of behavior, exactly what it is that
a supervisor does. The supervisor in a small school system will perform
functions quite different from those performed by a supervisor
in a large system.
The aim of this chapter is to show how a state supervisor or
director of art may function to improve the teaching of art within
a state. Where such a person exists, his leadership is extended
through his position as a staff member of the state educational
agency. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate and clarify the functions
of a state educational agency, its role in improving educational
opportunities for all children in the state, its methods of operation,
and the place of art leadership in it.
Some interesting facts about who teaches art in the elementary
schools are revealed in the National Education Association Research
Division's recent study, Music and Art in the Public Schools.1 In
well over half the schools surveyed, elementary-classroom teachers
alone were responsible for the teaching of art. Art teachers helped
classroom teachers in about one-fourth of the schools and taught
art alone in less than I o per cent of them. If there ha'd been any
doubt, the survey makes it very clear that elementary-schoQl teachers,
not art teachers, have the major responsibility and influence
in guiding the development of young children's artistic conceptions
and skills. What children learn about art from these teachers during
their formative years in the elementary schools will have deep,
perhaps permanent, effects on their attitudes and attainments in
Our examination of the process of educating an art teacher concentrates
upon that formal part of his total preparation that comes
within a college, university, or art-school program which is designed
primarily for the education of the art teacher.
The nature and development of graduate study in the field of
art education has many characteristics that distinguish its pattern
and direction of growth from that to be found in other fields. At
this stage of its evolution it seems appropriate to review the types
of programs that have been established, the goals that are sought,
and the types of students that are enrolled, since these factors are
likely to have a great influence on the way in which art education
This chapter describes the functions that art in the schools has
historically performed as well as some of the present-day characteristics
of art education. In addition, those trends current in education
generally and in art education specifically that ire likely to
affect the future of art in American public schools will be identified
Readers will approach this publication with widely differing
needs and purposes. Some will be, primarily, teachers; others will
have strong commitments to writing, research, or creative production;
still others will be students preparing for careers in teaching,
writing, and research. Personal interests in these pursuits will vary
over the wide range of specialties in the visual and related arts.
Among those involved in teaching, there will be some who teach
adults or adolescents and others who work with children. They
may come face to face with the learner or may direct and counsel
those who do. Whatever their professional obligations or aspirations,
they will take from this volume that to which their nature
and needs have made them receptive.
This volume is a product of an inquiry into issues which are regarded as basic to the work of educating children and youth in music in the schools of the nation.
Pragmatism is well established in the foundations of modern education. Historically, this fact may be attributed to the influence of John Dewey and his many followers. This raises a question about the relation of philosophy to education and to music education.
The discussion which follows will be a presentation of some central concepts which may be useful to the teacher as an analytical framework upon which to develop methods that will help the student grow toward a larger understanding of music's relation to human evolution.
Many years ago it was said that education should be considered as guided growth, and the dictum has found wide acceptance. What is the positive, specific meaning of this celebrated statement? What does it indicate in the way of desirable policy and practice with reference to music? These are the questions with which the substance of this chapter will deal.
In this chapter, an effort is made to indicate how research psychologists and music educators can co-operate in formulating some common principles and procedures for the direction of effective and enjoyable teaching.
The challenges of the twentieth century have affected the character of education greatly. The insistent demand for specialization added to the phenomenal growth and proliferation of learning have increased the difficulties or providing breadth of knowledge for the individual.
The curriculum includes all influences which the school brings to bear upon students in the effort to reorganize their behavior toward particular ends. It is a most stringent duty of educators to apply themselves to the constant development of more adequate educative experiences. It is this process which is called curriculum construction. Whether they realize it or not, all music educators are engaged in curriculum-building and can only benefit from a clear concept of the task.
This chapter will discuss characteristics of music and their implications
for the listener; the special importance of form; the unique
relationship between tone, time, and form in music; enjoyment and
understanding as interrelated responses in listening to music; musical
meaning and what to listen for to find it; music involving associative
ideas of varying degrees of specificity and responses to it; the relationship
of listening to other activities in music education and to
other subject fields; listening per se as a means of musical growth;
some characteristics of good listening; and judgments of value, both
as to types of listening experiences and music to be heard.
Functional music is that music which, when properly administered,
accomplishes specific predetermined ends other than entertainment