This article discusses: (1) whether schools across the country provide students equal access to knowledge; and (2) whether the knowledge provided is equitably humanized in classrooms, permitting access for the the diverse array of students in these schools. Research gathered for "A Study of Schooling" forms the basis of the article.
The concept of power evokes controversy in relation to the American social mind. Americans both want and fear power. Power is a fundamental concept in social science, and, while involving the features of organizational hierarchy and social relations, the forms of power are conceived as force, fiction, fealty, and ethics.
The importance of academic credentials is discussed in relation to the changing occupational composition of high-income earners, family status, and the prestige of particular degrees such as the MBA and JD.
The author responds to Manfred Stanley's criticisms. Professor Stanley has raised issues that are likely to remain as "unfinished business" for anyone considering the purposes of public education. They are difficult issues to deal with because they force us to a deeper level of analysis where we cannot simply fall back on diagnoses and answers that reflect the populist, millenarianist, and romanticist tendencies that we have come to associate as necessary elements in radical thinking.
Our cultural malaise reflects the inadequacy of a civilization which is directed solely to material improvement in order to satisfy the yearning of the human spirit. The values of the industrial civilization, having affected material advancement, gradually lose the self-evident justification contained therein during past times.
The nature of the socio-technical theory, which is emerging as an alternative to the systems-efficiency model, is discussed. It is felt that the systems-efficiency models of education are out of touch with the personal, subjective, and creative aspects of human reality.
While control over land and agricultural production remain in the hands of the exploitative land owners in the world, hunger will continue to be a major insoluble problem for the poor.
One goal of education should be to sensitize students to the meaning of what is said and the way valid knowledge is established.
The sciences of nutrition and toxicology require deep methodological reexamination.
The temporal organization of the Rudolf Steiner School in New York City is examined in terms of daily or microtime, calendric time, and developmental time. The question of continuities over time, that is, the interweaving of past, present, and future, and the relation of these continuities to the transformations of education are also considered.
The author discusses how to inculcate in pupils the capacities for liberty, equality, and fraternity, or, stated in other words, the capacities for creativity, for "give and take" among equals, and for perceptiveness of the real needs of others.
The author examines the conduct of educational policy discussion in liberal democracies, argues that American education is undergoing a crisis, and posits that this crisis might be eased by the advent of a libertarian-technocratic society.
Within anthropology we have developed several useful distinctions in discussing the questions of how grandparents do or do not play a role in the education of children in any given society, and particularly in our own. Within the context of this article the author uses the word education to include conscious teaching of any sort, whether of speech, manners, morals, or skills, but include also the process of socialization, which occurs in all societies as children learn to restrain their impulses, postpone gratification, control their sphincters, walk, talk, and participate in social life, and the process of enculturation, by which children learn a particular culture.
It is possible to combine all the individual and group consumption that goes on in the family unit into one "family consumption package" and, using economic theories designed for analyzing individual decisions, to make valid and useful statements about family activities.
It has been more than a decade since the beginning of a remarkable
expansion of the sociology of education. The initial expansion
was marked by the creation of the Sociology of Education
section in the American Sociological Association. Subsequently,
The Sociology of Education was adopted as an official journal of
the association. Recently, the American Educational Research Association
established a division designated as the Social Context of
Education in recognition of the growing interest in the contributions
of sociology to educational research. As a consequence of
these developments an extensive body of literature has evolved,
oriented toward both general sociology and the problems of educational
It is the purpose of this paper to explore the bases and etiology
of the unrest of America's affluent youth in terms of the sources of
the conflict, the forms it takes, and why young people are dissatisfied
with a society which has given them the best it has to offer.
This study is an attempt to understand some of the sociological
dimensions of school life that inherently involve conflict and its
resolution. Although the analysis is intended to be mainly descriptive
rather than ameliorative, it contains important implications for school
practice that could diminish the growing levels of student disaffection.
In the following pages it is suggested that a subsociety of youth
is unique to cultures which emphasize age-graded criteria and where
institutional, technological, and ideological aspects of culture change
rapidly. This age grading and rapid change compel youths to
rely upon others with similar perceptions and interests, thus forming
separate sociocultural systems. It is the shared traits and status
characteristics emerging from these interest groups among youth
which is here referred to as a youth subsociety.
This paper is about a contemporary version of education which
will be referred to as "humanistic," its roots in the society, and
the role that social science and social scientists have played in the
development of humanism in education.
The expansion and growth of the student revolt in recent years
seems to have aroused both the interest and the apprehension of
behavioral scientists of all disciplines and to have caused great concern
among educators and educational administrators. Even if the
early seventies have witnessed fewer activist outbreaks than did the
late sixties, the current student generation is still unrestful in many
parts of the world and many of the causes responsible for youth
unrest and the student revolt still prevail. This paper will attempt to
assess some of these causes, and this will lead to an evaluation of
the question of whether we are dealing with a past episode or with
an ongoing phenomenon, the manifestations of which change.
The previous papers just summarized present perspectives on the relations
among youth, the family, the educational system, and the larger
society that vary both within and across individual papers. Consequently,
we shall attempt to expand and integrate some of these
problematic and important points, beginning with the family.
The paramount educational need of America is to complete the dream of the public schools by focusing attention on their public purpose as the highest priority.
The subject of this yearbook is the elementary school in the
United States and its incredible growth, evolution, and even its
proposed demise. Succeeding chapters focus on the institution its
formation, shaping ideas and forces, functions, internal structure
and program, current problems, pressures for and processes of
change, and prospects for the future. This chapter seeks to provide
a broad overview of this institution, drawing to some degree from
other countries to provide perspective.
During its long existence the American elementary school has
been variously lauded for its achievements, blamed for its failures,
or simply ignored. At the turn of the century it was given credit
for developing literacy and patriotism in the children of the masses.
Recently, it has been faulted for causing, as its critics charge, so
many children, especially those of the depressed minorities, to
feel unworthy and incapable of learning what the school expects.
More often than not, however, the elementary school has been taken
for granted as a necessary but relatively insignificant and uninteresting
preliminary event, overshadowed in importance by secondary
and higher education.
This article discusses the factors influencing teachers' membership in unions.
Compared to the large farm households in which farm and household work and the learning of related skills were combined, the contemporary urban setting reveals a separation of family, school education, and work.
Discussion of the social sciences as forms of thought that structure meanings, ''and of the value of teaching students to develop the social discipline approach.''
The author suggests a clue for the kind of thinking and abstraction that can lead to achieving or redirecting goals for a more viable society.