This article examines the origins of the National Parent-Teacher Association and questions its current image as a white, middle-class women’s association.
We consider the role of anthropology and its central construct—culture—in the study of education.
While there has been a great deal of recognition in the business world that information and knowledge management can be vital tools in organizations, it is only recently that educational administrators have begun to look at how they might use information systems to assist in creating effective learning environments. In the business research environment, the evolution from data to information and from information to knowledge plays a leading role in shaping how organizations develop strategies and plans for the future. Using examples from schools, this paper illustrates how knowledge management can enable schools to examine the plethora of data they collect, and how an ecological framework can be used to transform these data into meaningful information.
This is a study of assessment of groupwork. Students are informed of evaluation criteria. As hypothesized, groups that knew the criteria used to evaluate their group product, had higher quality discussions and better group products than groups without these criteria.
This study explores the ways that race- and gender-matched role models can provide young people with a greater sense of the opportunities available to them in the world.
The authors use their experience with a professional development project to propose a model of teacher community in the workplace.
The authors point to the role of cultural resources in establishing the gap between educational theory and practice. They illustrate their argument by using a situation in which an educational theory is imprisoned by contradicting cultural resources.
This is an essay about the small amount of time youth spend in school. It speaks to how schooling has come to be the answer for all our educational aims and expectations, and the alternatives to what is, at best, currently a weak educational intervention.
The author takes a close look at Waller’s classic text to see how well it holds up and what it offers first-time readers of educational sociology today. In this review, the author locates Waller’s work within the social psychology of W. I. Thomas, places it against the backdrop of the American pragmatists, and pays attention to Waller’s keen interest in the works of Sigmund and Anna Freud.
Adolescents have no prepared, appreciated, approved place in society, so they tackle identity formation and development of self-worth and self-efficacy on their own. Society must change its view that youth are troubled or harmful and instead provide opportunities for meaningful roles for adolescents, particularly those without many years of formal education.
A discussion of the effects of the mass media, particularly the influence of violence and sex, on adolescents.
Though a growing U.S. consensus acknowledges that adolescents live in diverse communities with widely varying experiences, schools and communities are slow to adopt America's social transformations. Adolescent behavior is profoundly shaped by how adults organize teens' educational and social experiences. Education must guide teens toward productive, meaningful adulthood.
The United States has no systematic procedure to help secondary students transition from school to employment. That lack most adversely affects poor and minority students. This article examines successful school to work transitioning in Japan and Germany and notes that businesses and governments must recognize their responsibilities in preparing youth to make the transition.
Schools and adolescent students in today's society need support from surrounding communities and meaningful people. Community organizations of all kinds are important for recreating the critical aspects of community that once made it possible to grow up and participate in the mainstream of society.
This article discusses the resurgence of school-based community health, mental health, and social services during a period of social upheaval, focusing on improving adolescent health through school-based initiatives. Three appendices describe school-based health service programs in New Jersey and Mississippi.
The author presents a historical overview of the development of junior high schools for young adolescents, focusing on the unique physical, emotional, and social needs of that population. This article examines the views of James Conant, the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, and a junior high school teacher.
As school communities encourage healthy human relationships, they allow young people to create similar relationships independently. This article suggests that students need caring adults who know them well and model appropriate relationship building.
Intentional social support is crucial in reducing the risk of poor health and diminished educational attainment for adolescents facing various challenges and risks. This article examines ingredients of successful adolescent social support programs, notes supportive school and community environments, and looks at various programs designed to support adolescents.
Discusses a study of noncollege young Americans which examined known facts about this population and initiatives to be considered in light of that knowledge. This article asserts that these people are not getting fair treatment by society and makes such recommendations as encouraging youth community leadership and enhancing youth-adult relationships.
The poorest group in our population is children. This article discusses past and present public assistance programs that affect children and the disproportionate number of minority group children and children in single-parent homes who live in poverty. The need for welfare reform is discussed also.
This article seeks to identify the contemporary challenge of community and sketches a strategy schools might adopt in response. Discussion includes the value of bonding within a particular school, and activities that encourage bonding by students with the external community.
Two aspects of age segregation in American educational history are traced--segregation of children from adults due to expansion of public education in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and increasing stratification of children by age within schools due to the practice of age-grading.
In a study on school effectiveness, a random sample of more than 10,000 teachers from 538 high schools were surveyed to examine the climate of American high schools. Based on teacher reports, school climate measures were developed and related to schools and teachers.
This article traces the development of the Dick and Jane texts, examining the dominent intellectual and economic considerations of their authors and publishers in order to demystify their transmission of values, beliefs, and meanings.
Although American education has come to be seen in a continuum of experience that spans family, community, the world of work, and everyday life, this emphasis conflicts with two educational goals: promoting equality of opportunity and developing disciplinary understanding. A response and a rejoinder follow this article.
National health priorities have moved toward promotion of health and disease prevention over care and disease treatment. Key sociopolitical influences and scientific concepts underlying this shift are analyzed. Strategies of the national program for health promotion and disease prevention include a discussion of uses and misuses of health education.
The author’s purpose in replying to David Tyack’s critical review of Compelling Belief is to sharpen their differences about the status of intellectual and spiritual freedom in public schooling.