This article examines the measurement, antecedents, and consequences of social capital in high schools. Results indicate that social capital can be measured as an organizational characteristic and that social class predicts less than half of the variation in social capital, while the level of social capital characterizing schools is a strong predictor of achievement in high schools.
This study compares teachers’ social and human capital variables to see which of the two predict growth in classroom implementation of a high school science intervention based in cognitively rich and technology curricula. The results of the regression analyses indicate that only social capital was a significant predictor of growth in teachers’ ability to implement the intervention.
Situated within social and cultural perspectives of literacy and motivation, this study examines religious youths’ personal motivations for reading complex, religious texts such as the Bible and the Book of Mormon by looking closely at the connections among their literacy practices, religious ideologies, and the expression of their religious identities.
This article explores the extent to which students’ precollege exposure to racial/ethnic difference within schools, neighborhoods, and friendship groups predicts their complex racial attitudes upon entering college.
This chapter examines models of youth-based enterprises in which adolescents take leadership in organizational roles, creative design, and community building. Central to this work is the need for both public and private creative input and financing to develop and support learning environments that engage adolescents in extended projects based in science and art that are socially beneficial to local communities.
This chapter focuses on recognizing humor as a powerful resource for visitors from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds who are new to learning contexts, such as museums and aquariums. By using humor, visitors negotiate hybrid learning spaces, as well as gain authority in informal settings.
This chapter explores the practice framework guiding the practice of workers at Jabiru Community College, a community-based school in Brisbane, Australia. The chapter articulates the findings from a dialogical inquiry begun by the three authors with input from workers and youth. Seven dimensions of the framework being used by workers are described.
This chapter presents a conceptual argument that positions two broad areas of educational scholarship—the moral and ethical dimensions of teaching and social justice education—as being quite separate, different, and ultimately antithetical, despite contemporary trends towards merging them in both theoretical and practical ways. It argues that an emerging tendency in social justice education to position its political agenda as a moral or ethical endeavor, especially within teacher education, is problematic in that it complicates, rather than enhances, the conceptualization of teaching as moral practice; it further distracts teachers and student teachers from fully engaging with the ethical aspects of their daily professional work.
In the past fifteen years, there has been a shift in the way researchers have conceptualized identity, moving from the “identity-as-thing” to an understanding of “identity-in-practice” (Leander, 2002, 198–199). This is not necessarily a new concept, as earlier researchers recognized sociocultural influences on perception (Bartlett, 1932/1995; Vygotsky, 1978) and on the performative nature of identity (Butler, 1990; Goffman, 1959). New Literacy Studies theorists (Barton, 1994, 2001; Gee, 1996, 2000; Street 1995, 1999) began to examine identity-in-practice in relation to literacy. In addition, ethnographic accounts (Heath, 1983; Purcell-Gates, 1997; Taylor, 1983; Taylor & Dorsey-Gaines, 1988) began to document ways that literacies and identities were interconnected. There was an epistemological shift, underscoring the individual and community practices that help to shape one’s identity. Literacies included all activities inside and outside school, highlighting the relationship between people’s literacy practices and their situated actions, behaviors, beliefs, and values, or their Discourses (Gee, 1999, 2008, 2011).
The study was of a digital storytelling project with a group of families in North Yorkshire. The study explored meaning-making practices across generations using a number of multimodal tools, including drawing, writing, digital audio, still photographs, and moving image media.
This chapter explores literacy and identity negotiation as a cultural dialogue involving the dynamic intersection of public, private, physical, and virtual spaces that contemporary youth inhabit. In this case study, the ways in which 1 Caribbean immigrant adolescent negotiates such spaces and cultural resources represent identity-work. Through her digital literacy practices, this young person actively constructs her sense of self by creating a space where her cultural and literate identities can coexist.
This chapter addresses how online multimodal literacy practices are both filtered through and used by popular culture. Through a combination of textual analysis and interviews with first-year university students, the chapter illustrates the intersections of multimodal literacies and popular culture and discusses how they are shaping the ways that identities are constructed and performed in and out of the literacy classroom.
This chapter examines intertextual meaning-making across and within virtual and real video game environments, looking to observational and interview data of middle and high school students to illustrate the conflation of real and virtual experiences. The discussion of the associative I/identity helps to distinguish and clarify the interconnected nature of on- and offscreen situated practices that promote meaningful learning
This article argues for treating learning as a “members’ phenomenon,” one that participants to an interaction organize, sustain, and evaluate themselves from “within” their interactions. This endogenous approach to studying learning is contrasted with the traditional exogenous approach. An empirical example is provided to ground the concept. Implications for further development of this approach are discussed, including possible tensions and complementarities with the exogenous approach to studying learning.
This chapter contributes a framework for analyzing learning as an expansive process in which ethnic minority young men come to partly transcend marginal positions as part of the social street work in Copenhagen, Denmark. The chapter draws on social practice approaches, such as situated learning, learning by expanding, and Danish-German critical psychology, in investigating marginalizing and expansive learning in relation to dilemmas, directionality of personal and societal trajectories, and struggles realizing common interests.
Organizing learning around funds of knowledge requires that human sciences researchers attend to important cultural, social, historical, and political dimensions that lend complexity to incorporating youth cultural practices into school mathematics teaching and learning. An example of youth participatory action research into a nondominant youth practice—Spades card play—grounds this chapter in a practice view of culture.
This article reports findings from a case study of district leadership for school, family, and community partnerships in an urban system in the northeast United States. Analyses suggest that collaboration between the district’s office of parent involvement and a community-based organization (CPIO) has helped to support and sustain school, family, and community partnerships as a reform initiative in the district for nearly a decade.
This longitudinal study combines two related ethnographic data sets to examine how teachers and students at a public magnet elementary school coconstructed a discourse of inquiry that supported students as thoughtful, engaged learners and community members.
This article considers the ways in which school systems in New York City and Amsterdam have shaped the educational trajectories of two groups of relatively disadvantaged immigrant youth: the children of Dominican immigrants in New York and the children of Moroccan immigrants in Amsterdam. It describes the salient features of the two educational systems and the ways in which they structure opportunity for children of immigrants.
This article gives an overview of the history of the emergence of the middle and working classes in America and describes key characteristics of these cultures as they manifest themselves today. It then explores the effect of class culture on our conceptions of democracy.
A critique of current educational policies effects on teaching and teacher education, focusing on the redefinition of teaching in new economic and cultural conditions.
This article examines how student voice activities can lead to increases in “youth development” outcomes for young people—especially for students who otherwise do not find meaning in their school experiences.
The authors argue that society holds largely negative views of youth. As a result, at least in part, too many youth are left alone or are given very little guidance and support. We must begin to view youth as an investment instead of a burden if we are to sustain the quality of our society.
This paper challenges the traditional interpretation of the origins of the North American summer calendar by suggesting that the roots of the presently defined school year were more influenced by multiple pressures arising from increasing urbanization, than by the demands of farm life. Examining why there has been such resistance to changing the school calendar, the paper investigates the calendar’s ties with changes over time in the construction of other “clocks” of society. Finally, we consider the school calendar as part of a larger ongoing discussion on what constitutes effectiveness of schools.
This study presents data collected from a nationally-representative sample of teachers of 1st through 6th graders (N=553). Using teacher-completed time diaries, we examine students’ total time in school and their activities while there.
This article examines the origins of the National Parent-Teacher Association and questions its current image as a white, middle-class women’s association.
We consider the role of anthropology and its central construct—culture—in the study of education.
While there has been a great deal of recognition in the business world that information and knowledge management can be vital tools in organizations, it is only recently that educational administrators have begun to look at how they might use information systems to assist in creating effective learning environments. In the business research environment, the evolution from data to information and from information to knowledge plays a leading role in shaping how organizations develop strategies and plans for the future. Using examples from schools, this paper illustrates how knowledge management can enable schools to examine the plethora of data they collect, and how an ecological framework can be used to transform these data into meaningful information.
This is a study of assessment of groupwork. Students are informed of evaluation criteria. As hypothesized, groups that knew the criteria used to evaluate their group product, had higher quality discussions and better group products than groups without these criteria.
This study explores the ways that race- and gender-matched role models can provide young people with a greater sense of the opportunities available to them in the world.