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Social Context >> Economics and School-to-work

Articles
by Robert Taggart — 1982
Experience under the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act of 1977 (YEDPA) and experience with youth employment and training programs provide a number of lessons concerning the effectiveness of alternative activities and strategies in meeting youth employment needs. These lessons provide the basis for restructuring and reorienting the youth employment and training system, as well as the background for budget and policy choices.

by Harry Silberman — 1982
In this chapter, ease studies of cooperative efforts are described. The descriptions are followed by discussion of several factors that emerge from the ease studies: indicators of cooperation, potent variables that influence cooperation, unresolved issues, and explanatory models of the cooperative process. Those findings and summary conclusions are presented in subsequent sections of the chapter. Because of the different and often inconsistent uses of the terms "cooperation," "coordination," and "collaboration" in the literature, those terms are used interchangeably in this chapter.

by Harry Silberman — 1982
Unemployment is up, the economy is faltering, and the major problems in vocational education, in all of education, have not disappeared. Indeed, the issues of the i96os seem to have grown more serious with time. Although it is not possible to describe all the problems that confront vocational education in a brief concluding chapter, I will discuss a few of the more salient issues.

by Janice Weiss — 1982
The history and implications of commercial education are examined and contrasted with current practices in vocational education.

by H. Svi Shapiro — 1982
Critical and revisionist historians of American education have generated a model of education in a capitalist society that has a functionalist orientation. However, this model does not properly acknowledge the importance of society's contradictions, disjunctions, and incoherence in social and educational change.

by Dale Mann — 1982
The problem of youth unemployment in the state of New York is explored in a study which begins with a general review of the sociodemographic features of the target population. Other topics include: work experience and education, attitudes toward work, job entry and career ladder jobs, and unemployment among minority youth.

by Joan Gussow — 1980
An evaluation of the food industry's role in educating children on nutrition raises the question of how objective this instruction is, and whether the industry should be engaged in nutrition education at all.

by Robert Havighurst & David Gottlieb — 1975
This chapter deals with the issue of work and its meaning to American youth. The emphasis is not upon questions of career choice, but rather upon the ways in which youth approach work; the way they feel about work; the role they believe work should play within the framework of a total life-style; the expectations and aspirations they have for work; and the discrepancies they see between their educational preparation and their work aspirations.

by Peter Moock — 1974
It is possible to combine all the individual and group consumption that goes on in the family unit into one "family consumption package" and, using economic theories designed for analyzing individual decisions, to make valid and useful statements about family activities.

by Jesse Burkhead — 1973
Research into educational economics is reviewed and discussed, and recommendations for future research are made.

by Charles Benson — 1973
In studies that are made of education in the United States, relatively little attention is given to the elementary school as a separate entity. This becomes especially conspicuous when our own schemes of educational development are compared with plans in various countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. In these countries, financing of elementary schooling, for example, is dealt with as a distinct issue. Estimates of economic and social returns of various levels and branches of the educational system, however crude, are made separately by level, and elementary education is treated as a unique activity.

by Jacob Mincer — 1973
Compared to the large farm households in which farm and household work and the learning of related skills were combined, the contemporary urban setting reveals a separation of family, school education, and work.

by Ralph Goldman, William Weber & Harold Noah — 1971
Two fairly speculative models presented in this paper illustrate some less restrictive techniques of economic model-building. The first model is the micro-economic type. It suggests that if a school district wishes to maximize student learning, there may exist an optimal teacher salary-level it should pay, given the student ability to learn, the distribution of abilities in the population of teachers currently "in-the-market," and certain other conditions of supply and demand. The second model is macro-socioeconomic, and suggests possible relationships among higher education curriculum, economic and technological change, and social change.

by John Coons, Stephen Sugarman & William Clune, III — 1971
The need for reform of the financial aspects of education is stressed.

by Melvin Barlow — 1965
The challenges of the present and their implications for the future call for increased attention to vocational education beyond the high school. Particularly critical are programs of one or two years' duration for students who are preparing to enter the labor force and programs for out-of-school youth and adults.

by Eli Ginzberg — 1965
will set out below my basic assumptions about education in contemporary United States so that my later analysis of important trends in the social and economic environment and the implications of these trends for the future of education, in general, and vocational education, in particular, can be objectively appraised.

by George Arnstein — 1965
There is increasing realization today that we are living in the middle of a major revolution, every bit as far-reaching as the Industrial Revolution some two hundred years ago. Because of its radical nature and rapid pace, this technological or scientific revolution has had, and no doubt will continue to have, major influence on vocational education.

by John Walsh & William Selden — 1965
It is the purpose of this chapter to review the program-planning aspects of vocational education and to provide a limited description of the several areas of occupational preparation that are usually considered as the categories of vocational education.

by Franklin Keller — 1965
How will children in elementary and junior high school know what high school they wish to enter, unless well before graduation they have learned much about occupations and about their own interests and desires? And when they gain new experience, develop new ideas, and change their minds, how will they know "what to do" unless a counselor is handy and alert at every point along the line? Despite this, some vocational schools have no guidance program at all and assert that they do not need it. Others want it, but plead poverty and lack of staff. Some conduct guidance on an occasional, semi-emergency, disciplinary basis, rather than as a vital school function.

by William McLure — 1965
The issues concerning the general purpose of vocational education in our society are well drawn. The important questions concern the individual and society in general. As the child grows up, he must be educated for effective performance in all aspects of living. In a world of work there is no escape from the necessity for fonnal preparation of the individual for vocational pursuit. A strong society depends upon educated citizens. These are axioms which have less need for defense than for appraisal in the light of changing conditions.

by Claude Fawcett — 1965
It is simple to declare that someone else must bear the responsibility for what amounts to a public service essential to the common good of the society, but it is quite another thing to make sure that he is willing or, by the very nature of his unique role in that society, is able to bear such responsibility. Whether employers, trade associations, employee associations, proprietary and nonprofit institutions, or voluntary organizations, singly or co-operatively, can provide sufficient vocational education to meet the needs of our society is largely determined by their purposes and resources. It is well to inquire concerning their potential in this matter.

by Melvin Barlow — 1965
The common conception of vocational education has changed over the years. Once regarded as "those knacks in education," as an early writer described the program, it is now perceived as an integral, essential part of education. But attitudes toward work have changed much more slowly: We still find people who measure a man by the kind of work he does rather than by the quality of performance, whatever his work may be.

by Ralph Tyler — 1961
Since the end of the Second World War, educational changes in the United States have been frequent and, to some extent, contradictory. In most school districts enrollments have sharply increased yet in some districts the number of children in attendance has diminished.

by Warren Seyfert — 1945
If it is agreed that the school must accept responsibility for aiding young people to define and solve theil' contemporary problems more adequately and to lay the ground work for more satisfying solutions of their problems-in-prospect, and if it is further agreed that the school should use whatever means are at its disposal to help boys and girls with their problem-solving activities, whether or not these means are within the compass of the school's customary range of action, work and service experiences on a comprehensive basis must be a part of the curriculum of the modern schooL

by Franklin Keller — 1943
Vocational education is learning how to work. For the educator, it is teaching others how to work. In the rise from savagery to civilization, people have learned to work in many different ways.

by Grayson Kefauver — 1943
The urgent demand for technically trained workers for the war industries has made everyone conscious of the importance of vocational education. New schools have been developed and the programs of existing schools have been expanded to meet this demand. Youth surveys have shown that many young people who are unable to secure employment have not been trained for useful work. Hence, there has come the demand that the schools give more attention to vocational education and vocational guidance. We have never before witnessed as great an effort to strengthen and to extend the program of vocational education in the schools of this country.

by Edwin Lee — 1943
This chapter moves on from these introductory but basic discussions to a consideration of the scope and organization of vocational education. In simple terms and as concisely as possible the chapter aims to present the principles of administration and supervision which should be operative in any program of vocational education. Such principles are not new. They typify good practice in business and industry as well as in schools. The virtue of their reiteration in this volume lies in the emphasis given to the responsibility placed upon the general administrator and in their application to the peculiar problems in the vocational area.

by Stephen Voorhees — 1943
The great weakness of academic education has been its detachment from life. The growing strength of general education is its search for life. The soundness of vocational education is its foundation upon life. Everybody must work, so everybody must learn to work. "Everybody," young in school but old on the job, becomes the parent, the employer, the farmer, the mechanic, the mayor, the Rotary Club member, all pursuing their vocations.

by Robert Hoppock & Nathan Luloff — 1943
The standard definition of vocational guidance, adopted after frequent revisions by the National Vocational Guidance Association, is stated in the following terms: Vocational guidance is the process of assisting the individual to choose an occupation, prepare for it, enter upon it, and progress in it. It is concerned primarily with helping individuals make decisions and choices involved in planning a future and building a career-decisions and choices necessary in effecting satisfactory vocational adjustment.

by Franklin Keller, Ralph Woods, Frederick Nichols, Irvin Noall, Ben Graham, Gerald Whitney, Joseph Fleming & Beulah Coon — 1943
Method is "a general or established way or order of doing anything or the means or manner by which it is presented or taught."

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