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Social Context >> Economics and School-to-work

Articles
by Sidney Mattis — 1943
The mere fact that a chapter on libraries is included in this comprehensive yearbook on vocational education is substantial evidence that the vocational-school library is making its influence felt. The long-held concept that the vocational school which teaches manual skills holds little room for book learning, and therefore for libraries, is slowly, but no less positively, going by the board. The advent of professional librarians in vocational schools, the recruiting of better-educated shop teachers, and the influence of the academic subjects have been responsible in part for this change in concept.

by Gilbert Weaver — 1943
The success of any educational program is predicated on the available number of properly qualified and effectively trained teachers. This concept is especially applicable to the field of vocational education where skill and technical knowledge are required in addition to professional education. No school can rise above the level of ability and professional outlook of the teaching staff and the type of leadership provided by the principal, supervisor, or director. The task of vocational teacher training has many ramifications, and, furthermore, is not limited to the offering of courses on a university campus or of extension courses under college supervision to all applicants who solicit registration.

by Paul Mort — 1943
The first task to be faced in financing an educational project is to determine the nature of that educational project. This seems like a truism, but it is the most neglected phase of financing education. That our educational programs go along haltingly, inadequately financed, is too often a result of our failure to divest ourselves of more or less unconscious assumptions as to the limitations under which we must work.

by L. Dennis — 1943
The program of vocational education in America, under public school auspices, has been based upon and made possible by the official commitments of public legislative bodies-local, state, and national. Some of the original legislative enactments have been interpreted or modified by administrative or judicial decisions or by later legislative enactments.

by Oakley Furney & C. Beach — 1943
The necessity for the United States to take steps to safeguard itself from the growing strength and victories of the Axis countries became evident during the early part of 1940. To take these steps, it became essential to increase production of war industries far beyond that of any previous time. A considerable dearth of skilled labor necessary to produce the enormous output planned in war industries was evident even though there had been a general expansion of vocational training in recent years.

by Ralph Woods — 1943
The major occupation of rural society is agriculture. In fact, agriculture is one of America's basic industries, since it is the source of supply of the primary needs (food and clothing) of mankind. According to the 1940 census, there are 6,096,799 farmers in the United States.

by Frederick Nichols — 1943
Business education is an educational stepchild in the family of secondary-school departments, without affectionate nurturing by either parent-general education or vocational training. It is not acceptable for college entrance, except when it slips into the fold of creditable subjects through the back door of "free electives." It is not directly subsidizable under the many vocational-education acts except the most recent one (George-Deen), and under that one only in the field of training for distributive occupations which, until this act became operative, was practically nonexistent.

by Irvin Noall — 1943
As the name implies, the service occupations have to do with producing comfort and protection. This protection is of life and property, as in police and fire service. The comfort service represents a much wider range of activities—assistance in the home, in personal grooming, food service, and service received through institutions.

by Thomas Quigley — 1943
Only a few years ago a distinguished commission of employers, labor leaders, and educators conducted and published at a reputed expense to the government of a couple of hundred thousand dollars a report with recommendations upon the relationship of the federal government to state and local school systems. One would hasten to agree with many of the findings of so eminent a group.

by Beulah Coon — 1943
Never was there a more important time to ask ourselves what kind of a world we want. Even in the midst of disaster, both the immediate and the future needs of young people must be considered for they are the future. Upon them depends the preservation or the loss of those values we hold most dear. Today's youth and children deserve and must have the best preparation they can be given for living in the future world. When we do something to make a better, happier home life possible, we are reaching out and touching the future of America.

by Lynn Emerson — 1943
A considerable proportion of the vocational training needed for many kinds of jobs is obtained on the job, as incidental learning. Persons with suitable backgrounds are put on the payroll and are given a breaking-in period to acquaint them with the specific duties of the work. Some productive work is performed almost immediately by the new worker, and his effectiveness increases with experience.

by Charles Sylvester — 1943
Vocational Education of less than college grade in America has been very largely for highly selected students. Only during recent years has proper and adequate attention been given to the many types of maladjusted pupils, including both mentally and physically handicapped groups. There are some outstanding examples of suitable educational programs, both academic and practical, for these handicapped and bewildered youth, but such types of education are by no means extensive.

by Walter Wallack — 1943
A description of vocational education per se in the correctional institution would differ from that of the ordinary vocational school. In some correctional institutions may be found all of the elements which one may believe to be required in good vocational teaching: purposeful objectives, effective methods, excellent equipment, skillful teachers. In others the program of instruction is as poor as one could imagine, while in many there is likely to be no instruction at all. In any correctional institution there is always the advantage of being able to use real jobs in institutional maintenance and construction for training purposes.

by Henry Amonette — 1943
The facilities for vocational education under public control are being expanded at a tremendous rate throughout America. Moreover, the sphere of public support and supervision of occupational training is an ever-widening one.

by Russell Greenly — 1943
With the passage of the Smith-Hughes Act, those interested in industrial education received the first substantial opportunity to develop a program for the individual self-improvement of a group which had long been neglected, yet upon whose efforts we were dependent for the maintenance of the "American way of life."

by William Rasche — 1943
The number of secondary schools which have influenced our industrial progress during the last quarter of a century is well over three thousand, and they are scattered throughout the land from coast to coast and from the Canadian border to the Gulf of Mexico. No adequate description of these thousands of successful schools can be presented in a brief chapter. To describe a few in any case is to leave out the large number of other schools which are equally as successful and important as the limited number that are described in this chapter.

by Howard Campion — 1943
The American junior college is today emerging as one of the most potent influences in public education. Although a relatively young institution, it is already playing an important part in determining the place of vocational education in the schools of the nation. Its beginnings were not auspicious. At the outset it was little more than an attic built upon the high school or a basement entrance to the university.

by Algo Henderson — 1943
The traditional function of the liberal-arts college has been to conserve and pass on the cultural heritage and "to promote the development of the student's intellectual powers." As defined by an outstanding college, Williams, the curriculum "consists of two well-defined parts: (1) the general and introductory courses of the first two years and (2) the advanced and more specialized courses of the last two years."

by Alan Eurich & James McCain — 1943
Preparation for a job is one of the major purposes of American colleges of all types today. It is difficult to designate any single group of them as vocational colleges, for the extent to which an institution is devoted to occupational preparation is a matter of degree.

by Alan Eurich & James McCain — 1943
From their very origin to the present time, the universities have been concerned with preparing their students for vocations. The medieval university provided the training requisite for following the "traditional trinity" of professions-theology, law, and medicine. The American universities which grew out of the earliest colonial colleges were founded to furnish the new land with a learned ministry. Our universities today offer preparation for a wide variety of occupations, and, as new needs arise, expand their curriculums to include new vocational courses to meet them.

by Franklin Keller — 1943
Patently, vocational education is a function, a resultant of technical, economic, and social forces. Throughout the book these forces have been described or implied. While they do not justify prophecies, they do indicate trends. They serve to point up the answers to the foregoing basic questions. They are the stuff out of which vocational education draws its substance.

by Hamden Forkner — 1941
Education for vocational efficiency is one of the fundamental opportunities which every free nation must provide for its people if it hopes to maintain individual freedom.

by Mark Ellingson, George Hoke & L. Jarvie — 1939
The role of occupational experiences in general education is still an unknown one, but scattered throughout the country are educational institutions above the high-school level actively engaged in attempts to make occupational experience a vital part of the total educational program of the school.

by Harold Clark — 1938
Elementary education had been provided on a more or less universal basis for a few hundred years in some of the more advanced cultures. Beginning about a generation ago, our own society began seriously to consider secondary education for the whole population. We had the margin of economic energy to provide it, and our machine technology was becoming so efficient that it was no longer necessary to make even adolescents work in fields or factories.

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