The major focus of this chapter is upon recommendations for
the financing of needed programs of education in American metropolitan
areas. The discussion of the background of the financial problems
will be limited to that which is necessary for clarification and
support of the recommendations presented.
In this chapter the fiscal aspects of central city and suburban public
education will be considered in some detail, both individually and in
relation to each other. It should be noted at this point that, in comparing
central cities to their outside central city areas, the latter include
not only the "suburbs" but rural areas and urban areas which,
except for size, resemble socially and economically their central city counterparts.
Since the fate of education is inextricably bound up with the
effective working of our federal system in metropolitan areas, it is
important to better understand this federal-state-local environment
in which education must operate. For, if education and a strong
federal system do not hang together, they will hang separately.
The people of the metropolis have fostered metropolitan
fragmentation in general and fragmentation of the map of
school jurisdictions in particular. Counter pressures have developed,
to be sure, and these have experienced limited success in some areas;
processes and mechanisms of reintegration will be discussed in the
pages which follow. At present, however, the jurisdictional picture
of the metropolitan area remains fractured, patched, and uneven.
The metropolitanization of education is bringing about a quiet but
thoroughgoing revolution in education-related professions. As schools adapt to the problems of the education of young people
in the inner city, in the suburbs, in the special population areas produced
by ethnic or religious groupings, and so on, they take on different
and sometimes unusual goals of education.
This chapter will (a) describe some of the relatively unique characteristics
of the metropolitan environment as they relate to postsecondary
education, (b) indicate representative types of educational
institutional settings, (c) present three selected cases of what is
actually happening in a huge metropolitan area, a middle-sized urban
area, and a smaller city, (d) discuss future problems and possible
solutions, and (e) suggest criteria for evaluating opportunities for
post-secondary education in metropolitan areas.
Metropolitan areas play a particularly crucial role in the development
of cultural tastes and interests. They are the centers of artistic
talent and cultural resources. This is so because they not only afford
artists the contact with and the stimulus of their colleagues but have
sufficient density of population to provide audiences for and consumers
of their work.
If recent charges are warranted, non-public schools exacerbate the
problems of the metropolis. These schools attract growing proportions
of middle-class patrons, it is said, threatening to make public
education a "dumping ground" and compromising its support. They
constrict citizen concern to the "in-group" when it should be
broadened to the metropolis. By maintaining substandard programs,
they deprive the urban complex of much potential talent.
This chapter presents a summary of a survey of the educational
needs of Hartford, Connecticut, made by the Center for Field Studies
of the Harvard University Graduate School of Education.
This is a case study of co-operation among school districts in a
metropolitan setting. The study focuses principally on the co-operative
mechanism which links the public school districts of the
Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area. Effort is made not to present
this area as exemplary of the highest order of interdistrict cooperation
but rather to suggest some approaches which have proven to
be both practical and promising.
It is difficult, if not impossible, to separate the consolidation of two
large school systemsone a city system and one a county systemfrom
the total Nashville-Davidson County municipal movement toward
a metropolitan form of government. This unification represented
far more than a merging of two systems; in actuality, a city
and a county had grown together.
The objectives of this dialogue are twofold: to indicate the continuity of the Urban Education movement with many of Dewey's ideas; to view Urban Education in relation to Dewey's educational philosophy.
The text of Lester Granger's talk given at William Kilpatrick's eightieth birthday celebration in 1951.
In order to illustrate the principles that might well characterize the
operation of audio-visual programs in city school systems, the author
has devoted this Chapter primarily to a rather complete description of
the organization and administration of the Division of Audio-visual
Education in the St. Louis public schools.
Although particular emphasis today is being placed upon the immediate necessity for concrete wartime defense education, probably one of the most pressing and urgent needs of such education is to help children of all ages to understand the significance and importance of continued democracy for them.
Educators today must face the challenges that an all-out war brings. This article discusses the task for educators.
In discussing post-war education there are two possible ways of treating the subject. One can picture education as he would wish it to be; or he can imagine what he thinks, from present trends, it is likely to become. This article combines the two approaches, tempering ambition with the practical.
From a recent report by the National Resources Committee, entitled Our Cities: Their Role in the National Economy, it is to be gathered that the American city, at present, is heading for a serious crisis: an alarming intimation, indeed, but no news to those who, for any time, have worked and lived in a city. They know, from their own experience, that the unrestricted growth of cities threatens a serious crisis in urban life.
At a time when so much discussion is being given to the possibilities of "scientific management" in the world of material production, it seems desirable that the principles of this more effective form of management be examined in order to ascertain the possibility of applying them to the problems of educational management and supervision. This paper attempts to suggest what some of the principles would probably mean when applied to the labors of our field.
Cincinnati maintains a unique scheme for the supervision of teachers during their first years of service. The supervision begins when, as students in the city university, the prospective teachers are doing practice teaching in the public schools. It continues under the direction of the university authorities during a period of cadetting and after appointment to regular teaching. This co-operative relation between city public-school system and the city university is administered through the College for Teachers which is maintained jointly by the university and the city board of education. This college is engaged primarily in training teachers for the elementary schools of the city in a four-year course which leads to a standard Bachelor's degree. Professor Hall who has charge of the scheme of supervision has provided the following description of certain of its aspects.