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Social Context >> History of Schooling

by Charles Willie — 1983
The educational background and achievements of Benjamin Elijah Mays are related to illustrate points about the education of Black students. Such students need encouragement from teachers, a student-centered curriculum, and sometimes more time to perform well in college than classmates who are not educationally disadvantaged.

by Eugene Provenzo Jr. — 1983
The holdings of the Darton Collection, a special library of children's books published in England before 1850, are discussed. The collection, housed at Columbia University in New York City, includes childrens' games and illustrations as well as books.

by Richard Becker — 1982
As a means to some historical perspective on American attitudes toward education and work, this chapter compares arguments of that earlier era with contemporary views as reflected in President Carter's Youth Initiative of 1980. Three issues are singled out: (a) equality of opportunity and a more democratic system of education, (b) the relation of education to economic growth and productivity, and (c) the control of vocational training.

by Janice Weiss — 1982
The history and implications of commercial education are examined and contrasted with current practices in vocational education.

by Eugene Provenso Jr. — 1982
From 1908 to 1918, Lewis Hine, educator and photographer, gave new meaning to the camera as an educational tool for social change. Published by the National Child Labor Committee, Hine's photo essays of exploited urban and rural children were intended to instigate reform. This essay with photographs describes Hine's crusade.

by Elisabeth Hansot & David Tyack — 1982
In this chapter we seek to do two things. First, we suggest how policy making changed in three key periods of our educational history: the common school movement of the mid-nineteenth century; the turning to experts to make policy in the early twentieth century; and further shifts in policy making in the last generation. Second, we explore how changing conceptions of the past history as selective interpretation—influenced educational policy makers in these three periods.

by Donald Chipman & Carl McDonald — 1982
An examination of Kilpatrick's undergraduate observations of the relations between students and teachers.

by Michael Carey — 1982
In the 1950s, students had formal bomb-threat education; civil defense training taught students where to hide and how to protect themselves. Comments of teachers and students of that era are presented along with a history of various programs and techniques used for civil defense education.

by O. Davis, Jr. — 1981
This essay is not a history of the social studies, although it calls for histories of the field without assembling a research agenda. The resultant history would not only fill present voids and redress traditional oversight; most importantly, such a history would foster understanding. Practically, it might even contribute to policy deliberations and, as well, inform correctly proposals for action.

by Paul Matttingly — 1981
The dominance of academic values among professional schoolmen in the nineteenth century kept the problem of basic preparation separate from the problem of guaranteeing proficient skills. That divided tradition, at no point really designed or controlled by schoolmen themselves, nevertheless has become one of the oldest marks of their trade and in a sense has prevented the full professional maturation of their expertise.

by Kenneth Chastain — 1980
The purpose of this chapter is to familiarize the reader with some major factors that have influenced second-language study in the United States and to provide the bases for a fuller comprehension of subsequent chapters in this volume.

by William Reese — 1980
This analysis of the turn of the century public policy debates on state provision of school meals brings to light the political forces that continue to determine the health and well-being of urban school children.

by Lydia Smith — 1980
The life and philosophy of British educator Susan Isaacs (organizer of the Matting House School) and her contributions to education are examined.

by Abraham Tannenbaum — 1979
The half-decade following Sputnik in 1957 and the last half-decade of the 1970s may be viewed as twin peak periods of interest in gifted and talented children. Separating the peaks was a deep valley of neglect in which the public fixed its attention more eagerly on the low functioning, poorly motivated, and socially handicapped children in our schools. It was not simply a ease of bemoaning the plight of able and then disadvantaged learners, with each population taking turns as the pitied underdog or the victim of unfair play. Rather than transferring the same sentiments from one undereducated group to another, the nation found itself transforming its mood from intense anxiety to equally profound indignation: anxiety lest our protective shield of brainpower became weaker, rendering us vulnerable to challenge from without, followed by indignation over social injustice in the land, which could tear us apart from within. Now we are experiencing a revival of earlier sensitivities to the needs of the gifted. Judging from these vacillations in national temperament, it seems as if we have nor yet succeeded in paying equal attention simultaneously to our most and least successful achievers at school.

by Pauline Sears — 1979
Terman's famous study of gifted children, started soon after his return from test construction duties during World War I, reflected his great interest in children who scored at the extremely high end of the scale, the upper 1 to 2 percent. He was confident that they were a very able and potentially productive part of the population, and was concerned that common "myths" about them were injuring their development.

by Sandra Kaplan — 1979
Although a good deal of information concerning the language arts and social studies curriculum for the gifted is well articulated and readily available in the literature, there is a gap between this information and its application in classroom practice. Several factors contribute to this situation.

by Jay Scribner & Richard Englert — 1977
This volume is the first in the yearbook series of the National Society for the Study of Education, now in its seventy-sixth year, to address explicitly the topic of the politics of education. Some previous yearbooks have touched indirectly upon this domain, but those volumes typically portrayed either a stronger sociological orientation or a more general emphasis on social and behavioral science approaches to basic inquiry and problem solving in educational practice.

by Edith Mosher — 1977
This chapter will address the question: How do the sectors and processes of general governmental and educational policy making, largely writ, fit together? To this end we shall describe and analyze educational governance as a subarea of the overarching system of American federalism, and introduce, but intrude as little as possible upon, the analysis of the constituent influence systems of educational governance in the chapters that follow. We shall give more detailed attention to the most unitary of the major influence systems, namely, legislative and executive policy making at the national level of government.

by Robert Grinder — 1975
The authors of the 1975 yearbook view socializing experiences transitional to adulthood as more momentous than tribulations associated with the growth spurt. Moreover, "youth" is interposed as a stage between adolescence (growth spurt) and adulthood. Keniston regards the youth stage as a transition for persons who have outgrown adolescence but have yet to assume adult responsibilities; other contributors, who see commonality across young people in many aspects of socialization, conceptualize the youth stage as universal.

by Lawrence Cremin — 1974
As fresh studies of familial education are undertaken in their own right—studies in which explicitly educational questions are addressed to appropriate primary sources—a criticized body of generalizations will begin to emerge, and we shall come to see the family anew as the crucially important educator it has always been.

by Jacob Getzels — 1974
While socialization was being studied separately in its terms and education separately in its terms, the continuities and, more importantly, the discontinuities between them fell into the void created by the conceptual division. The intent of this article is to call attention to several types of discontinuities and their possible effect on the child.

by Henry Otto — 1973
Unless one knows some colonial history, one is likely to be misled into thinking that the United States always has been a country of free public education for almost every child. Actually, widespread implementation of a commitment to schooling came late and is largely a very recent development. This chapter will review the forces in our early history, going back to colonial times, that helped shape the elementary school.

by Thomas Popkewitz — 1973
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the moral, political, and epistemological consequences of the methodology of and theoretical commitments to a behavioral research pattern and its application to education.

by Laurence Iannaccone — 1973
It is the author’s perception that the concern with theory research has faltered. In the past, he has offered three or four standard answers to that question: 1. The concern for theory based research became a movement and ran out of steam; 2. The nature of the research professorship in educational administration; 3. The nature of the research professor in educational administration; 4. The encounter of the movement with the 1960s.

by Joseph McGivney & William Moynihan — 1972
Develops a conceptual framework which views the school as a subsystem of both the local community and of the larger society.

by Marvin Lazerson — 1972
Each of three themes of childhood education in the U.S.—the ethic of social reform, the uniqueness and importance of childhood, and the reform of educational practices— has had a variety of manifestations. Occasionally one theme has dominated a particular debate; often the themes are hardly distinguishable. As a group, however, they have appeared consistently, and they have shaped the development of early childhood education in the United States.

by Robert Schaefer — 1971
This chapter is neither a short history of curriculum nor a review of the particular ideas expressed in the 1927 yearbook. It is rather a more modest effort to sit on an intellectual riverbank and take samples of the ideas which flow by. Hopefully, by such a stratagem, viewpoints and practices which have long been part of the curricular stream may be captured as well as orientations and assumptions which are relatively new additions to the current.

by Ralph Tyler — 1971
The American leaders of curriculum development after World War I sought to base their guiding principles upon the results of scientific studies of education. Thorndike's investigations of transfer of training had destroyed the earlier confidence in the educational value of school subjects as such. Formal discipline could no longer be invoked to justify the inclusion of such fields as Latin and geometry in high school programs. The relevance of the content of the curriculum to the problems and activities of contemporary life had to be considered. Furthermore, scientific studies of memorization showed that children forget material in a short time unless they have frequent occasions to recall what they have memorized. These findings suggested that curriculum content must be selected which children will have early and frequent occasions to use.

by Robert McClure — 1971
The American public, in mid-century, was no longer so willing to trust the efficacy of public education. By the mid-sixties, determined that the schools must remedy the nation's increasingly visible social ills, the federal government had become an active partner in the educational enterprise. What curricular changes were taking place in these decades? Rather than chronicling projects or examining in detail the curricular "Alphabet Soup," this chapter will instead identify the influences, the influencers, and the results of the curricular reform movement of the fifties and the sixties. It will discuss the atmosphere— rather than the specifics—of change; it will deal with the new players and new roles in curriculum development; and, lastly, it will examine in some detail two new curricula that typify contrasting theories of contemporary instructional philosophy.

by Kenneth Wilson — 1970
The English language is usually said to have begun in the sixth and seventh centuries, when the Germanic Angles, Saxons, and Jutes invaded and settled the Celtic island of Britain? With the techniques of historical linguistics and philology, in spite of the lack of written records, we have been able to reconstruct the older forms, sounds, and vocabularies of the invaders' language in remarkable detail, working mainly from later written sources and from our knowledge of linguistic change. The Celtic language, together with most of the Roman linguistic remains, disappeared from England, except for a few place names. The history of English had begun.

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