In this article, the authors borrow the term literacy rich environment (LRE) from childhood literacy to account for the changing nature of physical environments that embody a range of information and communication technologies. Different factors such as race and income are considered to situate LREs in relation to schools and neighborhoods. The confluence of factors is illustrated through the use of geographic information systems (GIS) where geospatial relationships between LREs and educational and cultural institutions are made explicit.
The article introduces the concept of identity literacy—readers’ proficiency and willingness to engage the meaning systems embedded within texts and to consider adopting them as part of their own personal meaning system. The article describes a study of teachers implicitly guided by the goal of teaching students to read texts in this manner.
Drawing on data from a qualitative, longitudinal study, this article explores how former adult literacy participants in rural El Salvador conceptualized the cultural model of educación, a model encompassing academic knowledge and social competence. The article identifies how adults understood the meanings of and pathways to educación, its relationship with schooling and print literacy, and implications for research and practice.
This article looks at the literacy learning experience of an auto worker turned union representative; a blind computer programming; two bilingual autodidacts; and a former Southern sharecropper raising children in a high-tech university town.
An examination of the impact of the mode of test administration on student performance
The author uses research with gang-connected youth to show how they learned and used unsanctioned literacy practices as communicative, expressive, and transformative tools for shaping their social worlds, their thoughts, and their identities.
Using historical and contemporary perspectives, the paper argues that reading is a malleable social practice with identifiable moral and ideological consequences
A look at the intergenerational nature of literacy and life-span development of individual family members
An examination of strategies used by elementary teachers to serve linguistically and culturally diverse student populations.
Eduard Lindeman's book, "The Meaning of Adult Education," and its continued importance in higher education is discussed. Lindeman's thoughts on adult education and its social function and aesthetic relevance are explored. The use of discussion groups as a method of educational discourse is advocated.
Although a good deal of information concerning the language
arts and social studies curriculum for the gifted is well articulated
and readily available in the literature, there is a gap between this
information and its application in classroom practice. Several factors
contribute to this situation.
The three decades since the publication of the forty-third yearbook,
when the Society last looked at the teaching of English, have
seen profound changes in the educational environment materially
affecting the learning of language and literature in our schools.
However evolutionary many of these changes have seemed, their
cumulative impact can be suggested merely by reviewing a few of the major developments.
Just what language abilities does an individual need? Are there
different levels of language competency an individual needs for
various tasks and at different stages of maturity? Are the competencies
needed by the elementary school child different from those
of the high school student? Most importantly, what are the competencies
needed by the individual who is no longer a student in
the school-attending sense? Can these competencies be described?
Are some more essential than others? A former Oregon state superintendent
put the issue bluntly and in context with these questions:
"What competencies are required for America's young people to
survive during the last quarter of this century? What survival skills are needed to cope successfully with life as a citizen, wage earner,
consumer, and learner?"
The purpose of this chapter is to respond to these questions, to attempt to list and define the language competencies essential for
coping in our society. Of necessity, these are broadly stated, since
they must encompass the needs of both children and adults in a
wide range of societal and economic settings and with a wide
range of individual needs and abilities. It is hoped that they will
serve as bases for further examination of programs and objectives,
and possibly as criteria against which both teaching decisions and
student achievement may be measured. It is the task of the reader
to make thoughtful application of the statement of competencies to
the specific needs of a given set of learners.
How can we be so sure that television does not do more educating
than we think?
Courses of study, textbooks, and teachers' statements of their
instructional goals all assure the reader that concern with building
moral values is an important outcome of the study of English.
Despite changes that have altered landmarks in English instruction
in the last twenty years, the examination of values and the gradual
formulation of a coherent code of ethics have remained a desired
outcome of instruction in the English language arts.
The what of teaching cannot easily be distinguished from the
how of teaching as the contributions to the Yearbook readily indicate.
Yet the content parameters of English have so expanded over
the past two decades that any review of current developments would
seem incomplete without direct consideration of the changing nature
of the discipline. In selecting five areas for special consideration in
this chapter, the authors illustrate the gradual broadening of subject
matter that has occurred both as a result of scholarly and professional
developments and as a response to new instructional requirements.
That many of these changes have precipitated controversies
in individual communities is perhaps less significant than their
demonstration of the vitality of English studies in a changing social
and educational setting.
The past twenty years have seen repeated attempts to improve
the preservice and in-service education of teachers of the English
language arts. Emphases have changed with the nation's social and
cultural concerns, but the education of the teacher, like his classroom
teaching, remains almost as it has been.
What do today's sociocultural, scholarly, and professional trends
imply for the future of the teaching of English? To analyze the
direction in wlfich curriculum and instruction is moving, the Yearbook
Committee invited seven participants to express their diverse
views and experiences.
From the study of communication the following principles may be applied to a theory of teaching: 1. that communication is exchange; 2. that information resolves uncertainty; 3. that guessing is pattern-matching; 4. that patterns are more or less inclusive. This paper offers a discussion of the four principles cited above.
This article is an examination of one particularly crucial and generally overlooked aspect of teaching: what the author calls "translation."
The author describes four routes by which a teacher can find out if her pupils are learning: 1. By asking them questions in class; 2. By checking their homework; 3. By scoring their tests which she devises; 4. By computing their scores on standardized tests.
Reading, as a necessary skill to be acquired, is as old as Egyptian history, but even now, a significant portion of the population fails to acquire it. The problem, then, is to understand why.
The author contends that the bland, insipid content of first-grade readers not only complicates the process of "learning to read," but may, in fact, later contribute to an adolescent's anxiety.
An examination was made of the sex role models portrayed in primary reading texts during six contiguous historical periods in the United States from 1600 to 1966.
The author sketches here the story of a Philadelphia experiment in which workshops were organized for teaching the parents of Head Start pupils how to teach their children to learn.
To assist us in our exploration of the role of voluntary adult reading in the United States, certain kinds of information would be useful. How much reading is actually being done in this country today? Who are the readers? What kinds of things do they read? The answers to such questions can help us define what would constitute an "improvement" in adult reading and give direction to any programs we may devise for enlarging the role of reading and increasing its importance in the education of adults.
The fact was pointed out in the preceding chapter that what adults read and the extent of their reading are influenced by their ability to read. It is equally true that the values derived—pleasure, information, thought stimulation, the solution of personal and group problems—are determined in large measure by their reading efficiency. It follows that the question of how well adults read assumes large importance in any critical analysis of adult reading problems.
It is our task in this paper to take this large picture apart. We shall consider this lifelong behavior of man as a series of decisions to read or not to read a given piece of writing at a given time in a given situation. We shall suggest some general models as to why these decisions take place, but we must also record great variations in the models and great individual differences among readers.
The great industrial expansion of the nineteenth century and the growth of popular education resulted in a demand for more books available to all, and the public library became the institution for the continuing education of all men. Public libraries had their early beginnings in the parish libraries of Maryland and North Carolina in the late seventeenth century. Later came the town libraries of New England. Early libraries were usually subscription or association libraries; mercantile or mechanics libraries founded by business houses or associations of working men to provide read- ing for employees. Some of these still exist. The really progressive free library became possible when Massachusetts, leading the way for other states, gave legal sanction to the expenditure of public funds for the establishment and maintenance of public libraries.
College and university libraries are just beginning to meet their important obligation to develop adult readers on campus and in the surrounding community. The neglect of this responsibility had relatively less significance two generations ago when only 4 per cent of the college-age population received any higher education. Now more than a third of the 18-21 age group attend college, and the figure may rise to 50 per cent in the next fifteen years.1 While reading habits are first formed in the home and the school, the college has an opportunity to awaken worth-while interests and to accustom its young adults to the feeding of these interests through the regular and independent use of books.