This paper makes an argument for an integral approach for facilitating generative learning by adult learners under conditions of complexity. The focus is on applying adult development theories for enhancing the learner’s capacity for learning how to learn through experience with examples from six years of prototyping this generative learning approach in graduate classes.
In this article, the authors borrow the term literacy rich environment (LRE) from childhood literacy to account for the changing nature of physical environments that embody a range of information and communication technologies. Different factors such as race and income are considered to situate LREs in relation to schools and neighborhoods. The confluence of factors is illustrated through the use of geographic information systems (GIS) where geospatial relationships between LREs and educational and cultural institutions are made explicit.
The article introduces the concept of identity literacy—readers’ proficiency and willingness to engage the meaning systems embedded within texts and to consider adopting them as part of their own personal meaning system. The article describes a study of teachers implicitly guided by the goal of teaching students to read texts in this manner.
Drawing on data from a qualitative, longitudinal study, this article explores how former adult literacy participants in rural El Salvador conceptualized the cultural model of educación, a model encompassing academic knowledge and social competence. The article identifies how adults understood the meanings of and pathways to educación, its relationship with schooling and print literacy, and implications for research and practice.
We explore how political master narratives impact the production of local narratives in the context of adult literacy education. Using Burke’s pentad to analyze adult literacy success stories from 1978 to 2005, we show how the shift from a liberal to a conservative political master narrative is reflected in the stories as a change of agency from the program to the individual learner, a shift that serves to undermine the purpose of the stories themselves. We argue for the creation of a counternarrative that will better serve the interests of adult literacy students by emphasizing the broader scene in which they labor—stories that foreground the structural and cultural contexts that constrain and limit possibilities for human growth.
Most approaches to education “begin with the end in mind,” that is, start with a conception of an educated adult (much as we do in the Educated Person Exercise) and then work backwards to determine how to achieve desired outcomes. In this chapter Gary Fenstermacher attempts a very different approach: he examines our attempts to educate young people and tries to determine our actual rather than avowed focus. He discovers an emphasis on academic achievement and educational equity (both laudable goals)—to the exclusion or assumption of other critical aspects of being a responsible adult, a democratic citizen, and an educated person.
This article explores the doubting process as an emerging concept in school reform. After introducing the concept of doubt and its importance in educational reform, the article exemplifies a secondary school principal who doubted core pedagogical practices.
This article looks at the literacy learning experience of an auto worker turned union representative; a blind computer programming; two bilingual autodidacts; and a former Southern sharecropper raising children in a high-tech university town.
The document describes using structured journaling or personal transformative learning. Life history and focused journaling serve as the basis for a life planning workshop for women. Utilizing structured life history and framing a reflective process through journaling exercises and analysis, the workshop leaders encourage an examination of assumptions that may lead to personal transformation.
An introduction to a series of articles on transformative learning
A discussion of key ideas from Habermas that are important for delineating the social dimension in transformation theory.
An extension of transformative learning theory and consideration of collaborative inquiry as a strategy for facilitating transformative learning.
This case narrative describes how Cooperative Inquiry helped participants understand the dynamics of racism, transform personal consciousness about cultural imperialism, and change behavior.
A report on the use of transformative learning in collaboration with women in transition from situations of domestic violence.
An examination of the impact of the mode of test administration on student performance
This article analyzes the content, origins, and impact of the community college’s now very widespread involvement in contracting with employers to train current or prospective employees in job and academic skills.
The author uses research with gang-connected youth to show how they learned and used unsanctioned literacy practices as communicative, expressive, and transformative tools for shaping their social worlds, their thoughts, and their identities.
Using historical and contemporary perspectives, the paper argues that reading is a malleable social practice with identifiable moral and ideological consequences
A look at the intergenerational nature of literacy and life-span development of individual family members
An examination of strategies used by elementary teachers to serve linguisticially and culturally diverse student populations
Eduard Lindeman's book, "The Meaning of Adult Education," and its continued importance in higher education is discussed. Lindeman's thoughts on adult education and its social function and aesthetic relevance are explored. The use of discussion groups as a method of educational discourse is advocated.
In every field of endeavor each generation leaves a mixed legacy
to the next. Along with the hard-won wisdom that comes from
experience and the progressive accumulation of knowledge, collections
of misinformation and misjudgments that can only be explained
by understanding the temper and biases of the times are also
passed along. As an antidote to any misplaced confidence that we
at last have the tiger of education for the gifted by the tail, it may
be useful to catalogue some unsolved issues or misguided efforts
that have been created or accepted by the present generation and
which we are in danger of turning over to the next generation.
For the purpose of this chapter, the term
"programs for the gifted" will be used loosely to encompass a wide
variety of means of providing learning experiences for children of
well above average general intellectual and/or specific academic
aptitude. In some cases the discussion is also relevant to specific
nonacademic abilities that are provided for within the curriculum
of many schools, by such offerings as art, music, and athletics.
Although a good deal of information concerning the language
arts and social studies curriculum for the gifted is well articulated
and readily available in the literature, there is a gap between this
information and its application in classroom practice. Several factors
contribute to this situation.
The three decades since the publication of the forty-third yearbook,
when the Society last looked at the teaching of English, have
seen profound changes in the educational environment materially
affecting the learning of language and literature in our schools.
However evolutionary many of these changes have seemed, their
cumulative impact can be suggested merely by reviewing a few of the major developments.
Just what language abilities does an individual need? Are there
different levels of language competency an individual needs for
various tasks and at different stages of maturity? Are the competencies
needed by the elementary school child different from those
of the high school student? Most importantly, what are the competencies
needed by the individual who is no longer a student in
the school-attending sense? Can these competencies be described?
Are some more essential than others? A former Oregon state superintendent
put the issue bluntly and in context with these questions:
"What competencies are required for America's young people to
survive during the last quarter of this century? What survival skills are needed to cope successfully with life as a citizen, wage earner,
consumer, and learner?"
The purpose of this chapter is to respond to these questions, to attempt to list and define the language competencies essential for
coping in our society. Of necessity, these are broadly stated, since
they must encompass the needs of both children and adults in a
wide range of societal and economic settings and with a wide
range of individual needs and abilities. It is hoped that they will
serve as bases for further examination of programs and objectives,
and possibly as criteria against which both teaching decisions and
student achievement may be measured. It is the task of the reader
to make thoughtful application of the statement of competencies to
the specific needs of a given set of learners.
How can we be so sure that television does not do more educating
than we think?
Courses of study, textbooks, and teachers' statements of their
instructional goals all assure the reader that concern with building
moral values is an important outcome of the study of English.
Despite changes that have altered landmarks in English instruction
in the last twenty years, the examination of values and the gradual
formulation of a coherent code of ethics have remained a desired
outcome of instruction in the English language arts.
The what of teaching cannot easily be distinguished from the
how of teaching as the contributions to the Yearbook readily indicate.
Yet the content parameters of English have so expanded over
the past two decades that any review of current developments would
seem incomplete without direct consideration of the changing nature
of the discipline. In selecting five areas for special consideration in
this chapter, the authors illustrate the gradual broadening of subject
matter that has occurred both as a result of scholarly and professional
developments and as a response to new instructional requirements.
That many of these changes have precipitated controversies
in individual communities is perhaps less significant than their
demonstration of the vitality of English studies in a changing social
and educational setting.
The past twenty years have seen repeated attempts to improve
the preservice and in-service education of teachers of the English
language arts. Emphases have changed with the nation's social and
cultural concerns, but the education of the teacher, like his classroom
teaching, remains almost as it has been.