This study explored the development of holistic school leadership—an approach where principals lead schools through the systems thinking concept and procedures—over principals' different career stages, a topic that has received little research attention.
This study investigates the existence and extent of significantly different subgroups of teacher and leader responses to the Comprehensive Assessment of Leadership for Learning (CALL) survey. This survey is a formative assessment of school leadership developed by researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison employing the principles of distributed leadership and current research on leadership activities that promote student learning.
This article applies fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to high school administrative and survey data to examine the relationship of school leadership and mediating organizational supports with students’ classroom participation. The study uses a configurational approach to examine combinations of supports that are associated with the varying levels of the outcome.
This study captures the background characteristics of HBCU leaders in order to lay the groundwork for future studies on HBCU presidents. It also seeks to understand the role these leaders play in grooming and mentoring the next generation of HBCU leaders.
Comprehensive, multi-year mass fundraising campaigns in American higher education began with the Harvard Endowment Fund (HEF) drive, which extended from 1915 to 1925. Based on the first thorough study of the archival records, this essay reveals that the campaign established novel features of university fundraising through contentious negotiations among conflicting groups, prompted the university administration to centralize and control alumni affairs and development efforts for the first time, and, above all, introduced today’s ubiquitous episodic pattern of continuous fundraising, in which mass comprehensive campaigns alternate with discrete solicitations of wealthy donors, whose dominant roles have never changed.
This paper explores to what extent central office administrators lead meetings of principal professional learning communities in ways that promise to strengthen principals’ development as instructional leaders and the conditions that help or hinder administrators in the process.
This study offers insights into how 25 principals from public, private, and Catholic schools with varying levels of financial resources (i.e., high, medium, and low) renew themselves and prevent burnout, crucial for 21st-century school leaders.
This article examines how principal effectiveness and other determinants of teachers’ work environments explain teacher satisfaction and turnover. Using national data, it finds that effective principals have an even greater impact on teacher outcomes in schools with large numbers of disadvantaged students than in other schools, suggesting that policies focused on getting the best principals into the most challenging school environments may be effective strategies for lowering perpetually high teacher turnover rates in those schools.
This article examines the socialization rites that newly appointed secondary school vice-principals experienced as they negotiated the passage between teaching and administration.
The role of relationships in mediating immigrant newcomers’ academic engagement and performance is examined using a mixed-methods approach.
In this article, we determine whether the greater presence of Latinos on school boards in California is related to greater representation of coethnics among educational administrators and teachers. We then examine if there is any relationship between greater representation in the educational bureaucracy, and more favorable educational outcomes for Latino students.
This article examines school-based professional inquiry communities known as Critical Friends Groups, analyzing how four design features—their diverse menu of activities, their decentralized structure, their interdisciplinary membership, and their reliance on structured conversation tools called “protocols”—influence the capacity of these groups to pursue whole-school reform and instructional improvement.
Educational leaders have always had “data” of some kind available to them when making decisions. Gathering whatever information they could readily access, and drawing on accumulated experience, intuition, and political acumen, leaders have pursued what they viewed as the wisest courses of action. However, in many cases, the data drawn into the decision-making process was unsystematically gathered, incomplete, or insufficiently nuanced to carry the weight of important decisions.
One of the prominent ways in which educational leaders shape school conditions and teaching practices is through their beliefs and actions regarding teacher learning. Of course, leaders must still attend to myriad important matters, such as selection, assignment, and retention of teachers; utilization of financial and other material resources; and cultivation of school-level leadership and school-family-community relations. But the shift to a greater emphasis on the instructional role of leaders should be paramount. In this chapter, I will address school- and district-level leadership for teacher workforce development through improving teacher learning and capacity.
This article examines the centrist leader perspective of the ISLLC standards and argues that the centrist view undermines the potential for collaborative leadership in schools.
Major cities in the United States, unhappy with persistent achievement
gaps between students of different races and socioeconomic
backgrounds, now search for highly effective medicine men who will
upgrade urban school productivity. These efforts stand in stark contrast
to the first two hundred years of the Republic, when villages
relied on local ministers, elders, or farmers with extra time in the winter
to visit the schools, many of which operated for only a few months
of the year.
This case study describes how one urban elementary school in a high-reform district and state has been able to develop strong connections with community businesses and organizations as part of its program of school, family, and community partnerships. The case study identifies four factors that allowed the school to build successful bridges to its community. These factors are: a) the school's commitment to learning; b) the principal's support and vision for community involvement; c) the school's receptivity and openness to community involvement; and d) the school's willingness to engage in two-way communication with potential community partners about their level and kind of involvement.
Buffeted during the past 20 years by successive waves of educational
reform, educational administration is more aware today than at
any time in the field’s history of the complexities and challenges of
public education, and of the importance of effective educational leadership
to the enduring good health of that institution (Murphy & Louis,
This chapter seeks to map the contextual terrain facing contemporary educational leaders, noting six key interrelated features of the ever-shifting landscape: the political, the economic, the financial, the accountability, the demographic,
and the staffing terrain.
This chapter consists of two main sections. The first section
reviews what we know about the challenges facing leaders in highly
accountable contexts and the nature of productive responses on their part. This review encompasses both theoretical and empirical literatures,
and most of it is specifically focused on school-level leadership.
While little evidence has been reported about district-level leadership
in accountability-oriented contexts, such leadership appears to be central
to success. The second main section of the chapter reports a case
study of an exemplary district’s efforts to make the most of large-scale
reform initiated in the state of Illinois.
I begin by reviewing the methods traditionally used to define the profession and
its work. I suggest that these methods will not prove successful in
reculturing school leadership and argue for an alternative method to
locate an appropriate portal to the future. In so doing, I retrace the
steps that led to a new perspective, one that is based on the powerful
unifying concepts of social justice, democratic community, and school
improvement. Second, using this alternative way of framing the profession, I present
one framework for recasting the concept of leadership.
Our goal in this paper is not to undertake an exhaustive review of the literature on school improvement, but rather to frame or perhaps reframe this work. Specifically, we stand back from scholarship that falls under the school improvement rubric and develop a conceptual scaffold for thinking about this line of research and its relation to teaching and learning in schools.
What would it mean for democratic community to be the center for educational leadership in schools, and how would this choice re-culture the profession?
Researchers and leaders for social justice,
then, seek to define the theories and practices of leadership that are
vital to creating greater freedom, opportunity, and justice for all citizens—citizens
who, through public education, are better able to participate
in and sustain a free, civil, multicultural, and democratic society.
We begin with a brief historical review describing the evolution of teacher leadership
since the early 1900s. Then we examine teacher research as a form of
teacher leadership. We explore several models of distributive school
leadership. Finally we consider self-managed teams as means of teacher
leadership and substitutes for administrative leadership.
This chapter begins with an identification of how work roles have
changed, and are changing, in the 21st century. This change is represented
primarily by greater complexity in how work is performed. In
light of this change, the remainder of the chapter focuses on the internal
and external complexities that contribute to reshaping the principal’s
In this chapter, we seek answers by examining the discourse of the superintendency to try to determine what has shaped the role previously and what is likely to shape it in the future.
The chapter begins by examining the natural tensions that exist among groups, both lay and professional, that have different local, state, and national perspectives and responsibilities. It then explores the potential of lay volunteers in altering
school culture for the better, and the role of laypeople in formally
defined roles on school boards and advisory councils. The chapter concludes
with a proposal for repositioning lay leadership to better meet
the needs of our increasingly diverse public.
The organizing framework for this chapter is school improvement,
democratic and collaborative community, and social justice and how
educational leadership preparation programs can meet these collective
challenges. Specifically, the authors discuss the needed content and
instructional focus of preparation programs, as well as various preparation
program design elements, such as program structure, field experiences,
and faculty and students.
This chapter discusses the professional development of principals
as it exists and as it might be. We begin by examining the problems
and paradoxes traditionally associated with the professional development
of principals. Next, we propose a new conceptual framework to
enhance the continuous learning of school leaders.