Our goal in this chapter is to suggest a strategy for exploring the
issues surrounding the preparation of teachers to integrate technology
effectively in classrooms to support learning. We do so in the context
of our What Works and Why (WWW) project, a multiyear research
project that is attempting to examine the instructional and learning
experiences of students in eight major teacher preparation programs.
Attempts to integrate ICT into the classroom are influenced by such
things as the availability of the necessary technology infrastructure,
support for teachers, accessible change models, teachers’ practices, curriculum
constraints, assessment practices, education policies, and professional
The purpose of this chapter is to examine the ways in which technology
is transforming practices of assessment and educational decision
How likely is it that most teacher candidates graduate from an institution of higher education and begin their first teaching assignment entering a classroom that is replete with the latest technology tools and digital resources and provided the necessary educational technology mentoring and support they need to master their use of these tools to enhance content and pedagogy?
In this chapter, I first explore five types of digital difference that impact teaching and learning, which I call school access, home access, school use, gender gap, and generation gap, and then discuss strategies that teachers and schools can use to help overcome these multiple divides.
This chapter will offer a research-based discussion on why it is
critical for teacher educators and pre-service and practicing teachers to
have the skills and knowledge to engage diversity, multicultural, and
social justice activities using technology, and how a web portal designed
with this in mind has managed to make a difference.
Teaching and learning in out-of-school contexts has a long history
of successfully adapting pedagogy to local and current needs of student participants. The innovative uses of technology, the flexible social organization, and the everyday relevance of out-of-school activities make these learning contexts ideal for innovation.
Questions of teacher authority, “coverage” of material, and the isolation of school activities from learning that takes place in other contexts (and vice versa) are all impediments to realizing the transformative potential presented by new learning technologies. The essays in this collection challenge us because they represent the problem as a systemic one: schools, higher education and professional development programs, national policy, all reinforce in each other a resistance to change. Each feels constrained by the actions of the others. No one knows where to start.
Thoughtful uses of technology require the development of a complex, situated form of knowledge.
This study reports on four clusters of conflicts experienced by secondary English teachers that contributed to their ambivalence about technology in English instruction in the context of a schoolwide laptop technology initiative.
In spite of the increased popularity and presence of online learning opportunities, however, many researchers and practitioners are decrying the lack of a research-validated framework to guide their design. Other researchers and practitioners point out that what works in effective traditional learning environments may or may not work in online environments. These concerns are addressed in this article through a review of relevant research and the presentation of a learner-centered framework.
This article explores some of the common metaphors used to illuminate the Web and its application to distance education. Using the work of Lakoff and Johnson (1980) as a foundation for understanding and categorizing metaphors, the advantages and disadvantages for our future of such metaphors as the "Web,""Information Highway,""virtual,""surfing,""information as education," and "distance education" are evaluated.
This article reports on an evaluation of a virtual schooling innovation in an Australian context. The purpose of the study was to examine the organisational, pedagogical, and technological efficacy of the innovation.
In this paper, we describe the transition of a face-to-face jigsaw role-play exercise to a primarily asynchronous graduate-level online course in education. Beyond the community building aspects of the exercise, our goals were to promote the application of course theory to real life situations; promote the construction of knowledge through peer interaction; address a general, common problem from diverse problem-solving perspectives; and negotiate issues in consensual and confrontational modes. We conclude with reflections, lessons learned, and future plans.
In developing a bilingual/ESL endorsement program, teacher educators at Brigham Young University have devised a distance education model founded on sociocultural pedagogy. This model supports the delivery of high quality professional development to collaborative teams of teachers at local school sites.
This study uses Gidden’s (1991) concepts of time-space separation and disembedding to identify how teachers and students in a virtual classroom taught by one of the authors constructed social relations. Using discourse analytic methods, the study illuminates the discursive processes through which the teacher and students re-articulated conventional classroom discourse to create hybrid, student-controlled/teacher-centered spaces. The study poses several fundamental questions about our assumptions about teaching and student-centered classrooms.
Plants, Pathogens, and People is a website intended to promote agricultural awareness. The use of the site in large-enrollment classes for five years provides one of the longest-lived and most thoroughly-documented cases of web-enhanced instruction. We have collected both qualitative and quantitative data on student perceptions of the site, their learning, and the relation of the web site to the course as a whole.
Relying on data from an in-depth study of 15 community colleges, this article explores online education through the lens of institutional theory. This theoretical perspective highlights the colleges’ environmental contexts and offers a critical examination of the ways that the institutional contexts have structured the colleges’ approaches to online education. At the core of this analysis is the contention that community colleges are interpreting and responding to a set of taken-for-granted ideas about online education. These ideas have taken on the status of myth and have played a powerful role in guiding and legitimating colleges’ online activity. This analysis provides a research-based foundation for understanding online activity at the community college level and for carefully addressing the challenges associated with its adoption.
This study explores how adults learn from asynchronous written dialogue through the lens of psychological type preferences.
This paper describes the need for new and adapted evaluation methods that are sensitive to the affordances of the technology in e-learning environments. The paper discusses specifics of e-learning and explores evaluation methodology as it applies to technology.
This article reports findings of a meta-analytical study of research on distance education. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the effectiveness of distance education. The results show that although the aggregated data of available studies show no significant difference in outcomes between distance education and face-to-face education as previous research reviews suggest, there is remarkable difference across the studies. Further examination of the difference reveals that distance education programs, just like traditional education programs, vary a great deal in their outcomes, and the outcome of distance education is associated with a number of pedagogical and technological factors. This study led to some important data-driven suggestions for and about distance education.
In this essay, I take stock of the developments shaping distance learning and consider the implications for educational researchers and for the future of education. I proceed in four stages. First, I consider the constellation of forces leading to the development of distance education and the emerging shape of this part of the education sector. Second, I review the development of distance learning to date, a path of development based largely on the extension of and borrowing from existing educational arrangements and patterns in face-to-face education. Third, I explore developments at the leading edge of contemporary distance learning that depart in some more substantial way from patterns characteristic of face-to-face education. Fourth, I consider the implications for educational researchers as well as those for policy makers and educators.
This chapter offers a brief history of the field along with an attempt to define media literacy and offer a rationale for its inclusion in the American public school curriculum. Part I of the yearbook, on the whole, deals with why media literacy can make a difference in American schools. Part II, on the whole, deals with the implementation of media literacy, in and outside the public schools, and the problems facing those who aim to implement it. Media literacy is not without its opponents and its issues. Still, despite differences in theory, focus, and experiences, the contributors to this volume demonstrate their belief in the power of media literacy to transform curriculum, teaching, and even society.
Much has been written about the power of media to influence
the public through instruments of advertising and a variety of venues (Considine & Haley, 1999; Cortés, 2000; Kilbourne, 1999). In this chapter, I have chosen to use a singular media focus—news—to support the critical importance of teaching media literacy skills to students. I offer analyses of, in particular, news reports about the United Nations World Conference Against Racism (UN WCAR) in 2001 and media representations of terrorism and Muslims since September 2001, to underscore the need for critical thinking skills and media education.
To begin to unravel the challenges and dilemmas that these information technologies and media thrust upon parents, teachers, and schools, I present in this chapter arguments to support a school curriculum that might forge a life of justice as well as develop a rational, analytical, and critical understanding of media texts that students use in classrooms and in out-of-school contexts. First, I begin by laying out the rationale for why media literacy matters in schools. Second, I propose that teachers consider teaching critical media literacy as a process of curriculum inquiry or critical pedagogy that permeates the entire school curriculum to address the new languages of the media that have become the lived experience of many young people. Third, I outline examples of established criteria for questioning media texts or what I call analytical frameworks for critical media literacy education, and I offer examples of classroom activities based on these frameworks.
The mass media teach whether or not mediamakers intend to or realize it. And users learn from the media whether or not they try or are even aware of it. This means all of the media, including newspapers, magazines, movies, television, radio, and the new cyberspace media. Such media serve as informal yet omnipresent nonschool textbooks.
This chapter reviews ongoing educational initiatives in media literacy documented in the emerging body of case study and practitioner literature and identifies those (few) empirical studies that have measured the effects of media literacy instruction on students’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, with particular focus on health education, social studies, English language arts, communication arts, and the fine and performing arts. These subject areas have been identified as having the most frequent reference to media literacy in state curriculum documents (Kubey & Baker, 1999). From this, recommendations are presented that may help scholars and practitioners to develop this emerging field by exploring questions deserving of further research.
This chapter will allow us to address questions centered on the integration of new telecommunications technology in the classroom by responding to concerns over Internet access and content through media literacy initiatives. While much research about online computer technology focuses on the communication end-goal of accessing the “Information Superhighway,” we will explore the means through which technological access is deployed, essentially asking the questions: what does it means to be literate in the information age, how can information literacy be initiated, and how can the learning process be transformed? Ultimately, the main objective of this chapter is to enable educators to develop curricula that encourage students to judge the validity and worth of Internet content as they strive to become critically autonomous in a technological world.
This chapter will explore the shadow curriculum and its connection to media literacy, first summarizing the kinds of marketing in schools that have become commonplace, including exclusive sales agreements between school districts and businesses, advertisements posted in schools and buses, and advertising forced on students and teachers through mandated television viewing. It will then move to a more in-depth examination of the shadow curriculum as it affects teachers’ decision making regarding curriculum, when such decision making is directly affected by the marketing of curriculum packages to teachers and administrators in public schools.