To teach for instrumental and innovative growth for both student and teacher is not simply a technical challenge. It is a moral task, requiring intimacy in the service of developing autonomy. It involves moral sensitivity and moral perception in prompting and framing responsible pedagogical action. It is an emotionally fraught enterprise, one that runs headlong into the human resistance to development and growth (Bion, 1994). What follows is an uncovering of this pedagogical responsibility. As we shall show, the way in to the moral dimensions of a teacher’s work is the same path that leads to academic effectiveness. Taking the moral seriously is not a diversion from the preparation and development of effective teachers, nor is it an added consideration; it is central to the very possibility of responsive and responsible education.
The purpose of this chapter is to understand the spiritual dimensions of teaching by elucidating the cardinal and forgotten virtue of reverence. Reverence has a power beyond a typical understanding of it as something religious. Reverence involves a sense of wonder and awe for something or someone that meets at least one of the following conditions: (1) something we cannot control; (2) something we cannot create; (3) something we cannot fully understand; (4) something transcendent, even supernatural The chapter shows reverence in a wider context that does not diminish its spiritual connotations, but rather shows its importance and relevance to teaching in today’s classrooms.
This article provides nationally representative information about the prevalence of late teacher hiring and examines the association between the timing of teacher hires and teacher qualifications.
This article examines how the context of work affects teachers’ job satisfaction, their decisions to remain in their school, and student achievement. The authors found that teachers are more satisfied and plan to stay longer in schools that have a positive work environment, and that students in these schools achieve greater academic growth. Although a wide range of working conditions matter to teachers, social conditions including the school culture, the principal’s leadership, and relationships among colleagues are most important.
This article presents an investigation of the degree to which teachers’ instructional support and emotional warmth contributed to reading achievement for a sample of predominantly at-risk students in upper elementary grades. Cross-level interactions indicate that emotional warmth was particularly salient for English language learners in dual language immersion, whereas instructional support moderated the relationship between developmental bilingual education and reading achievement.
This article demonstrates how the use of conceptual change theory as commonly applied to learning in science classrooms is an appropriate and valuable framework for understanding how teachers change their ideas about the pedagogical implications of student diversity.
This article explores the teaching challenges articulated by beginning mathematics teachers and argues that induction programs need to move from a focus on supporting new teachers who are flailing to a focus on supporting new teachers in addressing the subject-specific challenges of learning to teach.
This article draws on philosophical and empirical inquiries into the nature of practice, practical reasoning, and scholarship to argue that, given the goal of improving teacher education practice, scholarship about the work is not sufficient. Rather, we also must cultivate a form of scholarship that models and makes visible the interplay of reasoning and action that underlies skilled practice—what the author calls “scholarship in practice.”
A conceptual framework for understanding and supporting the development of an inquiry stance in collaborative teacher inquiry groups is presented.
The study examined change in teachers’ knowledge and practices while participating in a 5-year teacher professional development intervention that was designed to improve science instruction while supporting literacy development of English language learning students from Grades 3–5 in the context of accountability policy in science. The results from the questionnaire (what teachers reported) and classroom observations (what teachers were observed doing) indicated some improvements in teachers’ knowledge and practices in teaching science to ELL students over the intervention.
This article discusses three challenges associated with the study of teaching quality: striking a balance between complexity and simplicity in the portrayal of teaching, addressing the potential conditional nature of what constitutes quality teaching, and appreciating the multiple perspectives by which quality teaching might be judged. We describe our own attempts to address these challenges in a longitudinal study of reading and mathematics instruction in fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms in moderate- to high-poverty schools, provide a mixed-methods analysis to demonstrate the conditional nature of quality in teaching, report our results, and discuss implications for future studies of teaching.
This research identifies strategies that principals in high-, middle- and low-financial resource Catholic, independent, and public schools use to foster school climates that promote teacher learning and development.
The increasing number of districts implementing mentoring and induction programs suggests that policymakers are aware of the need to increase the support available to new teachers. The argument underlying many of these programs is based, at least partly, on assumptions about beginning teachers’ emotional responses to their work. While considerable research has studied the effects of induction programs, this article aims to address how beginning teachers’ affective experiences seem to impact their career plans.
This article explores the origins of the Project Method by reconstructing William H. Kilpatrick’s celebrated paper of 1918.
In this introduction to a special section on teaching practice, Pam Grossman introduces the ideas from the original study on teaching practice that inspired the work in teacher education described in the articles that follow. She describes the constructs of the representation, decomposition, and approximation of practice and how these help us understand more deeply how professional practice is taught.
Building on Grossman and colleagues’ (2009) framework for analyzing and comparing practices of professional education in terms of representations, decomposition, and approximations to support professional educators’ learning, I argue for the importance of including “conceptions of quality” in the analysis of professional education practice and for tracing novices’ learning opportunities as they unfold over time. I illustrate the argument by comparing approaches to teaching novice teachers to lead discussions in literacy and mathematics.
This article describes the application of the theoretical framework developed by Grossman and her colleagues to the practice of teaching text-based discussion. Specifically, we used the framework to develop a set of modules, resources for teacher educators, that provided representations of text-based discussion, decompositions of the planning for such discussions, and opportunities for teacher candidates to approximate the practice of enacting text-based discussions.
This article introduces a category of teacher attrition that is rooted in the moral and ethical aspects of teaching: principled leavers. The study looks at how 13 former teachers weigh the competing responsibilities of what they consider good teaching in relation to their responsibilities to society, the profession, their institutions, students, and themselves.
This article provides narrative accounts of three secondary teacher candidates with different subject matter specializations moving along identity trajectories in various contexts and with varying difficulties. Understanding and untangling these complexities from a narrative perspective can help teacher educators (TEs) to deliberate about situations in which teacher candidates (TCs) face trouble for reasons that are hard to characterize. This perspective on teacher identity development can also help teacher educators make critical, consequential, and morally weighty judgments as they foster the developing identity trajectories of TCs.
This study examines the influence of teachers’ social network structure on their school’s innovative climate. Findings from an empirical study in 53 Dutch elementary schools suggest that the density of teacher networks is positively related to schools’ innovative climates. Moreover, this relationship could be partially explained by increased shared decision-making across the school.
This article explicates differences in the curricular, instructional, and role expectations experienced by beginning special and general education elementary teachers. It also documents variations in how novices from both groups addressed expectations they encountered.
This study uses high-quality data from Project STAR to examine whether teacher effects predict student achievement in early grades. Teacher effects are defined as teacher-specific residuals adjusted for student background and class size effects. Findings indicate that teacher effects in early grades are useful predictors of mathematics and reading achievement through the third grade.
This article examines the collective use of social, intellectual and material resources by teachers in a school as a framework for understanding how teaching toward ambitious learning goals is consistently maintained across classrooms, time, and varieties of students.
This article examines the strategies that new elementary school teachers develop to stay true to and implement their visions of teaching for social justice in the neoliberal context of urban schools.
“Virtual Constructions: Developing a Teacher Voice in the 21st Century” describes how web 2.0 tools invite preservice teachers to develop a professional identity. Drawing on a study of the use of blogging in a preservice literacy methods class, Casey links research and theories of identity development with 21st-century web 2.0 tools.
From an historical perspective, I compare teachers' reactions to two, long-lasting forms of scripted instruction, the Froebelian kindergarten and Montessori, with two widely used modern scripts, Direct Instruction and Success for All, and focus especially on the role of theory and research, teacher training, and teachers' assessments of effectiveness. I ask how these factors may influence teacher autonomy, fidelity, and resistance and what some implications may be for teacher education today.
This paper presents a summary of generalizable evidence on classroom instruction from nineteen large scale surveys conducted during the past 20 years. The summary identified significant gaps in the evidence, found considerable evidence of low-SES students receiving diminished learning opportunities than more affluent peers, and found repeated evidence of a positive association between six instructional activities and student achievement.
This study conducted pre- and post-surveys of 243 pre-service teachers in a teacher education program to examine the relationship between characteristics of teacher preparation for diversity reported by pre-service teachers and changes in their beliefs about diversity in personal and professional contexts, controlling for their background characteristics. The study found that three characteristics of teacher preparation for diversity: 1) classroom as a learning community, 2) instructor modeling constructivist and culturally-responsive teaching, and 3) field experience for understanding diverse students were significantly associated with positive changes in pre-service teachers’ beliefs about diversity in both personal and professional contexts.
This article examines the processes by which teacher applicants find teaching positions and seeks to understand how teachers come to work in particular schools by developing a theoretical conception of the teacher job search process informed by Bourdieu’s cultural reproduction theory and theories of action. Longitudinal survey and interview data shed light on how teacher applicants’ social and cultural backgrounds influence job search decisions.
This article expands current approaches used to predict teacher quality and calls for future research on teacher quality that incorporates interdisciplinary perspectives, drawing from both psychological and developmental science.