We tested the hypothesis that first-year teachers could take up forms of ambitious pedagogy under the following conditions: 1) that reform-based practices introduced in teacher preparation would be the focus of collaborative inquiry throughout the first year of teaching, 2) that participants use analyses of their students’ work as the basis of critique and change in practice, and 3) that special tools be employed that help participants hypothesize about relationships between instruction and student performance.
Highlighting themes from qualitative case studies of three equity-minded California teachers, this article draws on social learning and activity theories to examine equity-minded teachers’ learning and agency as they responded to accountability-driven language arts reforms in underperforming schools. The article underscores the importance of balanced leadership in an era of high stakes accountability, particularly as it relates to teacher professionalism, learning, and agency.
This essay introduces the issue, Educating Immigrant Students, Refugees, and English Language Learners: A No Borders Perspective
This chapter examines what some teacher educators are already doing and what all teacher educators need to do to prepare general classroom teachers to teach English Language Learners (ELLs). The authors argue that, because of the trend toward inclusion of ELLs in the mainstream class and the role of language in schooling, it is essential that all teachers be prepared to teach ELLs. They then present a conception of linguistically responsive teaching that outlines essential curriculum content for preparing teachers for ELLs, and they highlight elements of program design that can support the preparation of teachers for teaching ELLs.
In this chapter, the authors describe the changes that have taken place in Bilingual Teacher Preparation since 1993 and analyze these changes in light of national and international political and social changes. Their analysis also reveals persistent problems that have yet to be resolved and highlights possible next steps in the field.
Given the increasing likelihood that secondary teachers either are or will be responsible for teaching English learners (ELs) and other language minority students from immigrant backgrounds, this chapter explores recent efforts to conceptualize and act upon what mainstream secondary teachers need to know about language. While widespread agreement exists regarding the importance of “academic language” for ELs in secondary school, there is less agreement about how this language should be conceptualized or how teachers should be prepared to facilitate students’ development of it. The chapter reviews different conceptions of
academic language and argues for the importance of collaborative efforts between content-area and language specialists to promote ELs access to mainstream curriculum and opportunities to expand their linguistic repertoire for increasingly challenging academic endeavors.
Although concerns about the moral dimension of teaching have been raised for decades, little attention has been given to empirical research on moral reasoning in preservice teacher education students. Results of only a few previous studies indicate that moral reasoning may be less advanced in education students than in college students majoring in other disciplines. This study (a) compared preintervention levels of moral reasoning in undergraduate elementary and secondary education students and in undergraduates enrolled in courses in philosophy and English literature; (b) implemented an intervention program (classroom instruction in moral development theory and dilemma discussion via online bulletin boards) to advance moral reasoning in undergraduate elementary and secondary education students; and (c) compared pre-/postintervention moral reasoning scores of the intervention group with those of control groups (elementary and secondary education students and students enrolled in philosophy and English literature courses). Results indicate that direct instruction in moral development theory and dilemma discussion advanced students’ moral reasoning scores. These results are preliminary and provide only partial information. To address this limitation, suggestions for future research are provided.
This paper is a commentary on the special issue on teacher research.
An introduction to the special issue on teacher research.
The purpose of our study was to investigate teacher talk during shared planning time to provide insight into the rationales behind teachers’ decision making that may be related to their underlying beliefs about subject matter, teaching, learning, and their students. This study supported our hypothesis that teachers’ collaborative planning time discourse provides a unique lens for understanding teachers’ beliefs.
This qualitative case study investigates the longitudinal impact of research-based professional development on teacher learning and practice with respect to technology. It also examines the conditions that facilitate or hinder teachers’ capacity for change and the process by which changes in knowledge, practices, and beliefs occur over time.
The major research questions for this study were: (1) What are the level and types of support that building principals provide for the preparation of new teachers? (2) What are the obstacles that may be preventing principals from becoming more involved with teacher preparation? (3) What are the types of activities that make sense for principal involvement with field experience and student teaching? (4) What are suggestions for more meaningful collaboration between schools and teacher/administrator preparation programs?
This article looks across the introduction to the Spencer Foundation’s Research Training Grant (RTG) program and the four case studies assessing program implementation and impact. It discusses the importance of institutional context and history, curricular content, financial resources, and organizational structure. The article concludes with recommendations for the preparation of education researchers in graduate schools of education.
This article uses data from two induction programs to explore the possibilities and pitfalls inherent in the ways mentor teachers incorporated assessment of new teachers into their work. We argue that it is not only possible to combine assistance and assessment, but that it is impossible to separate them and still take new teachers seriously as learners.
An evaluation of a two-year professional development project for mathematics and science teachers in grades 6, 7, and 8 that blended face-to-face workshops with online sessions.
The article analyzes the hidden curriculum of a performance-based teacher education program focusing on ways that faculty and students subverted formal program expectations. The study raises cautions for teacher educators regarding the vigor of performance-based reform.
This qualitative self-study examines the impact of California’s state-mandated revision of teacher education programs on a department’s—and individual faculty members’—approach to teacher education. In spite of claims by respondents that this process had little impact on their approach to teaching, the authors’ analysis of interview and conversational data and documents suggests otherwise. Faculty members’ increased use of technocratic language and terminology reflecting compliance with the new state standards reveals a substantive shift in the ways they think about what they do.
This article examines two social justice teacher education programs and considers teacher educators’ conceptions of social justice and the conditions that appeared to support their joint enterprise.
The study reported in this manuscript documents and examines the interplay between novice teachers’ personal theories, their mathematics education coursework, and their field experiences, with particular attention to activities in the teacher education coursework and field experiences that were especially conducive to helping the novices examine their personal theories and implications for their teaching practices.
The author investigates thinking styles among Turkish student teachers, within the framework of Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and determines if thinking styles of student teachers were differentiated, based on such socialization variables as gender, age, educational level, type of university attended, and field of study followed.
This essay tells the forgotten story of the founding of essentialism. After a brief biographical description of the career of William Bagley, the paper describes in detail how essentialism came to be and why it matters. Then, the work connects the principles of essentialism to contemporary debates in teaching, teacher education, and curriculum.
Accounts of teaching experience punctuate teachers’ talk with one another in a range of workplace contexts: in staffroom or hallway encounters, regularly scheduled meetings of one sort or another, professional development events, and increasingly, activities focused on reviews of school assessment data or samples of student work. Such accounts, whether in the form of passing references or extended narratives, form a pervasive feature of professional interaction. Yet in studies that now span several decades, scholars offer quite mixed assessments of them: what they convey of teachers’ knowledge; what they signify regarding teachers’ beliefs about and dispositions toward students, parents, and colleagues; how they function in shaping or changing the norms of professional discourse; and what they offer as resources for problem solving and innovation.
This study sought to fill a gap in current scholarship which has yet to document how mentor teachers, conceptualized as school-based teacher educators, shape and conduct their own work with student teachers assuming the role of full-year undergraduate interns.
Based on a two-year qualitative study, this article traces the impact of an initiative to create professional learning communities in an urban school district struggling to improve student learning. The author describes ideological conflicts that the initiative generates in the district, particularly regarding the roles and responsibilities of teachers.
This article documents one teacher education program’s efforts to become more coherent, focusing on the ways in which the program tries to become more coherent and the challenges to coherence.
Recent initiatives in preservice teacher education have experimented with cohorts as a way to create supportive ties among peers, mutual intellectual support, and a sense of professionalism.
This article examines the types of recurring problems that can inhibit K–12 mentoring team relationships and intervention strategies to remedy those problems.
As a middle-level education major at Appalachian State University in North Carolina, I was required to take a media literacy class called Media and Young People during the spring semester of 2004. I really had no idea why it was so important for middle school education majors to have an entire semester class on media. I have a teenaged son; he could teach me more about technology than I would ever be able to learn in a lifetime. What was I supposed to teach my middle grade media-technology-using superiors?
Drawing on a study of 15 mentor-novice pairs and adapting organizational theorists’ perspectives, this article reveals how mentors help new teachers reexamine classroom challenges with diverse learners. The authors describe a reframing process and three ways of viewing classroom relations: managerial, human relations, and political.
In this chapter, we intentionally focus on teacher development as a collective and organizational issue. In doing so, we do not wish to imply that a focus on the development of individual teachers or the development of the teaching profession is misplaced. It is not. In addition, by taking an organizational perspective, we do not mean to suggest that individual, organizational, and profession-level perspectives are mutually exclusive. Rather, they should be seen as “mutually constructive” (Horn, personal communication, April 25, 2004). Indeed, it is our hope that by emphasizing collective organizational issues, we will promote future thinking and practice that see teacher development as an interactive system of individual and collective, organizational growth.