This article reports on a randomized controlled experiment examining the impact of a professional development intervention that helps teachers foster students’ historical thinking skills, social and ethical reflection, and civic learning.
This two-year qualitative study used the theoretical constructs of identity contingencies and situational cues to explore the experiences of 22 African American preservice teachers in their teacher licensure testing events. Findings illustrate that race can become a salient dimension of the testing event through (a) interactions with test proctors and site administrators and (b) actions of other test takers that inadvertently cue racial stereotypes and judgments.
This article examines the challenges and promises of complexity theory as a theoretical framework for teacher education research.
In this article, documented accounts of evidence-based program renewal in two teacher education programs are interpreted through the lens of Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT).
The present study explored the value of systematic learning from success as a complementary reflective framework during the practicum phase in teacher preparatory programs. Results indicated greater performance improvement on pedagogical content knowledge measures and on sense of self-efficacy measures when contemplating both problematic and successful experiences than when focusing solely on problematic experiences.
This article analyzes the complexities involved in learning to mentor, by considering how role identity and context influence two mentors as they experience the same professional development program.
To meet the growing demand for teacher learning opportunities, the educational community must create scalable professional development models and study their effectiveness. In this chapter, we argue that design-based implementation research (DBIR) is ideally suited to these efforts, and we use two research projects in which we are currently involved as illustrative cases: CSR Colorado and Implementing the Problem-Solving Cycle (iPSC). The core of CSR Colorado is Collaborative Strategic Reading, an instructional approach designed to enhance reading comprehension in content classes. The focus of iPSC is the Problem-Solving Cycle, a mathematics professional development (PD) program designed to help teachers improve their instruction through closely examining mathematics problems, student thinking, and pedagogical practices. Each project works with a school district to bring a PD model to scale, and both projects are studying the structures and resources needed to build the district’s capacity to sustain the model beyond the duration of the research. The chapter describes each project and discusses the successes and challenges we experienced as we collaborated with the districts and schools to carry them out. By highlighting two very different projects we show how, through different means, it is possible to achieve the same ultimate end of a scaled-up program for improving instructional practices.
In this article, we explore the legacy of the National Writing Project, a thirty-seven-year-old professional development network dedicated to improving the teaching of writing, focusing on the broader orientations developed within that network rather than solely on the transmission of specific teaching strategies.
This is a three-year longitudinal study that links teacher participation in content-focused professional development in mathematics to the use of particular types of instruction, and then examines links between those types of instruction and student achievement.
This chapter examines the gap between the widespread acknowledgment that teaching is a moral endeavor, on the one hand, and the lack of explicit, systematic teacher education research and practice to support preparing teachers for the moral aspects of teaching. After providing an initial description of the aforementioned gap, the chapter surveys the evidence that such a gap exists, then takes up a number of themes found in the literature bordering the gap. It concludes with a discussion of possible paths for teacher education research and practice to move forward.
This article begins with one student teacher’s recounted example of classroom practice and then draws on cultural historical activity theory to consider how teacher educators might have better supported this student teacher, thereby enhancing her own and her students’ learning.
This article provides a conceptual analysis of empirical research that examines the connection between teachers’ education and its outcomes, consequences, or results, and then links this research to the political controversies and the local and larger policy debates that have shaped it. The article identifies six genres that capture the multiple ways researchers from different disciplines and with different intentions have conceptualized and studied these connections.
Entrants to teaching from other careers potentially provide a source of teachers for hard-to-staff rural and urban schools. Based on retrospective, longitudinal data collected through a survey of over 2,000 Teach For America (TFA) teachers who began their careers in schools serving high proportions of low-income and minority children, I found that older TFA entrants to teaching had a lower risk than did younger entrants of leaving low-income schools, the teaching profession, and broader school-based roles. I further found that, among those who left teaching, older entrants’ reasons for doing so differed from those of their younger counterparts.
In this chapter, we develop a theory to explain the effects of mentoring and induction activities on new teachers' commitment, instructional quality, and effectiveness, and we describe how utility functions can express variation in these outcomes. Then we explicate the role of three-level models (i.e., with random effects) in estimating the effects of effort on commitment, instructional quality, and student achievement with teachers nested within subgroups within schools.
This chapter draws from recent qualitative studies of nine mathematics-specific induction programs around the country and abroad. Half of the U.S. programs were created with support from the National Science Foundation to specifically serve mathematics novices; the other programs served beginning teachers of all subjects and grades and included program strategies focused on mathematics-specific needs of their beginning secondary teachers. The chapter explores the mathematics-specific needs of beginning mathematics teachers, the strengths and challenges of programs aimed at addressing such needs, and dimensions to be considered in matching mathematics mentors with mentees and training the mentors. The chapter closes by noting the implications for induction policies.
Mentoring programs for beginning teachers have grown in prominence in school districts nationwide as a strategy for inducting new teachers into the profession and promoting retention. In 2004, the New York City Department of Education invested $36 million in a teacher mentoring program for all first-year teachers to address the dual problems of high teacher attrition and low student achievement. The authors use survey data from first-year teachers in combination with district-level administrative data to investigate the effectiveness of this mentoring program in meeting the needs of beginning teachers.
Based on a study of three well-regarded induction programs, this chapter examines how state and district policies regarding new teacher induction shape the practice of mentors and the learning of beginning teachers. The authors argue that induction policies must help program leaders, district and school administrators, and mentor teachers understand the potential of development-oriented mentoring and the conditions on which it depends.
This chapter points to a new era of teaching and employs current research surrounding new teacher induction and mentoring programs to underline the need for an innovative model of support for novice teachers. Berry and Byrd draw on their experiences building virtual communities of teachers and a virtual mentoring pilot program to examine the prospects for increasing consistency in the effectiveness of new teacher support through online networks.
This chapter examines the implementation and outcomes of state-funded induction programs in Illinois, and finds important contributions to increasing the effectiveness of beginning teachers. However, even when program supports for new teachers are intensive and focus on instruction, a poor school climate and weak leadership can undermine the program. The authors question the current conception of new teacher induction as an isolated program and call for a more comprehensive approach linking teacher induction with whole-school improvement.
It is important that content specialists have induction programs that are tailored to their needs, given that content knowledge is important during instruction. Unfortunately, most content specialists (including science teachers) don't experience content-focused induction programs. In an effort to illuminate the need for this type of induction program, this chapter provides an overview of the programs and research that the author has conducted with beginning secondary teachers.
This study provides a detailed portrait of typical induction support provided to beginning elementary school teachers during the 2005-2006 school year in 17 high-poverty urban school districts around the country.
This chapter provides a review of empirical studies that have evaluated the effects of induction. The chapter's objective is to provide researchers, policy makers, and educators with a reliable and current assessment of what is known and not known about the effectiveness of teacher induction and mentoring programs. A second objective is to identify gaps in the research base and pinpoint relevant questions that have not been addressed and that warrant further research.
This final chapter digests the core chapters of this volume, which draws together some of the most sophisticated thinking on new teacher induction from the last decade. In so doing, this chapter attends to five key understandings about induction programs, including their context, design, implementation, and outcomes. These understandings emerge as highly relevant to those who design induction programs as well as researchers, as they continue to build the knowledge base on teacher induction.
In this article, we examine how international field experiences promote cross-cultural awareness in U.S. American preservice teachers through experiential learning. The findings we present are based on a 6-year study of a short-term study abroad program in Honduras and contribute to the effort to prepare future teachers for culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms beginning at the preservice level.
Student teachers in a teacher credential program featuring teacher inquiry evidenced many indicators of attention to the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students in their inquiry products and processes.
This analytical article focuses a philosophical lens on quality teaching in general, mathematics and reading education, and prominent research paradigms. It then turns the same lens on the High-Quality Teaching (HQT) study, an examination of what teachers do to help fourth- and fifth-grade students succeed in reading and mathematics. Our intent is to demonstrate how such philosophical scrutiny can lead to a fuller understanding of high-quality teaching in its varied manifestations.
Using emerging digital technologies within a teacher education pedagogy emphasizing expanded definitions and modes of literacy can support teacher candidates in understanding, leading, collaboratively critiquing, and improving classroom interactions across diverse contexts. We describe and theorize a program-wide project to implement such a pedagogy in secondary English teacher preparation: Video Based Response and Revision (VBBR).
This article reports the findings of an ethnographic study in which a cohort of Latino/a preservice teachers was followed from the teachers’ recruitment into college, through their undergraduate years and, for most, their eventual transition into the teaching profession. Using critical race theory (CRT) and Latino/a critical race theory (LatCrit) as analytic lenses, various sites within an institution of higher education where students experienced racialized marginalization are identified.
This article assesses the relationship between teachers’ participation in content-focused professional development and state and school policies.
The idea of “currency” is implied in the title, for, as many of our contributors discuss within their chapters, the professional development school (PDS) cannot and will not prevail in its present form without dedicated fiscal backing and sustained commitment
for integrating the PDS effort into new structures.