The purpose of this study was to examine the Response to Intervention (RTI) implementation process in two culturally diverse, urban schools. The authors sought to describe the process of large scale RTI implementation through the lens of Systems Change Theory. The authors report on the relationships among personnel preparation, practitioner assumptions about “non-responsive” culturally/linguistically diverse students, and external state and district pressures on RTI practice. This study of RTI in a naturalistic setting used grounded theory research methods to provide an in-depth description and analysis of challenges and successes experienced by RTI teams and teachers in schools required by state mandate to implement RTI.
This study examined whether the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Discovery Research in K–12 (DR K–12) program has made a unique contribution to the research in the fields of science and mathematics education for English language learners (ELLs). We compared research from ELL science and mathematics projects that were funded by the DR K-12 program with other (non DR K-12-funded) research in these fields in terms of research topics, design, methods, outcomes, and researcher expertise. Findings indicated that the funding and the emphases of the DR K–12 program did influence and shape the research in these fields. In particular, DR K-12 projects were distinct from other non DR K-12-funded research in three areas: (a) their use of mixed methods, especially quantitative methods, and their larger scale; (b) their emphasis on instruction and teacher preparation; and (c) their focus on middle and high school students. These findings suggest that funding programs can shape research agendas by providing deliberate and targeted funding for priority areas. Federal agencies should continue to provide this funding to support much-needed research that is a necessary step to improving the quality of science and mathematics education for ELLs.
This research examines the experiences of 15 undocumented immigrants who graduated from public high schools in New York City and identifies nine types of microaggressions they encountered during their college choice process.
This article examines special education in one Canadian urban public school system, the Toronto system, from 1945 to the present. Prepared with a wide audience of historians and education researchers, policymakers, administrators, teachers, and others in mind, the article explains the many different change factors – as well as the significant continuity – that have been present in the historical development of special education policies. Change factors include school board decisions, parent lobbying, experts’ influence, funding changes, and shifts in the categories of disability that special education has used. Continuity has been present in the form of a longstanding reliance on separate educational settings for exceptional children and the ongoing recurrence of a medical or treatment approach to learning difficulties and disabilities.
The article covers major developments since 1945: system expansion in the 1950s and 1960s; criticism of dead-end special programs in the 1970s; reforms in the 1980s, including Ontario’s Bill 82; cutbacks in the 1990s; and the rise of integration, mainstreaming, and finally, inclusion. Developments in Toronto’s public schools since 1945, in many ways, have been typical of policy development in other jurisdictions, and comparisons are made to policy in other Canadian and American school systems.
When inequality of opportunity is discussed in higher education, it typically pertains to access to college. This article shifts attention to instructional quality and examines whether students from all sociodemographic groups report similar levels of instructional quality and whether that changes as they progress through college.
This article analyzes the way that a teacher community shares stories about students in a racially and socioeconomically diverse elementary school. The narratives that emerge from the teacher community’s discourse reveal these middle-class White women teachers’ intense ambiguity about, and social distance from, their students. Implications for leadership and policy in response to this common occurrence in schools are discussed.
This study examines dimensions of positive strategies for coping with the college environment among students from adverse backgrounds in relation to the different services and support systems students may access. The data analyzed was from a 2012 survey of enrolled college students who were recipients of a scholarship based on the severe adversity they had experienced prior to college and evidence of resilience.
Using a symbolic interactionist theoretical framework, the authors examine eleven persistently disciplined urban middle school students’ experiences with being labeled as “frequent flyers.”
This study explores how urban adolescents in a small, Northeastern city make meaning of available support services and providers and how they make decisions about when and where to access support.
This article investigates the relationship between child migration and educational attainment. Depending on age at migration, it examines whether there is an educational advantage for Mexican-born children who migrate to the United States relative to their non-migrant Mexican peers.
This article examines how first grade Latina/o emergent bilinguals interacted with a literacy curriculum that sought to value their transnational experiences and multilingual repertoires. Through a focus on the Laundromat, one of the transnational local spaces salient in the data, I explore how the children enacted what I refer to as literacies of interdependence—multilingual and multimodal literacy practices that both reflected and enacted their cultural practices of mutuality.
This study examines the effects of socioeconomic, racial, and linguistic segregation on cognitive and noncognitive skills in American high schools.
Three studies explore how feelings of belonging among White students and stigmatized students of color influence their academic choices, goals, and performance.
Introduction to the issue on race on education.
Despite traditional notions of meritocracy, higher education has a long history of exclusionary practices. This chapter explores connections between such practices and racial ideology in the United States, including the recent concept of “post-racialism.”
Critical race theory has emerged as a powerful critique of color-blind ideology but has failed to adequately explore the colonial history and neocolonial legacies within the claims for a Black citizenship. This article argues for an anticolonial analysis of citizenship based on Carter G. Woodson’s Appeal.
This chapter details how slavery, segregation, and racism impacted the educational experiences of African Americans from the colonial era to the present. It argues that America has yet to be a truly post-slavery and post-segregation society, let alone a post-racial society.
This chapter chronicles the experiences of three friends who journey from being students in teacher education to junior faculty in the field. Using critical race theory as an analytical tool, the three friends highlight the ways in which racism exists and is manifested in three different teacher education programs.
Drawing from the theories of racial formation theory and race marking, this chapter explores the durability of racial discourses in school curriculum over time in the United States. The authors’ inquiry focuses on racial discourses located in two sources of curricula knowledge: children’s literature and U.S. history textbooks.
This chapter examines the charter school policy and planning network and how this network is helping to grow urban charter schools and related advocacy organizations across the United States.
In light of the current mainstream contention that the United States has entered a post-racial epoch with the election of the first African American president, this work posits that post-racial rhetoric obfuscates the continued racialized experiences of Black families regardless of class status.
This chapter provides a critique of the post-racial discourse that emerged after the election of President Barack Obama as the first African American president of the United States. Using personal narrative, I extend this critique of the post-racial within the context of a multicultural education graduate program.
Using Howard Winant’s racial dualism theory, this chapter explains how race was discursively operationalized in the recent U.S. Supreme Court higher education antiracial diversity case Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin.
The purpose of this autoethnography was to examine how school district-level administrators respond to investigations and findings of racism in their districts. We examined administrators’ responses to our requests about their districts’ racialized disciplinary data, and their responses to our sharing of these findings. We describe four technical–rational practices through which school district administrators maintain blindness toward racial inequities and thereby allow racism to continue in their districts.
Perceptions of justice, fairness, and order can influence pro-social behavior, psychological well-being, healthy interpersonal relationships, and educational progress and success for students. It is also known that students’ perceptions of school justice can vary by race, ethnicity, and gender. What remains uncertain is how the fastest-growing segment of the United States, students in immigrant families, perceive the school justice, fairness, and order within their school. This study utilizes data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 and incorporates multilevel analysis to examine how students in immigrant families perceive justice, fairness, and order at their school. Findings do suggest that the students’ perceptions of justice, fairness, and order are indeed moderated by immigrant generation, race, ethnicity, and gender. The implications of the evident racial, ethnic, and gender, as well as generational, disparities in students’ perceptions of justice, fairness, and order in the United States school system are discussed more broadly.
This is a historical study of the formation and role of the Vietnamese student organizations at the University of California, Irvine from 1980 to 1990.
This qualitative study explores the relevance of high school messages and curricular placement on the transition of Latino students into a university, particularly as they consider the meaning of the challenges they face in their first year of college.
Using data drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 1998-99, this study reports on differences between language minority (LM) and non-language minority students in their home backgrounds and their teachers’ characteristics in kindergarten, first-, third-, and fifth- grade, generating a comprehensive national picture of the multiple disadvantages that LM students face in schools.
This study examines the effects of metropolitan school district fragmentation―the proliferation of public school districts within a metropolitan area―on the trajectory of racial/ethnic school segregation between 2002 and 2010.
Teachers' perceptions of students' academic ability vary significantly by the race of the student. This study examines how students' test scores and teacher reports of students' social and behavioral skills explain black-white differences in teacher perceptions of students' academic ability. Using teacher fixed-effects models and the ECLS-K data from the fall and spring of kindergarten, this study finds that racial differences in teachers perceptions of students' academic ability are mostly explained by test scores, teacher reports of students' social and behavioral skills, and teachers' perceptions of academic ability from the beginning of the year. Behaving well at the beginning of the school year is especially important for teacher perceptions of black students' academic ability.