The purpose of this autoethnography was to examine how school district-level administrators respond to investigations and findings of racism in their districts. We examined administrators’ responses to our requests about their districts’ racialized disciplinary data, and their responses to our sharing of these findings. We describe four technical–rational practices through which school district administrators maintain blindness toward racial inequities and thereby allow racism to continue in their districts.
Perceptions of justice, fairness, and order can influence pro-social behavior, psychological well-being, healthy interpersonal relationships, and educational progress and success for students. It is also known that students’ perceptions of school justice can vary by race, ethnicity, and gender. What remains uncertain is how the fastest-growing segment of the United States, students in immigrant families, perceive the school justice, fairness, and order within their school. This study utilizes data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 and incorporates multilevel analysis to examine how students in immigrant families perceive justice, fairness, and order at their school. Findings do suggest that the students’ perceptions of justice, fairness, and order are indeed moderated by immigrant generation, race, ethnicity, and gender. The implications of the evident racial, ethnic, and gender, as well as generational, disparities in students’ perceptions of justice, fairness, and order in the United States school system are discussed more broadly.
This is a historical study of the formation and role of the Vietnamese student organizations at the University of California, Irvine from 1980 to 1990.
This qualitative study explores the relevance of high school messages and curricular placement on the transition of Latino students into a university, particularly as they consider the meaning of the challenges they face in their first year of college.
Using data drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort 1998-99, this study reports on differences between language minority (LM) and non-language minority students in their home backgrounds and their teachers’ characteristics in kindergarten, first-, third-, and fifth- grade, generating a comprehensive national picture of the multiple disadvantages that LM students face in schools.
This study examines the effects of metropolitan school district fragmentation―the proliferation of public school districts within a metropolitan area―on the trajectory of racial/ethnic school segregation between 2002 and 2010.
This article explores the extent to which students’ precollege exposure to racial/ethnic difference within schools, neighborhoods, and friendship groups predicts their complex racial attitudes upon entering college.
In this article, I examine the experiences of 22 postsecondary educators facilitating dialogues about racial issues in classroom settings. Findings reveal four main strategies participants employed: using group work and discussions, incorporating an integrated assortment of resources, inviting students to apply racial concepts to their lives, and having learners debrief following each dialogue session.
Drawing on longitudinal interview data collected on 72 Chinese immigrant children and their parents, we examined how immigration reshapes parental involvement in mostly working-class Chinese immigrant families. Our findings include multiple challenges parents face after migration in school involvement, parental feelings of powerlessness, and children’s forced precocious independence.
Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of cultural capital has often been misread to refer only to “high status” or dominant cultural norms and resources. While there have been articulations of nondominant cultural capital this article instead argues that the adjective nondominant is a theoretical contradiction with Marx’s “capital” and focuses on the present pedagogical experiences of marked deviance. Scenes from The Wire are analyzed to demonstrate the rich pedagogical processes that are present in the marked deviant practices of marginalized youth.
This study captures the background characteristics of HBCU leaders in order to lay the groundwork for future studies on HBCU presidents. It also seeks to understand the role these leaders play in grooming and mentoring the next generation of HBCU leaders.
The authors draw from the historical aspects associated with the formation of Freedom Schools during the Civil Rights era and the concept of school as sanctuary to understand the pedagogical and philosophical underpinnings associated with the establishment of Freedom University. The findings demonstrate that Freedom University is a postsecondary space with characteristics resembling a sanctuary school by centering students’ experiences within the curriculum, using Civil Rights history to complicate contemporary anti-immigration sentiments, and enacting transformational resistance by both students and faculty. The authors suggest that, by creating sanctuaries of learning on a postsecondary level, students without documentation are afforded a space to continue their education for the sake of learning but not for a college degree.
After decades of research that repudiates the thesis of Asian Americans as model minorities, the visibility of Asian Americans in higher education continues to reinforce essentialist paradigms about their presumed success. This article presents the most recent educational pipeline for Asian Americans while examining disparities in attainment across race, class, gender, citizenship, and earning power as a method to further policy discussions on education and civil rights.
This paper reviews data from multiple sites to disclose teachers’ practices at the confluence of multiple discourses that collectively construct inclusion in uncertain terms. It suggests that teacher agency for inclusion is situated within the contradictions of everyday schooling practice and offers a framing of inclusion that is grounded in such conditions.
In this qualitative case study, we examined the writing opportunities provided to students in four eighth-grade English classrooms at a full inclusion middle school.
This qualitative case study examines how students understand and identify with histories with which they have a heritage connection when they learn about the histories from multiple, possibly conflicting, sources: their families and the formal public school curriculum.
This article examines the way Cuban teachers address racism in their professional practice, with a specific focus on teacher home visits to address issues of racism with parents and guardians. Using critical race theory and a reconsideration of the ecological systems theory, this article analyzes the relationship between Cuban teachers and the families of students they teach based on in-depth interviews and a survey of Cuban teachers.
In this article the author explores the mathematics and life experiences of 13 Black elementary education pre-service college students, encompassing both their reflections as students of mathematics and as future mathematics teachers of most likely Black and Latino students. Their “voices” suggest that these Black pre-service students generated constructions that include considerations of race and racism as part of their shared African American experience in the United States; that is, a mathematics learning experience and future mathematics-based teaching ideologies structured, in part, by larger negative and unjust race relations existing in US culture, in spite of early at-home mathematics support.
From the perspective of stakeholders in military-connected school districts, this qualitative study examines the educational needs, challenges, and strengths of military-connected students. Existing school- and community-based supports as well as recommendations for future research on military-connected schools and students are identified.
This article provides an analysis of movies at the intersection of race, gender, and dis/ability with particular attention to how Black, dis/abled males are represented through master narratives about Black males that interpenetrate with dis/ability tropes. At the focus of this analysis are movies such as Unbreakable, Source Code, Avatar, and Hancock. The framework of critical race studies in education (CRSE), critical race theory in particular (CRT), with critical dis/ability studies (CDS) helps to flesh out how commonly recycled tropes are used to construct intersectional narrative threats about black males around the themes of dysfunction, marginalization, and miscegenation. These narratives are discussed through the added metaphors of space and race, and presence in absence. Implications for the education of Black males and special education are discussed and recommendations for educators and educational researchers are provided.
We use the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, a nationally representative sample of high school sophomores, to examine patterns of social engagement in friendships and extracurricular activities among racial/ethnic minorities and immigrant adolescents. Results show that racial/ethnic minority adolescents, as well as first- and second-generation adolescents, are less engaged in friendships than their third-generation White counterparts, and there is no clear pattern of advantage or disadvantage in extracurricular activity participation.
This article examines the social production of racial identity for four White men and explores how their racial identities were dependent on relations with real and imagined racial others.
The articles in this special issue examine the increasingly complex relationship between segregation, desegregation, and integration in a sociopolitical environment vastly different from that of the initial days of desegregation. These issues are examined from historical and political perspectives, contextualizing the complexities of segregation, desegregation, and integration in the twenty-first century. The articles challenge school leaders to critically engage in pioneering processes within their communities that work to create, maintain, and sustain diverse schooling environments.
Using a narrative research methodology, this study investigated the formal and informal ways that racism influences the practice of educational leadership in an urban high school. The study revealed that many decisions that should be based on professional educational information and judgment are instead influenced by racist and discriminatory assumptions. The article focuses on the inequitable leadership processes related to various human and instructional resources in the school.
This article explores the diversity policies and politics of two countywide school districts in the South experiencing enclave growth at a time of legal and political ambiguity: Jefferson County Public Schools and the Wake County Public Schools System. Both districts’ voluntary desegregation efforts have been highly publicized as they are increasingly being affected by changing demographics and local politics. In this article we seek to describe how demographic change influences public support for and implementation of the districts’ diversity policies. We also examine how political debates around diversity have shifted in response to the changing legal context and enclave formation in both districts.
This article describes the events surrounding the Kelly v. Mason (1968) case, which led to Las Vegas’ mandatory school desegregation plan and the African American community’s request in 1992 to abandon the mandatory busing plan for a return to neighborhood schools. Its secondary aim is to disrupt a tradition of advocacy for school integration absent the voices, experiences, and in many cases forewarnings of Black community stakeholders who questioned whether school desegregation via forced busing would actually result in equal education and genuine racial integration.
If structured equitably racially diverse schools can offer all students better opportunities, however, the benefits of racial diversity are undermined if subsequent policies, systems, and practices are not in place to ensure that all students are equitably given opportunities to learn. This article further problematizes the concept of “diversity” by exploring how one racially mixed high school’s vision for diversity was mismatched with the reality of apparent inequities within the school. Students of color who transferred to the high school for better opportunities were ultimately resegregated to racially isolating structures. The study’s findings align with scholars who call for further critique of what it means to be truly diverse or integrated, and suggest currently policies designed to achieve diverse schooling fail to chisel at mechanisms that inevitably sustain the inequitable racial and social order within schools.
This article explores the dilemmas created by between-district segregation and school district fragmentation in terms of efforts to diversify schools. We first review existing research to examine what is known empirically about between-district segregation, and the role of school district fragmentation as a contributing factor. We then examine policy efforts to address problems caused by fragmentation in other (non-educational) domains, and we consider whether such efforts could serve as a potential solution to school district fragmentation. We conclude with educational policy lessons based upon our examination of these prior efforts both within and outside of education to inform the current policy debate around school segregation.
On January 29, 2008 the Toronto District School Board (TDSB) approved the development of an Africentric school under their Alternative School policy. Calls for Black-focused schools also arose in 2008 in London in response to the rise in gang violence and the disengagement of African Caribbean youth. This comparative paper analyzes the historical development of Black-focused education in Toronto and London from 1968 - 2008 as a response by Black parents and community activists to the historic underachievement of African Caribbean students (particularly males) in the public schools of both cities. I situate the development of Black-focused education in each city within the larger social, political, and national policy contexts, trace critical incidents that fueled the development of race-based school district policy, and explore how the “politics of place” has influenced the trajectory of Black-focused education in each city. The historiography of Black education has largely focused on the US educational system. Research on educational reform efforts such as Afrocentric schooling has also reflected this US-centric focus. This comparative study reconceptualizes Black-focused schooling within the context of the African Diaspora by examining how advocacy for an African-centered curriculum and ideology was adapted to local conditions in Canada and Britain.
We conclude this special issue reflecting back on the history of desegregation and questioning how we move forward in trying to achieve racially integrated school settings. The epilogue includes a conversation with Dr. Michael A. Middleton, Deputy Chancellor of the University of Missouri-Columbia. Dr. Middleton is an expert in civil rights and employment discrimination and served as the lead counsel for plaintiffs in the St. Louis metropolitan school desegregation litigation. Dr. Middleton discusses the history, current status, and future of school desegregation.