The article presents a longitudinal study of an urban charter middle school to examine the impact testing pressures can have on the education of students with disabilities and English language learners, and how this may lead to a narrowing of the content they are taught.
This chapter provides a general overview of educational policy and practice as it relates to special education student populations.
In this chapter the authors critically examine two federal polices—the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and No Child Left Behind—both of which were designed to increase equity, opportunity, and accountability for students with disabilities. By focusing on two separately conducted ethnographic studies in urban schools, the chapter demonstrates how and why these policies have failed to adequately ensure that students of color with disabilities receive the educational opportunities the policies were intended to provide.
The purpose of this chapter is to discuss student learning objectives (SLOs) as components of high-stakes teacher evaluation systems, within the context of learners with special needs.
This paper critically examines one particular resultant phenomenon of the Standards-Based Reform (SBR) movement—the emergence of a new track of self-contained classes called Prioritized Curriculum classes, designed to provide students with disabilities access to standards-based general education curriculum, but in a segregated class. In this chapter we document the emergence of such courses and critically analyze the rationales and policy loopholes that have led to their creation.
Connecticut experienced two major changes in testing policy for children with disabilities that played a major role in conclusions about educational progress in the state. The responses to these changes in testing policy make Connecticut an illuminating case regarding the problem of high-stakes testing and changes in policies for students with disabilities in a state characterized by deep racial and economic inequity.
This chapter reports on a project to better understand how educators grapple with externally imposed pressures as they work to change the organizational structure of their schools to be able to implement greater inclusion of their students served by special education. The chapter focuses on what inclusive reform involved, the resulting changes, and the role distributed leadership played in moving toward more inclusive service in the age of high stakes accountability.
To date, the Atlanta Public Schools cheating scandal from 2009–2011 is the largest of its kind in the United States. This chapter draws from the lessons learned from the scandal with particular attention paid to the unintended consequences of high-stakes accountability practices, especially for students with disabilities. Broader implications for policy, practice, and future research related to the education of students with disabilities in high-stakes test driven classrooms are discussed.
Drawing on three years of critical multi-sited ethnographic research, this article examines the ways of knowing of Mexican-origin transnational families whose primary residence was the Washington, DC area. The author examines the educational implications of their “chained knowing,” or being chained in their knowing to the Mexico–U.S. border and being chained as extended families and communities who cross and intersect with that border.
This study examines determinants of Black male students’ intent to transfer from a community college to a 4-year university. Using multinomial, multilevel modeling, this study finds that students whose primary goal was to transfer were more likely to be younger, have earned more credits, be non-first-generation, be full-time enrollees, have taken developmental education courses, and be engaged in active and collaborative learning.
This study extends the "college-going culture" literature by providing a bilevel examination of organizational dimensions of efforts at an urban public charter school to promote Latina/o students' college-going.
This study employs a relational teaching framework to examine the learning relationships among teachers and a full cohort of eighth-grade Black boys (N = 27) at a single-sex middle school for boys of color in New York City. In-depth interviews from a critical ethnography conducted at the school-site (during the 2011–2012 academic year) culled boys’ narratives of their teacher-student relationships, in order to illustrate how specific relational teaching strategies supported Black boys’ engagement and learning.
This article outlines the imperative for strengths-based research to counter deficit perceptions and perspectives of Black males in contemporary discussions of their school achievement in the United States. The importance of young Black men and boys' voice in shaping research agendas, practice, and public policy is argued followed by a brief overview of the papers featured in the special issue “Erasing the Deficits: ‘My Brother’s Keeper’ and Contemporary Perspectives on Black Male School Achievement.”
This article examines the ways in which African American male students navigate racial microaggressions while attending a culturally diverse high school.
This study examines the relationships between teacher sorting practices, course enrollment patterns, extracurricular activities, and student outcomes for high-achieving Black males in high school.
This article is about Black undergraduate men’s academic adjustment experiences in the first college year. It is based on a study of 219 achievers at 42 colleges and universities across 20 states in the United States.
This brief presents the most significant recommendations based on a review of key findings from research presented in this special issue. The authors offer what they believe to be the most important considerations of what works for improving Black male school achievement in the domains of research, practice, and policy.
This is the epilogue to the special issue. The authors, two White House officials and policy experts, describe how negative narratives surrounding Black men and the misuse of data can manifest as barriers to high quality learning environments or workforce development opportunities.
The purpose of this study is to examine the Response to Intervention (RTI) implementation process in two culturally diverse, urban schools. The authors describe the process of large scale RTI implementation through the lens of Systems Change Theory.
This study examined whether the National Science Foundation’s Discovery Research in K–12 program has made a unique contribution to the research in the fields of science and mathematics education for English language learners (ELLs). We compared research from ELL science and mathematics projects that were funded by the program with research in these fields in terms of research topics, design, methods, outcomes, and researcher expertise.
This research examines the experiences of 15 undocumented immigrants who graduated from public high schools in New York City and identifies nine types of microaggressions they encountered during their college choice process.
This article examines special education in one Canadian urban public school system, the Toronto system, from 1945 to the present. Prepared with a wide audience of historians and education researchers, policymakers, administrators, teachers, and others in mind, the article explains the many different change factors – as well as the significant continuity – that have been present in the historical development of special education policies.
When inequality of opportunity is discussed in higher education, it typically pertains to access to college. This article shifts attention to instructional quality and examines whether students from all sociodemographic groups report similar levels of instructional quality and whether that changes as they progress through college.
This article analyzes the way that a teacher community shares stories about students in a racially and socioeconomically diverse elementary school. The narratives that emerge from the teacher community’s discourse reveal these middle-class White women teachers’ intense ambiguity about, and social distance from, their students. Implications for leadership and policy in response to this common occurrence in schools are discussed.
This article investigates the relationship between child migration and educational attainment. Depending on age at migration, it examines whether there is an educational advantage for Mexican-born children who migrate to the United States relative to their non-migrant Mexican peers.
This article examines how first grade Latina/o emergent bilinguals interacted with a literacy curriculum that sought to value their transnational experiences and multilingual repertoires. Through a focus on the Laundromat, one of the transnational local spaces salient in the data, I explore how the children enacted what I refer to as literacies of interdependence—multilingual and multimodal literacy practices that both reflected and enacted their cultural practices of mutuality.
This study examines dimensions of positive strategies for coping with the college environment among students from adverse backgrounds in relation to the different services and support systems students may access. The data analyzed was from a 2012 survey of enrolled college students who were recipients of a scholarship based on the severe adversity they had experienced prior to college and evidence of resilience.
Using a symbolic interactionist theoretical framework, the authors examine eleven persistently disciplined urban middle school students’ experiences with being labeled as “frequent flyers.”
This study explores how urban adolescents in a small, Northeastern city make meaning of available support services and providers and how they make decisions about when and where to access support.