After decades of research that repudiates the thesis of Asian Americans as model minorities, the visibility of Asian Americans in higher education continues to reinforce essentialist paradigms about their presumed success. This article presents the most recent educational pipeline for Asian Americans while examining disparities in attainment across race, class, gender, citizenship, and earning power as a method to further policy discussions on education and civil rights.
From the perspective of stakeholders in military-connected school districts, this qualitative study examines the educational needs, challenges, and strengths of military-connected students. Existing school- and community-based supports as well as recommendations for future research on military-connected schools and students are identified.
This article provides an analysis of movies at the intersection of race, gender, and dis/ability with particular attention to how Black, dis/abled males are represented through master narratives about Black males that interpenetrate with dis/ability tropes. At the focus of this analysis are movies such as Unbreakable, Source Code, Avatar, and Hancock. The framework of critical race studies in education (CRSE), critical race theory in particular (CRT), with critical dis/ability studies (CDS) helps to flesh out how commonly recycled tropes are used to construct intersectional narrative threats about black males around the themes of dysfunction, marginalization, and miscegenation. These narratives are discussed through the added metaphors of space and race, and presence in absence. Implications for the education of Black males and special education are discussed and recommendations for educators and educational researchers are provided.
We use the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, a nationally representative sample of high school sophomores, to examine patterns of social engagement in friendships and extracurricular activities among racial/ethnic minorities and immigrant adolescents. Results show that racial/ethnic minority adolescents, as well as first- and second-generation adolescents, are less engaged in friendships than their third-generation White counterparts, and there is no clear pattern of advantage or disadvantage in extracurricular activity participation.
This article examines the social production of racial identity for four White men and explores how their racial identities were dependent on relations with real and imagined racial others.
The articles in this special issue examine the increasingly complex relationship between segregation, desegregation, and integration in a sociopolitical environment vastly different from that of the initial days of desegregation. These issues are examined from historical and political perspectives, contextualizing the complexities of segregation, desegregation, and integration in the twenty-first century. The articles challenge school leaders to critically engage in pioneering processes within their communities that work to create, maintain, and sustain diverse schooling environments.
Using a narrative research methodology, this study investigated the formal and informal ways that racism influences the practice of educational leadership in an urban high school. The study revealed that many decisions that should be based on professional educational information and judgment are instead influenced by racist and discriminatory assumptions. The article focuses on the inequitable leadership processes related to various human and instructional resources in the school.
This article explores the diversity policies and politics of two countywide school districts in the South experiencing enclave growth at a time of legal and political ambiguity: Jefferson County Public Schools and the Wake County Public Schools System. Both districts’ voluntary desegregation efforts have been highly publicized as they are increasingly being affected by changing demographics and local politics. In this article we seek to describe how demographic change influences public support for and implementation of the districts’ diversity policies. We also examine how political debates around diversity have shifted in response to the changing legal context and enclave formation in both districts.
This article describes the events surrounding the Kelly v. Mason (1968) case, which led to Las Vegas’ mandatory school desegregation plan and the African American community’s request in 1992 to abandon the mandatory busing plan for a return to neighborhood schools. Its secondary aim is to disrupt a tradition of advocacy for school integration absent the voices, experiences, and in many cases forewarnings of Black community stakeholders who questioned whether school desegregation via forced busing would actually result in equal education and genuine racial integration.
If structured equitably racially diverse schools can offer all students better opportunities, however, the benefits of racial diversity are undermined if subsequent policies, systems, and practices are not in place to ensure that all students are equitably given opportunities to learn. This article further problematizes the concept of “diversity” by exploring how one racially mixed high school’s vision for diversity was mismatched with the reality of apparent inequities within the school. Students of color who transferred to the high school for better opportunities were ultimately resegregated to racially isolating structures. The study’s findings align with scholars who call for further critique of what it means to be truly diverse or integrated, and suggest currently policies designed to achieve diverse schooling fail to chisel at mechanisms that inevitably sustain the inequitable racial and social order within schools.
This article explores the dilemmas created by between-district segregation and school district fragmentation in terms of efforts to diversify schools. We first review existing research to examine what is known empirically about between-district segregation, and the role of school district fragmentation as a contributing factor. We then examine policy efforts to address problems caused by fragmentation in other (non-educational) domains, and we consider whether such efforts could serve as a potential solution to school district fragmentation. We conclude with educational policy lessons based upon our examination of these prior efforts both within and outside of education to inform the current policy debate around school segregation.
On January 29, 2008 the Toronto District School Board (TDSB) approved the development of an Africentric school under their Alternative School policy. Calls for Black-focused schools also arose in 2008 in London in response to the rise in gang violence and the disengagement of African Caribbean youth. This comparative paper analyzes the historical development of Black-focused education in Toronto and London from 1968 - 2008 as a response by Black parents and community activists to the historic underachievement of African Caribbean students (particularly males) in the public schools of both cities. I situate the development of Black-focused education in each city within the larger social, political, and national policy contexts, trace critical incidents that fueled the development of race-based school district policy, and explore how the “politics of place” has influenced the trajectory of Black-focused education in each city. The historiography of Black education has largely focused on the US educational system. Research on educational reform efforts such as Afrocentric schooling has also reflected this US-centric focus. This comparative study reconceptualizes Black-focused schooling within the context of the African Diaspora by examining how advocacy for an African-centered curriculum and ideology was adapted to local conditions in Canada and Britain.
We conclude this special issue reflecting back on the history of desegregation and questioning how we move forward in trying to achieve racially integrated school settings. The epilogue includes a conversation with Dr. Michael A. Middleton, Deputy Chancellor of the University of Missouri-Columbia. Dr. Middleton is an expert in civil rights and employment discrimination and served as the lead counsel for plaintiffs in the St. Louis metropolitan school desegregation litigation. Dr. Middleton discusses the history, current status, and future of school desegregation.
This research reframes the roles that low-income African American parents play in their children’s lives and challenges deficit perspectives of parent involvement.
This study used a developmental approach to investigate the relationship between academic and ethnic identities among ethnically diverse college students. The findings indicate that Students of Color perceive a greater connection between their academic and ethnic identities compared to White students, and that this difference can be partially explained by differences in ethnic identity.
This article examines how a Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) endeavored to build its school as an inclusive environment open to students of different sexual orientations. Focusing on the semiotic dimension of spatial production, this article investigates how a conflict over a sign on the GSA’s bulletin board functioned as one front in an ongoing struggle to produce the school’s main hallway as a particular kind of space.
This article explores the ways in which district boundary lines and school desegregation policy impact metropolitan patterns of school and housing segregation. Results indicate that efforts to overcome the divisive nature of district boundary lines, in conjunction with comprehensive school desegregation policy, are related to unambiguous progress in combating school and housing segregation.
This article critiques the caricaturization of urban communities and their schools as places where students and community members lack agency and resources. Instead, through narrative inquiry, the authors reveal the community cultural wealth that they were exposed to as K-12 students in East St. Louis, Illinois.
This paper examines the use of Black Feminist Thought and critical race theory as conceptual and methodological frameworks to investigate the counter-narratives Black reentry women offer to three troubling and persisting stereotypes about Black motherhood.
Using structural equation modeling, this study examined the direct and indirect effects of family income on SAT performance for Black and White test-takers. Family income was found to have a nonlinear direct effect on total SAT performance and the association was substantially larger for Black students than for White students, especially for those families living in poverty.
This study reports that college students of color participating in a university-based community service learning program characterized the classroom experience within the program as offering a weaker sense of community than did their White classmates, and many expressed a reluctance to engage in race discussions with their classmates or to respond to perspectives they perceived as naïve, inaccurate, or offensive.
Using a national sample, this study uses multilevel modeling to understand how self-reported levels of academic engagement differ between women who attend single-sex and coeducational high schools.
Although Latinas’ relatively low rate of college-going has sometimes been explained by the influence of traditional gender roles, this article argues that sometimes it might instead represent emergent feminism and a means of contesting and remaking those roles. Based on a 5-year case study of one academically gifted Mexican American immigrant youth who decided to go to work instead of college, the article considers implications for Latina college recruitment.
Our comparative, multivocal ethnographic study of teachers in five U.S. cities in a number of early childhood settings suggests that immigrant teachers often experience difficulty applying their cultural knowledge to the education and care of young children of immigrants because they face a dilemma between their pedagogical training and their cultural knowledge; between the expectations of their fellow teachers and of parents; and between the goals of being culturally responsive to children, families, and their community and being perceived as professional by their fellow teachers and their superiors. This article details this dilemma and then focuses on how immigrant teachers’ funds of knowledge and power need further attention.
This self-study of practice explores how three mothers who are also educators negotiate their cross-class identities while living a curriculum of moral education with their children who are growing up upper middle class. The approaches and strategies of living a moral education curriculum chronicled in their stories offer a developmentally sensitive model of moral education that could, with modification, inform approaches to educating critical class conscious educators.
Introduction to the Special Issue
A commentary on the Special Issue.
Using data from the Digest of Educational Statistics, this article argues that an intergenerational comparison is a more productive, progressive method to interpret data used to gauge the achievement gap.
This article introduces the special issue, Disability Studies in Education.
Baglieri, Bejoian, Broderick, Connor, and Valle assert that imagining schools as places where children can find belonging and community conjures values and ideas with which few would argue, wherein democracy is posed as the political ideal of our culture. Within the context of this broad cultural and political discourse on schooling, the authors argue that the [re]claiming of inclusive education provides a heuristic concept and political agenda around which many strands of critical educational reform can cohere. At the center of this critique is the myth of the normal child—an idea of interest to scholars in the fields of disability studies in education, and disability studies more broadly, and an idea the authors seek to explore with critical scholars engaged in allied work seeking to contest, resist, and mitigate educational inequities. The authors contend that the commonality among a wide variety of ideologies of difference is rife with underexplored promise for allied work in inclusive education reform.