Advice on beginning a paper
This article identifies and examines the ethical issues surrounding teacher research,
especially when the participants of the research are the teachers' own students.
In this chapter I propose ways to achieve greater clarity in this
area of research in service learning. Given the public nature of service learning, care must
be taken during the life of a project to make data-based decisions that
maintain fidelity to its expressed purposes. Examining the steps and
procedures in gathering data is the purpose of this chapter.
In this article, we examine the ethical and epistemological implications of shifting
from a strictly teacher-centered group to include students in a collaborative co-researching
In what follows,
we look in somewhat greater depth at two prototypical efforts:
Project Spectrum, Project Zero's first "lab" effort to investigate some
of the implications of MI theory for the assessment of the strengths of
young children; and the New City School, an ambitious "field" effort
to implement MI theory throughout an urban elementary school. We
conclude with an accounting of some of the lessons that we have
drawn from these two strands of application, in terms of the criteria of
effectiveness that we have just outlined.
Bloom's Taxonomy made its way into the pool of professional knowledge
for educators despite criticism-sometimes quite harsh-on logical,
philosophical, psychological, and empirical grounds. This last
area is the subject of this chapter. Specifically, we review the empirical
investigations of the hierarchical structure of the Taxonomy.
The title of this paper evokes memories and stories of working
with teachers in their classrooms, of engaging in sustained conversations
with groups of teachers, and of writing narratives with participants
of our shared work. The title may bring forward similar stories
for other readers. For us, it is these stories that ground our knowledge
of the promise of collaborative research for school improvement.
A group of seven mentor teachers embarked in 1988 on such an
enterprise. I was one of two people from a university who assisted
them. This chapter is anchored in that particular effort. The study in
which the teachers engaged is used here as a vehicle for highlighting
questions that seem to be associated with teachers engaging in research
that has a policy focus. The study and the circumstances surrounding
it are also used to illustrate how research of this type by teachers is
different from (and usefully supplements) the kinds of studies that
engage more conventionally oriented educational researchers when
they try to illuminate and affect policy.
Our intention in this
chapter is to explore teacher research and its necessary embeddedness
in organizational conditions that support school development and
change. We begin by presenting three case studies of teachers involved
in research, each representing a different organizational context. We
later build on these cases to develop understandings about the
relationship between teacher research and the transformation of
Discusses the importance of teachers and researchers learning to appreciate one another's professional roles to bridge the gap between research and practice. Information comes from meetings between teachers and researchers as part of a three-year study to discover how moral concerns permeate school life.
In this chapter we explore equity issues in educational research
methods. We cover these issues and examine how a view of females
and males as "opposite" challenges the legitimacy of using "difference-based research" in studies of gender. We also consider
ways that equity concerns are being addressed through the rethinking
of the uses of traditional methods as well as the development of new
As its etymology suggests, quasi-experimentation is "almost-like"
experimentation. But it is not much like experimentation as it is
practiced in the natural sciences where materials are often inert,
considerable control over testing conditions is possible, and
numerically precise predictions are commonplace.
Examines the shared cognitive dimensions of cultural institutions like museums, libraries, and parks, suggesting they make similar situations for transmitting information. This article encourages a critical understanding of public cultural institutions to enlarge the potential for discourse about their analysis and criticism. Heuristic questions for understanding cultural institutions are presented.
The purpose of the following discussion is to highlight some of the ramifications for the field of education of these developments concerning our understanding of science.
Systematic intentional inquiry by teachers makes accessible some of teachers' expertise and provides universities and schools with unique perspectives on teaching and learning. A four-part working typology of teacher research is proposed, with examples of the four types: journals, essays, oral inquiry processes, and classroom studies.
The author argues that the persistent criticism of teachers and of teacher education programs is due in part to the absence of a "consensus of the learned" about how teachers should be educated. Broudys position is that a working consensus could be established through a case-study method in teacher education if cases were developed to portray important problems identified by teachers as typical and recurrent in their professional practice.
This article presents three versions of what may happen in post-1989 research on teaching. In the first version, the quantitative approach dies of wounds inflicted by its critics. In the second, different approaches work in harmony, and in the third, the wars continue among competing approaches to educational research.
The concepts of metaphor, model, and theory are defined and used to show how social science research in general, and education research in particular, has differed from Popper's description of natural science research.
Initial findings from a five-year study of the educational reform process and its effects are reported. Findings derive from interviews with state and local policymakers and educators in 24 districts and 59 schools from 6 states. Areas discussed are politics of reform, state role, student standards and teacher-related policies.
In this chapter I consider the import of this critique for research communication. What can educational researchers say to practitioners, and what, as Dewey put it, are "the traits that mark off opinion and assent from authorized convictions?" What rhetoric used in communication is appropriate to (educational) research as a form of knowing?
A collaborative action research project studied how teachers in groups function at different developmental stages. Implications for staff development are described.
Interactive research and development can be an effective staff development strategy for experienced teachers. The teacher takes the role of researcher and the university professor acts as a team member in this partnership. Problems and prospects of implementing this program are discussed.
The concepts of mutual adaptation and mutual accomplishment are used in an analysis of implementation of a delinquency prevention research and development program. Success from the perspective of both the developer and the participant is described.
An examination of an attempt to change teaching practices
The first section of the chapter describes a particular staff
development program and the contextual factors that tend to make the
case in point unique. The second section of the chapter addresses the
difficulties and problems that were encountered in the development
and operation of the program and attempts to distinguish constructive
from nonconstructive problems. The third and last section discusses
what was learned from the experiences and compares and contrasts
these learnings with some of the existing staff development literature.