This chapter tells the story of how and why one student who received a ticket for being late to school joined the fight against policies that criminalize students in Los Angeles Unified School District.
Drawing on data from two qualitative studies, this chapter argues that both school organizations and individual students will benefit from centering youth voices in student support systems. To do this, the author shares data from adolescents’ narratives that demonstrate how young people’s voices might (re)shape the central practices of school-based support processes.
This chapter shows how student positioning by adults shapes opportunities for students to learn collective systemic agency including practices such as organizing others, developing a systemic analysis, and taking action in complex institutions, such as schools. We argue that these learning opportunities are expanded when education professionals look beyond curricular experiences and attend to how students are positioned through discourse in the broader context of the school.
This chapter recounts the first 3 years of the Student Voice Collaborative (SVC) in New York City, a district supported student leadership initiative that engages high school aged youth in school reform work at school and district levels. Based on his experiences developing and running the SVC, the author identifies nine design and implementation principles that have made the group effective in supporting students so their voices can be heard by school leaders.
Community organizing efforts employ different types of research as they seek to address community issues. This chapter details the evolving use of research in a youth organizing effort in San Bernardino, CA that has addressed issues in schools, the educational system, and the broader community. We examine the youth organizers’ use of organizing research and youth participatory action research (YPAR) and the contributions of each form of research to the organizing effort.
In this chapter, two student members of the Student Voice Collaborative (SVC) describe their experiences as “Student Shadows” during the annual Quality Review process, used throughout the New York Department of Education to evaluate how well schools are organized to support student achievement. They chronicle how this experience enhanced their understanding of student voice, helped inspire meaningful changes to the rubric used by Quality Reviewers, and introduced a new model for school assessment that centers on students and educators as partners.
This chapter explores the influence of a youth participatory action research group, viewing the group’s efforts as challenges to racial inequality in education. The authors examine how individuals in positions of relative power—teachers, school administrators, and public officials—responded to the group’s advocacy efforts.
This chapter explores how youth organizers have injected themselves into education policy conversations in Philadelphia, asserting their agency and using their voices to shape how policymakers view them as well as the problems that confront them.
Kids Rethink New Orleans Schools is an organization of primarily middle school youth that formed after Hurricane Katrina destroyed most of the city’s schools. This chapter describes Rethink’s first six years of operation, which culminated in school system policy changes and an HBO documentary about the organization’s groundbreaking work.
This concluding chapter examines how this book on student voice intersects with previous research about policy, especially policy implementation and sustainability. Mapping onto the themes of this volume, Discovering, Developing, and Demonstrating the power of student voice, I focus on three issues—legitimizing the role of young people in the policy and reform process; preparing adults to work with young people; and sustaining ongoing student voice work.
This article highlights the fact that certain elements inherent in the act of public teaching have their roots in Christian, particularly Biblical, thinking. The authors illustrate that although teaching is thought of as a secular activity, and although it is often assumed that religion has been expunged from public, including teacher, education, the sediments of religion remain present in how the teacher learns to imagine, construct, and enact his or her work as teacher as savior and martyr.
This article analyzes the role of venture philanthropy in shaping teacher education policies in the United States, with a particular focus on the role of the New Schools Venture Fund in promoting the Growing Excellent Achievement Training Academies for Teachers and Principals Act.
Two key uses of international assessments of achievement have been (a) comparing country performances for identifying the countries with the best education systems and (b) generating insights about effective policy and practice strategies that are associated with higher learning outcomes.
The authors of this article investigate the relationship between illustration complexity and the difficulty of PISA 2009 science items in the United States, Mexico, and China. They discuss the implications of their findings for systematically developing PISA science illustrated items.
The author of this commentary reviews and provides comments on the six articles that comprise this special issue on research conducted using PISA data.
The exploratory study presented in this article seeks to contribute to knowledge about test design and construction by focusing on the gap between context characteristics and student performance. The authors address two key questions: What are the characteristics of contexts used in the PISA science items? And what are the relationships between different context characteristics and student performance?
Introductory essay for the three subsequent manuscripts that providing historical analysis since 1865 of In Loco Parentis as a legal, institutional, and social feature of the American college and university campus. I characterize my Introduction as that of a senior scholar who endorses and supports the original and related essays of three younger, new historians of higher education.
This article argues that the power to discipline students in loco parentis was limited by countervailing emphases on college access and due process well before the legal revolutions of the 1960s and 1970s.
This article argues that the doctrine of in loco parentis served as the justification for the sweeping reconstruction of undergraduate life in the 1920s, when administrators and faculty instituted a host of academic, social, and psychological programs and services to help keep students in college.
Performance-based funding programs have become a popular state policy strategy for increasing college completions, among other things. This study asks, To what extent does the introduction of performance funding programs impact two-year degree completion among participating states? Using a difference-in-differences technique, we find that the program had no effect on average and mixed results for the individual states. We conclude that the policy is not a “silver bullet” for improving community college completions.
This study examines the effects of metropolitan school district fragmentation―the proliferation of public school districts within a metropolitan area―on the trajectory of racial/ethnic school segregation between 2002 and 2010.
This introduction is a brief reflection on the import of the Gordon Commission’s work to future considerations of assessment and learning.
This article explains the idea of a neopragmatic postmodernist test theory and offers some thoughts about what changing notions concerning the nature of and meanings assigned to knowledge imply for educational assessment, present and future.
Reprinted with permission from Transitions in Work and Learning: Implications for Assessment, 1997, by the National Academy of Sciences, Courtesy of the National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
The article provides a rationale for the focus on assessment for learning, that is to assist and improve performance, as opposed to the prevalent approach of assessment of learning, focused on time constrained summative judgments. In the article, we also discuss the likely changes wrought by new and unstable knowledge, technology, and global competition, in the light of democratic educational approaches.
This paper considers future educational assessment in terms of principles of evidential reasoning, focusing the discussion on the changes to the claims our assessments must support, the types of evidence needed to support these claims, and the statistical tools available to evaluate our evidence vis-à-vis the claims. An expanded view of assessment is advanced in which assessments based on multiple evidence sources from contextually rich situated learning environments, including unconventional data regarding human competencies, improve our ability to make valid inferences and decisions all education stakeholders.
Informal, out-of-school education encompasses a variety of programs existing alongside the founding and growth of public schools. This chapter explores the history of the institutionalization of informal, out-of-school education, including programs offered by religious institutions, social service organizations, cultural institutions, special interest organizations, the media and universities. Access to these programs is neither uniformly offered nor guaranteed, a situation that potentially exacerbates existent inequities.
This chapter aims to extend the repertoire of understandings about place and policy in place-based education with a focus on ideas of space, mobility, and belonging. The view provided by this extended perspective leads to the question: How does mobility challenge and provide new ways of thinking about place-based education.
This paper analyzes the political strategies of the early OECD stakeholders in transforming schooling from a cultural to a technological system. In doing so it focuses on the specific rhetoric these stakeholders used and how they were in need of standardizing different existing patterns of thoughts or institutional behaviors in the member countries.
The article analyzes the ideological and political context and mechanisms which have allowed OECD to become a major unchecked power in global educational policy making.
Epitomized by the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the U.S. government’s Race to the Top, “accountability” is becoming a pervasive normalizing discourse, legitimizing historic shifts from viewing education as a social and cultural to an economic project engendering usable skills and “competences.” The purpose of this special issue is to provide context and perspective on these momentous shifts. The papers point to historic antecedents, highlight core ideas, and identify changes in the balance of power between domestic and global policy makers.