This chapter argues for a view of learning as a collective accomplishment that is a matter not only of gaining particular knowledgeable skills through participation in social practices, but also of organizing the conditions under which participation becomes recognized as valuable. This requires that research on learning place a central focus on this organizing work, which takes place in different locations and on different timescales, in order to adequately examine the processes through which participation is made to be consequentially successful or
This chapter contributes a framework for analyzing learning as an expansive process in which ethnic minority young men come to partly transcend marginal positions as part of the social street work in Copenhagen, Denmark. The chapter draws on social practice approaches, such as situated learning, learning by expanding, and Danish-German critical psychology, in investigating marginalizing and expansive learning in relation to dilemmas, directionality of personal and societal trajectories, and struggles realizing common interests.
This concluding chapter revisits the question of why a human sciences approach to research on learning is necessary and summarizes major themes from across the chapters. The conclusion highlights the need for a democratic practice of educational research, the importance of researchers’ making explicit and participating in the imagination and constitution of new social futures, and the expansion of possibilities for understanding, action, and “liminal” participation in practice as potential teloi of learning.
This article asserts that some of the most subtle aspects of parental involvement are those that most impact student academic achievement. The article examines the evidence for this relationship and the extent to which school-based programs designed to foster parental involvement may be able to encourage these expressions of engagement.
In this research, the authors sought to understand how students make sense of competing approaches to history, and in particular, how they understand the relationship between the approaches they encounter in school and elsewhere.
This article explores how several classroom practices can promote self-reflection and metacognition among elementary students. When built into the existing curriculum, activities such as directed goal-setting, practice with language prompts, written self-reflections, and posttask oral conversations are shown to enrich the learning process by increasing students' awareness of themselves as learners.
The article looks at the variety of practices that different societies (Britain, Quebec, Ontario, the United States, and Belgium) have adopted to foster the mastery of the host language by immigrant students, with a special focus on the degree to which such endeavors follow an immersion or a specific services formula and on the role they grant to heritage languages.
This study examines the nature of collaboration among more and less experienced students within learning through design, a project-based science inquiry curriculum. The article proposes and argues for the term peer pedagogy to describe the purposeful and strategic ways in which more experienced students socialize novice learners into design-specific ways of knowing and doing.
This project was designed to develop an understanding of how teachers talk about emotional transactions in the classroom. This is a phenomenological study in that we assume there is some essence to classroom emotional experiences, and we seek to understand this essence from the teacher’s perspective. Our analysis suggests how teacher beliefs and teacher selves may be related to how these teachers approached emotion in the classroom. In addition, we discuss six ways in which these teachers approached emotional experiences during classroom transactions.
This qualitative study examines whether oppositional attitudes toward learning prevail among African American children attending two low-income urban elementary schools in California. In addition, we examine how African American children’s beliefs about good teachers compare with what we document as good teaching.
Teaching mathematics for social justice is directed toward, and can contribute to, the development of students' sociopolitical consciousness, their sense of social agency (a view of themselves as capable of shaping the world) and also their mathematical understanding and competencies. This article describes a participant-research study on social justice mathematics curriculum and pedagogy in a Chicago middle school in which the above goals were a central part.
This paper examines the characteristics of the thinking skill we call “melioration” i.e., the competence to borrow a concept from a field of knowledge supposedly far removed from his or her domain, and adapt it to a pressing challenge in an area of personal knowledge or interest.
This article provides case study of instruction that challenges the ritualized deference that students afford to the authority of history textbooks and teachers. It asks, What might encourage students to raise disciplined suspicions of the typical sources of scholastic authority? What might we learn about history instruction that makes textbooks and teachers objects of students’ historical inquiry?
As both a parent and an experienced teacher, I have found media literacy to be an invaluable tool that I use to teach values and critical thinking skills. I have two preteen daughters whose media consumption is constantly increasing. As their mother, I am deeply concerned about their interpretations of the value messages they receive. I have taught upper elementary and intermediate school for 15 years, with the majority of those years in fifth grade. Like all teachers, I have struggled at times to keep my students motivated and interested in the curriculum. Incorporating media literacy into the curriculum has enabled me to not only keep my students interested, but to also develop their critical thinking skills.
This article argues for the recognition of the importance of talk among parents and teachers both as a research methodology and as a desirable outcome in creating and sustaining democratic communities that support school improvement.
This issue updates readers on the work that has ensued in the past 10 years using Gardner’s theory, presenting a collection of papers excerpted from a 2003 American Educational Research Association symposium commemorating the 20th anniversary of the publication of Frames of Mind.
This article describes the theory of multiple intelligences and provides a brief introduction to each of the articles that comprise the special TCR edition commemorating the 20th anniversary of the publication of Frames of Mind by Howard Gardner.
This essay discusses the status of multiple intelligences (MI) theory as a scientific theory by addressing three issues: the empirical evidence Gardner used to establish MI theory, the methodology he employed to validate MI theory, and the purpose or function of MI theory.
This article explores the tensions between Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences and current educational policies emphasizing standardized and predictable outcomes.
This paper illustrates how the use of MI has been helpful to both students and teachers.
This paper describes an experimental Multiple Intelligences/Learning for Understanding (MI/LfU) pilot study in the Glendale Community College psychology department from 1994 to 1996, which has evolved into an effective, interdisciplinary approach to learning, teaching, and creative assessment.
This paper discusses how adult literacy educators chose to apply multiple intelligences (MI) theory.
This article draws on research conducted over a 10-year period in an attempt to answer three central questions about the widespread adoption of Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences (MI): Why do educators adopt MI? Once MI is adopted, does anything really change in practice? When educators claim MI is working, what is happening in practice?
This study reports on five middle grades teachers and how they developed and implemented MI-based units of instruction.
This research paper provides an example of how elementary school curriculum leaders can be mindful of student intelligences and use the strengths of their student populations.
This paper compares the theories of Multiple Intelligences and Learning Styles in order to suggest ways that teachers using a combination of both theories may be able to improve student learning over the range of intelligences.
This instrumental collective case study provides an in-depth description of the change that transpired in two multiple intelligence (MI)–based graduate-level teacher preparation courses.
The article analyzes one claim that I make about Howard Gardner's work on MI: Multiple intelligences has had the greatest influence on educators' beliefs and talk about differences in children's intelligence, moderate to high influence on the formal curriculum and instructional materials, and least influence on mainstream teaching and assessment practices.
This article addresses three interrelated propositions about using multiple intelligences assessment to promote teacher development and student achievement.
In an effort to understand learner-centered instruction from the perspective of multiple intelligences (MI), the purpose of this second teacher action research study was to further investigate the use of MI theory in shaping and informing instructional strategies, curricula development, and alternative forms of assessment with second language learners