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by Paul Kelleher & Larry Leverett — 2006
Hearing from our different authors clarified for us that leadership styles are a combination of tacit beliefs, experience, and personal qualities as much as conscious decisions about approaches to work, and are as varied as people are. What emerges as a common factor contributing to success is authenticity—consistency of words with actions—that enables the development of trusting relationships. Larry Leverett tells his story of one leader with one leadership style who moves between two different school districts with very different cultures.

by Linda Hanson — 2006
Superintendents often mourn the “good old days” when they were educators and did not need to worry about the managerial and political aspects of their districts. Linda Hanson shows how effective a superintendent can be in the role of educator as she and her reading staff help their school board understand the implications of a mandatory graduation test.

by Paul Kelleher — 2006
Most of us at some point in our career have to face the fact that we cannot control everything that happens in our district. As we mentioned in our introduction, we learn that even logical plans implemented skillfully can meet unexpected, uncontrollable obstacles. This can have serious consequences, from the lack of achievement for students to the loss of our jobs. Our anonymous contributor shares his courageous story of holding fast to what is best for children in the face of adversity, and ultimately having to make the decision whether to fight for his job or not. NSSE has never published an anonymous contribution before, but we agreed that “Juan’s” story was too valuable not to share.

by Rebecca van der Bogert — 2006
We found the enactment of democratic ideals to be a common theme throughout all of our authors’ stories as they describe their work to transform their districts. Becky van der Bogert shares her joys, struggles, and lessons learned that surround a deep commitment to trying to model democratic ideals in her leadership style.

by Becky Blair Hurley — 2006
When superintendents gather in private conversations, it is likely the question “What’s your board like?” will be raised. Becky Hurley speaks eloquently from a board member’s perspective about the steep learning curve that she experienced and how she developed a productive working relationship with her superintendent and with other board members.

by John Wiens — 2006
Most of us started our superintendency committed to keeping our eye on the higher purposes of education, vowing not to get bogged down in the managerial details. John Wiens shares his quest for an intellectual understanding of the role, a meaningful theory of leadership, and the creation of an environment that helped others pursue similar quests.

by Bena Kallick — 2006
Being a superintendent is much like the new technology you purchase—the manual is difficult to read and understand, the help line is difficult to reach, and the consultation charge to learn from experts is costly. It is a job that requires enormous flexibility, attention to multiple perspectives, and an internal set of checks and balances to withstand the pressures of external demands from a public that has, in many ways, been distracted from the real purpose of a public education system.

by Barry Jentz — 2006
In this book, school district leaders do an honest and credible job of describing their struggles with external forces and the surprises, disappointments, and puzzlements that naturally accompany those struggles. In some stories, we also see an internal focus, leaders stepping back to question “the entity”—the mind that engages the world—in an effort to gain a clearer picture of their own behavior, its consequences, and its antecedents. In other stories, however, leaders speak as if they share an unspoken assumption that the superintendent mind is an entity, stable and nonchanging, at once wise and considerate, if sometimes frustrated and perplexed. These superintendents reveal little of their own minds.

by Edward Pajak & Angelique Arrington — 2004
In this chapter, we first look at the history of administrative evaluation and instructional supervision within education. Then we review the current context of teacher accountability and the present uses of administrative evaluation and instructional supervision in efforts to improve teacher quality. Finally, to restore a balance between administrative evaluation and instructional supervision that will better ensure teacher quality, we recommend empowering the teaching profession by 1) actively including teachers’ unions as partners in systemic efforts to ensure teacher quality; 2) more fully embracing and expanding a graduate-level medical model of preparation to develop a generation of teachers who are highly qualified in both academic knowledge and pedagogical skill; and 3) adopting national “opportunity to teach” standards to uniformly improve teaching conditions in all schools so that highly qualified teachers remain in the profession.

by M. King — 2004
One of the prominent ways in which educational leaders shape school conditions and teaching practices is through their beliefs and actions regarding teacher learning. Of course, leaders must still attend to myriad important matters, such as selection, assignment, and retention of teachers; utilization of financial and other material resources; and cultivation of school-level leadership and school-family-community relations. But the shift to a greater emphasis on the instructional role of leaders should be paramount. In this chapter, I will address school- and district-level leadership for teacher workforce development through improving teacher learning and capacity.

by Paul Pitre & Wade Smith — 2004
This article examines the centrist leader perspective of the ISLLC standards and argues that the centrist view undermines the potential for collaborative leadership in schools.

by Judith Pace — 2003
Drawing on an interpretive study of classroom authority relations in a U.S. metropolitan high school, this article describes and analyzes the character of these relations, and their connection to social theory and educational ideologies.

by Ronnie Casella — 2003
The article examines how zero tolerance policy is enacted in schools, and how the policy is supported by developments in technology, crime and prison policy, and social science theories of delinquency. The reseach is based on qualitative research and policy analysis, and has an interdisciplinary focus that would be of interest to educators, policymakers, and school administrators.

by Joseph Cronin & Michael Usdan — 2003
Major cities in the United States, unhappy with persistent achievement gaps between students of different races and socioeconomic backgrounds, now search for highly effective medicine men who will upgrade urban school productivity. These efforts stand in stark contrast to the first two hundred years of the Republic, when villages relied on local ministers, elders, or farmers with extra time in the winter to visit the schools, many of which operated for only a few months of the year.

by Sandra Mickens — 2003
This commentary argues that we must understand and respond to the emotional issues posed for students by violent school environments so that all students can begin to prepare for the academic challenges envisioned by the No Child Left Behind Act.

by Adam Lefstein — 2002
Study examines the relationship between pedagogy and classroom control in traditional and progressivist teaching practices. Based on study of current Israeli school reform program, I argue that this relationship has been inadequately addressed, both in theory and in practice.

by Mavis Sanders & Adia Harvey — 2002
This case study describes how one urban elementary school in a high-reform district and state has been able to develop strong connections with community businesses and organizations as part of its program of school, family, and community partnerships. The case study identifies four factors that allowed the school to build successful bridges to its community. These factors are: a) the school's commitment to learning; b) the principal's support and vision for community involvement; c) the school's receptivity and openness to community involvement; and d) the school's willingness to engage in two-way communication with potential community partners about their level and kind of involvement.

by Donald Hones — 2002
Through a narrative, participatory research process the voices and experiences of three bilingual high school students are presented and interpreted through a critical pedagogical lens.

by Ellen Goldring & William Greenfield — 2002
Buffeted during the past 20 years by successive waves of educational reform, educational administration is more aware today than at any time in the field’s history of the complexities and challenges of public education, and of the importance of effective educational leadership to the enduring good health of that institution (Murphy & Louis, 1999).

by Catherine Lugg, Katrina Bulkley, William Firestone & C. Garner — 2002
This chapter seeks to map the contextual terrain facing contemporary educational leaders, noting six key interrelated features of the ever-shifting landscape: the political, the economic, the financial, the accountability, the demographic, and the staffing terrain.

by Kenneth Leithwood & Nona Prestine — 2002
This chapter consists of two main sections. The first section reviews what we know about the challenges facing leaders in highly accountable contexts and the nature of productive responses on their part. This review encompasses both theoretical and empirical literatures, and most of it is specifically focused on school-level leadership. While little evidence has been reported about district-level leadership in accountability-oriented contexts, such leadership appears to be central to success. The second main section of the chapter reports a case study of an exemplary district’s efforts to make the most of large-scale reform initiated in the state of Illinois.

by Joseph Murphy — 2002
I begin by reviewing the methods traditionally used to define the profession and its work. I suggest that these methods will not prove successful in reculturing school leadership and argue for an alternative method to locate an appropriate portal to the future. In so doing, I retrace the steps that led to a new perspective, one that is based on the powerful unifying concepts of social justice, democratic community, and school improvement. Second, using this alternative way of framing the profession, I present one framework for recasting the concept of leadership.

by James Spillane & Karen Seashore Louis — 2002
Our goal in this paper is not to undertake an exhaustive review of the literature on school improvement, but rather to frame or perhaps reframe this work. Specifically, we stand back from scholarship that falls under the school improvement rubric and develop a conceptual scaffold for thinking about this line of research and its relation to teaching and learning in schools.

by Gail Furman & Robert Starratt — 2002
What would it mean for democratic community to be the center for educational leadership in schools, and how would this choice re-culture the profession?

by Colleen Larson & Khaula Murtadha — 2002
Researchers and leaders for social justice, then, seek to define the theories and practices of leadership that are vital to creating greater freedom, opportunity, and justice for all citizens—citizens who, through public education, are better able to participate in and sustain a free, civil, multicultural, and democratic society.

by Mark Smylie, Sharon Conley & Helen Marks — 2002
We begin with a brief historical review describing the evolution of teacher leadership since the early 1900s. Then we examine teacher research as a form of teacher leadership. We explore several models of distributive school leadership. Finally we consider self-managed teams as means of teacher leadership and substitutes for administrative leadership.

by Gary Crow, Charles Hausman & Jay Scribner — 2002
This chapter begins with an identification of how work roles have changed, and are changing, in the 21st century. This change is represented primarily by greater complexity in how work is performed. In light of this change, the remainder of the chapter focuses on the internal and external complexities that contribute to reshaping the principal’s role.

by C. Cryss Brunner, Margaret Grogan & Lars Björk — 2002
In this chapter, we seek answers by examining the discourse of the superintendency to try to determine what has shaped the role previously and what is likely to shape it in the future.

by Sharon Rallis, Mark Shibles & Austin Swanson — 2002
The chapter begins by examining the natural tensions that exist among groups, both lay and professional, that have different local, state, and national perspectives and responsibilities. It then explores the potential of lay volunteers in altering school culture for the better, and the role of laypeople in formally defined roles on school boards and advisory councils. The chapter concludes with a proposal for repositioning lay leadership to better meet the needs of our increasingly diverse public.

by Diana Pounder, Ulrich Reitzug & Michelle Young — 2002
The organizing framework for this chapter is school improvement, democratic and collaborative community, and social justice and how educational leadership preparation programs can meet these collective challenges. Specifically, the authors discuss the needed content and instructional focus of preparation programs, as well as various preparation program design elements, such as program structure, field experiences, and faculty and students.

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