This article examines how local and national media sources framed early childhood educational policy in the case of the scale-up of Universal Pre-Kindergarten in New York City. Using rhetorical analysis, the authors identify the key narratives used to frame the scale-up of UPK, and examine what implications this framing has for public understandings of early childhood educational policies and practices.
This article reports on a study investigating how early childhood teachers’ perceptions of and practices employed to control the behavior and bodies of children considered at risk of being identified with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder later in schooling were related to the increasing concern over school readiness under standards-based accountability reform.
Drawing upon Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model of development, authors investigate how key process, person, and contextual factors concurrently explain the incidence of chronic absenteeism among kindergarteners in the U.S.
This article documents the growing disparity in program quality between Migrant and Seasonal Head Start and Head Start overall and argues that the growing teacher qualifications gap documented between Head Start programs is Head Start policy related.
This study examines if differences in achievement and socioemotional outcomes arise based on having attended center-based care in both prekindergarten and kindergarten years, versus in only one of those years or in neither of those years.
We present the Research on Curricular Design (RCD) model and describe its use to design, develop, and test the efficacy of early childhood mathematics and science curricula. We share what was achieved with application of the RCD model and offer observations on the value of this approach for research on and development of educational products.
After summarizing the results from two studies the author conducted in Montessori middle schools, the chapter discusses nine characteristics of Montessori education in relation to various theoretical perspectives on education and development.
This chapter looks at John Dewey’s consideration of childhood as a platform from which to view the significance of childhood in moral life. It argues that the concept of childhood is integral to our thinking in the teaching and learning relationship. When we consider childhood from Dewey’s platform, we see that childhood is relevant to society both because it is a source of continued renewal and growth for our society and because its plastic and imaginative grounding enables children and their childhoods to fundamentally change educational relationships.
This study utilized data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 to examine the longitudinal effects of delayed, early or on-time kindergarten enrollment and relative age on children’s reading and mathematics achievement from kindergarten to third grade. Data were analyzed using a propensity score stratification method and a cross-classified random effects model, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics. Children in the delayed group entered kindergarten with higher reading and mathematics scores, yet achievement differences were negligible by the end of third grade. Relative age predicted children’s performances in reading and mathematics achievement. Typically, children who were older than their peers in the same class had higher academic achievement scores.
There is much current interest in the impact of early childhood education programs on preschoolers and, in particular, on the magnitude of cognitive and affective gains. To address this issue comprehensively, a meta-analysis was conducted for the purpose of synthesizing the outcomes of comparative studies in this area. Consistent with the accrued research base on the effects of preschool education, significant effects were found in this study for children who attend a preschool program prior to entering kindergarten. Although the largest effect sizes were observed for cognitive outcomes, a preschool education was also found to impact childrenï¿½s social skills and school progress. Specific aspects of the treatments that positively correlated with gains included teacher-directed instruction and small-group instruction; provision of additional services tended to be associated with smaller gains.
This article explores how several classroom practices can promote self-reflection and metacognition among elementary students. When built into the existing curriculum, activities such as directed goal-setting, practice with language prompts, written self-reflections, and posttask oral conversations are shown to enrich the learning process by increasing students' awareness of themselves as learners.
This chapter grapples with “the obligation that the existence of children entails for every human society” (Hannah Arendt, “The Crisis in Education,” in Between Past and Future [New York: Penguin Books, 1968], 185.) Joseph Dunne begins by considering the dominant views of Western societies about the early years of childhood, the ideas which have shaped primary education practices. Those ideas, he claims, have been shaped by (1) the modern idea of “progress,” with its ultimate goal of “maturity,” and (2) postmodern social conditions which sometimes, for example, “enlist children as consumers,” transforming innocence into knowingness and cynicism.
This article discusses the notion of parent-teacher partnerships in early childhood education and care, and presents findings from an ethnographic study of relationships between mothers and teachers in a child care center.
The authors describe in this article an innovative language intervention program involving the creation of bilingual, student self-authored identity texts. Called the Early Authors Program (EAP), the intervention stands as an example of how spaces and opportunities for literacy development among young ELLs can be created in a classroom instructional environment.
The author argues that American educators rely on standardized tests at too early an age when administered in kindergarten, particularly given the original intent of kindergarten as envisioned by its founder, Friedrich Froebel.
This chapter will first define the term “quality” with respect to preschool and kindergarten curriculum. An outline of the components of effective preschool and kindergarten programs for at-risk children will then be presented. These components are based on research findings from intervention practices that have been shown to have a positive impact on children’s later growth and development (Wasik, Bond, & Hindman, in press). In addition, systemic issues regarding class size, length of the day, and grouping practices will be addressed. Finally, the importance of professional development as the key to effective classroom practices will be discussed.
This chapter reviews ECCE-related NSSE Yearbooks and assesses them in light of the field’s present interests and concerns. I explore two issues in particular: the relationship of early childhood education to public school education and child development knowledge as the source of curriculum for early childhood education. These two issues are as central to the ECCE field at the onset of the twenty-first century as they were at the start of the twentieth.
An inquiry into Western representations of childhood in art, literature, social and cultural history, philosophy, psychoanalysis and religion. Implications are considered for the future of the adult-child relation in child rearing and education.
This article focuses on the considerably lower proportion of Latino parents who select a formal preschool or child-care center for their three to five-year-old youngsters. The authors empirically focus on the influence of ethnicity, maternal education, family structure, and preliteracy practices on parents' propensity to select preschools and center-based programs.
In this chapter I
will examine recent data to chronicle why changes in the social, demographic,
and research context of the nation have made preschool education
an imperative despite its political illusiveness. I will suggest that
until specific tensions are addressed, significant advances in early care
and education are likely to remain remote from reality. I will close by
making recommendations for normalizing early childhood services,
with the knowledge that only in making such services available for all
children will the real needs of the nation's poorest children be met.
The aim of this
chapter is to discuss the main issues that have to be addressed in
determining the appropriateness of pedagogical practices; and to
suggest some principles applicable to the processes involved.
That development is continuous, albeit marked by apparent spurts
and plateaus, is a truism. The education which should parallel and help
to shape that development is, on the other hand, characterized by
sharp discontinuities. Moving from one branch to another-e.g.,
elementary school to secondary school-is more than simply climbing
up one rung on the educational ladder. It involves a move into a new
culture, a new ecology with a different set of procedures and
requirements. Adaptation to the new setting requires more than
merely learning where the lockers are and how to use them.
chapter reviews major practices within these two paradigms of parent
involvement: program efforts to support parents' child-rearing roles,
and strategies for facilitating program responsiveness and resourcefulness
through parent involvement. It concludes with an identification of critical challenges for the 1990s in view of the lessons learned from
existing and previous practices.
In this chapter,
I discuss the nature of professionalism and how it applies to early
childhood practitioners, gatekeeping related to early childhood
professionalism, the elements necessary for the preparation of early
childhood professionals, and some of the dilemmas facing the field as
it strives toward higher levels of professionalism.
Within the past decade, business leaders have become new and on
occasion powerful players among those concerned with early
childhood care and education. This chapter will trace the development
of this movement, describe the types of companies most likely to be
involved, explore the impact of business involvement, evaluate
incentives for continued collaborations, and posit the difficult issues
that await resolution in the coming decade.
Research and evaluation have become much more
sophisticated and are better able to assess a program's multiple effects
on multiple human systems. Theorists and researchers alike have
realized how seriously their work and words are taken and are
learning how to communicate with the media and to deliver their
interpretations responsibly. They have also developed a more
productive relationship with policymakers, as both science and policy
have increasingly come to depend on one another. The evolution of
the field of early childhood intervention illustrates the interconnection
between theory, research, and policy and the problems that occur
when any one of these elements is out of step with the others.
In this chapter I describe the contexts for child day care standards
and give basic information about types of standards, focusing
primarily on day care centers.
The "crisis" that many perceive in early childhood programs is
first and last an issue of funding, and hopeful talk about "the decade of
the young child" should not obscure how limited the gains in public
funding have been. I conclude the chapter by suggesting a new
justification for public funding—similar to the justifications for Social
Security—that might help solidify support for young children.
In this chapter I suggest that American early childhood
education (like education in general) is at the brink of a major shift in
how it conceptualizes and defines its mission. Linking care and
education, such redefinition affords promising options and
opportunities. Following an analysis that delineates this change, I
offer a new definition of excellence in early care and education and
suggest strategies for achieving it.
Reports on a study of the way children are provided for in Scandinavia and explores those aspects of the child-care system which are potentially adaptable to American needs.