The chapter examines youth participation within three intergenerational collectives using participatory action research (PAR) to address educational policies youth viewed as counterproductive to their education. Outlining the complexity of youth voice, the multiple vehicles within the arts through which youth voice is expressed, and the different ways in which youth voice is received by educators and policy makers, the chapter underscores the promise of youth involvement in developing, assessing, and fundamentally altering educational policy.
This article explores how educational researchers can use meta-analysis to “power-up” the findings of their existing, small-scale qualitative research studies. By triangulating data from three independently conducted studies of academically at-risk college students, this research contests “time-to-degree” as a valid criterion for measuring academic success in college.
The research project involved four campuses that chose to integrate the arts into tested subject areas. Digital storytelling technology was combined with the narrative inquiry research method to produce ‘digital narrative inquiries’—16-20 minute multimedia representations of each school’s experience of its change initiative. Video clips excerpted from these larger productions were then used to discuss the affordances and constraints of using the ‘digital narrative inquiry’ representational form to share research findings arising from innovative educational practices.
The generic qualities of a qualitative doctoral dissertation proposal are discussed in this article, including how they relate to the dissertation and to the nature of a research university. Standard parts of a proposal are discussed and reasons given for the role each plays.
Many questions remain among both teachers and researchers about the research methods used in teacher research, about how theory is used, about what people are doing when they do it, about the values behind it, and about how it can be best used.
This paper offers an analysis of Mead’s contributions and contradictions in two sections, one on her ethnography, the other on her legacy applied to the problems of education in the contemporary United States, particularly her rarely noticed contributions to a theory of learning.
This article identifies and examines the ethical issues surrounding teacher research,
especially when the participants of the research are the teachers' own students.
In this article, we examine the ethical and epistemological implications of shifting
from a strictly teacher-centered group to include students in a collaborative co-researching
Discusses the importance of teachers and researchers learning to appreciate one another's professional roles to bridge the gap between research and practice. Information comes from meetings between teachers and researchers as part of a three-year study to discover how moral concerns permeate school life.
Systematic intentional inquiry by teachers makes accessible some of teachers' expertise and provides universities and schools with unique perspectives on teaching and learning. A four-part working typology of teacher research is proposed, with examples of the four types: journals, essays, oral inquiry processes, and classroom studies.
The author argues that the persistent criticism of teachers and of teacher education programs is due in part to the absence of a "consensus of the learned" about how teachers should be educated. Broudy’s position is that a working consensus could be established through a case-study method in teacher education if cases were developed to portray important problems identified by teachers as typical and recurrent in their professional practice.
This article presents three versions of what may happen in post-1989 research on teaching. In the first version, the quantitative approach dies of wounds inflicted by its critics. In the second, different approaches work in harmony, and in the third, the wars continue among competing approaches to educational research.
The concepts of metaphor, model, and theory are defined and used to show how social science research in general, and education research in particular, has differed from Popper's description of natural science research.
Initial findings from a five-year study of the educational reform process and its effects are reported. Findings derive from interviews with state and local policymakers and educators in 24 districts and 59 schools from 6 states. Areas discussed are politics of reform, state role, student standards and teacher-related policies.
A collaborative action research project studied how teachers in groups function at different developmental stages. Implications for staff development are described.
Interactive research and development can be an effective staff development strategy for experienced teachers. The teacher takes the role of researcher and the university professor acts as a team member in this partnership. Problems and prospects of implementing this program are discussed.
The concepts of mutual adaptation and mutual accomplishment are used in an analysis of implementation of a delinquency prevention research and development program. Success from the perspective of both the developer and the participant is described.
An examination of an attempt to change teaching practices
The difficulties surrounding the application of educational research are explored from the point of view that an empirical understanding of the social sciences is not as effective as a common sense approach to human behavior called "interpretative understanding." Shortcomings of empiricist methodology, laws, and interpretation are discussed.
Research on early childhood education, child development, and school readiness is used to support the argument that formal schooling for children under 8 or 10 years old is less desirable than home-based instruction. Research on neurophysiology, social-emotional development, cognitive development, school entrance age, parental potential, and other subjects is discussed.
This article is a discussion of an innovative approach to intensive group experience for educators.
Every new movement in education calls for someone to repeat the warning dictum of Emerson: An expense of ends to means is fate. We are too often satisfied to exemplify a method or use a means without critical examination of the ends we are serving; and whenever our zeal or our narrowness puts us into that position, we are giving up our control of the situation and allowing ourselves to act in automatic fashion in response to the demands of the method or means in question.
There has been maintained in Detroit, for about ten years, a system of special classes for backward children and from time to time other units have been added, so that at present there is a department of special education equipped to care for pupils who, for any reason, do not progress properly in the regular grades. The Psychological Clinic, one of the earliest of these units to develop, is the agency through which transfers to the various special classes are effected. This clinic has had a rapid, but very solid, growth and enjoys the confidence and the support of the teachers and principals to a degree unusual in American cities. There are on the staff of the Clinic eleven trained psychological examiners and :four social workers, all of whom give their full time to the work of the Clinic, and the Clinic has also its own physician.
There are numerous school systems, apparently, in which more or less systematic use has been made of intelligence tests, but in which the scores obtained from these tests have not been put to the fullest possible use for the improvement of organization, placement, and instruction. Naturally, the extent to which reclassification can be effected on the basis of test results is dependent upon the general lay-out of the system in question, the distribution of ability in its population, its financial resources, the availability of class- rooms and teachers, and many other factors. It is probable, indeed, that no scheme could be laid down in detail that would fit any large number of school systems. Nevertheless, it has seemed likely that an account of the manner in which a plan of intelligence testing has been related to a system of special classes in one American city might prove helpful to those who are undertaking similar work in other cities of similar size and character.
Once started, measurement in the lower-primary grades has advanced with considerable rapidity. It was remarkably late, however, in beginning. For this there was a variety of reasons. Prominent among them is the lack of agreement among educators concerning the earliest years of school life. Not only is there difference of opinion as to when a child should enter school, there is also still greater uncertainty and confusion of ideas as to the ideal course he should have after entrance.
The first mental test of any practical value for the measure- ment of intelligence was the Binet-Simon Scale. This scale was originally constructed to aid in the detection of feeble-minded children, and therefore, for a long time in the use of mental tests the emphasis was thrown upon the discovery of subnormal intelligence. It is from this period that we have inherited the expression "to submit a child to a mental examination," carrying with it a doubt as to the integrity of the child's intelligence.
Only in so far as the junior high school differs from other segments of the educational establishment will the uses of intelligence tests differ in a junior high school from their uses in other schools. The most outstanding characteristic of the junior high school is undoubtedly its sensitiveness to individual differences in pupils. This responsiveness to differences in its pupils is largely the result of fundamental purposes, although partly an accident due to the newness of this type of school. Furthermore, unless attention to differences is fostered and held constantly in mind as a cardinal virtue, such a school will soon lose the majority of its distinctive features.
In 1914 the writer, under the direction of Dr. Whipple, began the preparation of a thesis on ''Mental Tests and the Performance of High-School Students as Conditioned by Age, Sex, and Other Factors." It was hoped that as a result of the investigation a battery of tests might be developed that could be given to groups of high-school students, thus providing the principal or superintendent with a convenient instrument for predicting probable success in high-school work. At that time no such instrument had been developed. Furthermore, practically no reliable norms had been established for single tests that might be used in such a battery of tests.
In the very brief time available for preparing this report it was impossible to attempt any general survey of the administrative uses of tests in the normal schools of the country. All that seemed feasible was to make a report of three years' experience with the Thorndike Intelligence Examination for High-School Graduates in the normal school with which the writer is connected, and to supplement this report by such data as could quickly be gathered from some normal schools that the writer knew had given intelligence tests.