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Policy >> Standards

Articles
by Mei-Jiun Wu — 2013
As California’s accountability system places great emphasis on annual school improvement in Academic Performance Index (API) scores, this study investigates the within school effects of changes in student demographics and school resources on API gains. A balanced panel data set of 5,750 schools in California over the period of 1999-2008 was analyzed using a fixed effects model.

by Lauren Resnick, Mary Besterfield-Sacre, Matthew Mehalik, Jennifer Zoltners Sherer & Erica Halverson — 2007
As standards-based accountability systems have become common in American schools, performance data on state and national tests have become the bottom line of the educational enterprise, with systems for analyzing student test performance and for raising student test scores garnering substantial interest. Calls for data-driven management seem to focus largely on the use of student performance data to help teachers and administrators respond earlier to signals about how students are likely to perform on end-of-year or periodic state and national tests. This form of assessment-driven education focuses almost entirely on student performance—the output of education. The authors of this chapter believe that there is another essential kind of assessment that is needed if student-based assessment is to have its full, intended effect.

by Judith Sandholtz, Rodney Ogawa & Samantha Scribner — 2004
In this study, we examine unintended consequences of a school district's standards-based reform effort.

by Debra Ingram, Karen Seashore Louis & Roger Schroeder — 2004
One assumption underlying accountability policies is that results from standardized tests and other sources will be used to make decisions about school and classroom practice. We explore this assumption using data from a longitudinal study of nine high schools nominated as leading practitioners of Continuous Improvement (CI) practices.

by Linda Darling-Hammond — 2003
Standards-based reform was proposed as a means to bring coherence to the education system and trigger reforms and investments targeted at greater learning. These benefits have materialized in some states but not others, depending on their strategies for change. This article proposes mid-course corrections needed to ensure that standards-based reforms support student success, rather than punishing those who are already underserved.

by Elizabeth Dutro, Maria Fisk, Richard Koch, Laura Roop & Karen Wixson — 2002
This article focuses on how a statewide reform initiative, when envisioned as a professional development opportunity, impacted teachers’ capacities to become change agents in their classrooms and districts and how individual district contexts shaped the development of those capacities.

by David Kauffman, Susan Moore Johnson, Susan Kardos, Edward Liu & Heather Peske — 2002
Based on an interview study of fifty 1st- and 2nd-year teachers in Massachusetts, we describe a lack of curricular support for new teachers despite the progress of standards-based reform.

by Jacquelien Bos, Jan Terwel, Nico Verloop & Wim Wardekker — 2002
This article addresses informal classroom assessment in a manner consistent with a practitioner's perspective. Using results of teacher interviews, we present an alternative view of practitioner objectivity. This leads us to frame the reliability and validity of obervation for classroom assessment in a non-statistical way.

by Andrew Porter & John Smithson — 2001
This chapter focuses on the issues that must be addressed and the challenges that must be overcome to provide a credible answer to questions regarding the impact of standards on the quality of instruction received by students. Results from some preliminary investigations are reported herein.

by Patricia Kannapel, Pamelia Coe, Lola Aagaard & Cynthia Reeves — 2001
This chapter focuses primarily on the classroom effects of KERA in the six study schools, supplemented by findings of broader studies of KERA. Two research questions are addressed: (1) How has KERA influenced curriculum, instruction, and classroom assessment? and (2) How has KERA affected student learning?

by Kay Johnston & Heidi Ross — 2001
This essays argues that U.S. society has lost track of a crucial conversation regarding the purposes of education in favor of one focused on high standards. The result is a failure to see the complex connections between school and society.

by Thomas Romberg — 1998
Background to the key notions underlying the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics

by Judith Roitman — 1998
One mathematician's view of the NCTM standards document

by Deborah Haimo — 1998
A discussion of the danger of losing the essence of mathematics

by Senta Raizen — 1998
This article addresses the development, content, and potential for implementation of nationallly developed science education standards, including their adoption and effects at the state level.

by John Wright & Carol Wright — 1998
A commentary on the national standards for science education from the perspective of a university faculty member in the physical sciences.

by William Clune — 1998
The author explores further the areas of agreement and disagreement across the articles about the general issue of active learning, teaching for understanding, or, at the risk of raising a red flag, constructivism.

by Joe Nathan — 1998
This article questions whether the National Collegiate Athletic Organization (NCAA), an organization whose central role is regulating college and university sports, is really the appropriate group to dictate high school course standards. The article describes a growing national challenge to NCAA policies and procedures, and proposes next steps.

by Kennon Sheldon & Bruce Biddle — 1998
This article examines current debates about educational standards, accountability systems, and school reform from the perspective of Deci and Ryan’s Self-Determination Theory.

by Thomas Sobol — 1997
This article argues that new high standards are necessary and desirable, but that alone they are not enough.

by Madeleine Kunin — 1997
We cannot be satisfied until we can provide an excellent education to every child in America. That is why the compelling evidence from schools and communities across the country about the educational benefits of service learning merits our serious attention. We must begin to concentrate on what works in one community and learn how to transplant it to another. It is often said that there is an answer to every problem somewhere in America. Our challenge is to make those answers available everywhere, and make success more the norm than the exception.

by Edmund Gordon — 1995
This article discusses the recent history of development in accountability in a variety of educational settings, focusing on the national standards for educational achievement and the complexity of problems in setting those standards. It highlights student diversity, cultural pluralism, and the development of equitable systems of educational assessment.

by Peter Cookson, Jr. — 1995
This article explores the principal elements of Goals 2000, the origins of the "new federalism," the education legislative record of the Clinton administration, and what further efforts are necessary to meet the needs of American students.

by David Stevenson — 1995
This article explains briefly the provisions of Goals 2000, emphasizing its support of ongoing educational change at the state and local levels and state flexibility to develop diverse approaches to reform. To illustrate this flexibility, this article describes reform activities in Vermont, Delaware, and Oregon, and explains how these states are using initial Goals 2000 funds.

by Ellen Lagemann — 1995

by Richard Elmore & Susan Fuhrman — 1995
This article focuses on opportunity-to-learn standards, which define a set of conditions that schools, districts, and states must meet in order to ensure students an equal opportunity to meet expectations for their performance.

by Richard Riley — 1995
Goals 2000 defines the federal role as one of support and facilitation to improve all schools for all children while maintaining state and local control. The article discusses Goals 2000, looking at the beginning, the legislation, the national agenda, the state and local agenda, its passage into law, budgetary constraints, and the future.

by Linda Darling-Hammond & Jon Snyder — 1992
In this chapter we argue that major changes in American society are producing a radically different mission for schools--a mission requiring new conceptions of accountability tied to new roles for teachers. Social requirements are pressing for forms of schooling and teaching that will ensure high levels of student learning for all rather than the traditional school outcomes of success for some and failure for many others. This means that schools must find ways to reach diverse learners effectively rather than being accountable merely for "offering education" or "delivering instruction" regardless of the outcomes.

by Harold Noah — 1989
The author speaks on the nature of the curriculum and appropriate standards in education from an economist’s point of view, and considers the issue of national standards from an international perspective.

by Sara Lightfoot — 1989
The author suggests that we need to construct national standards that encourage and inspire school people; that allow for a pluralistic response to the pursuit of goals; and that standards need to be systematically reviewed and renewed in order to avoid typical bureaucratic anachronisms.

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Resources
  • Journal of Education
    The Journal of Education addresses students and educators with regard to pertinent issues in contemporary education.
  • Developing Content Standards: Creating a Process for Change
    Education leaders at every level of the system are developing standards to specify what students should know and be able to do in key subject areas. Local and state groups, professional organizations, and consortia of states and districts are constructing standards.
  • Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk (JESPAR)
    JESPAR's goals are to provide the best research-based information possible to professionals involved with improving the education of students placed at risk, and to promote the use of that information through effective communications among researchers, policymakers, and practitioners in the field.
  • Raising the Caution Flag on the Standards Movement
    Standards have become the mantra of school reform. They have replaced apple pie and motherhood as the one thing no educator can be against.
  • Review of Educational Research
    Published by the The American Educational Research Association (AERA), RER presents critical, integrative reviews of research literature bearing on education. Such reviews include conceptualizations, interpretations, and syntheses of literature and scholarly work in a field or problem areas.
  • Assessments and Accountability
    Questions regarding the impact, validity, and generalizability of reported gains, and the credibility of results in high-stakes accountability uses are discussed.
  • School Effectiveness and School Improvement
    The aim of the journal is to present information on research, educational practice and policy-making in the fields of school effectiveness and school improvement in a format that is accessible to both researcher and practitioner. Within this journal it will be assumed that the ultimate criterion for effectiveness and improvement is the educational progress of students regardless of family background and economic status.
  • A Nation At Risk: The Imperative For Educational Reform
    This report to the American people states that while the U.S. can take justifiable pride in what its schools and colleges have historically accomplished and contributed to the United States and the well-being of its people, the educational foundations of our society are presently being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity that threatens the very future of the Nation its people.
  • Journal of Education Policy
    The Journal of Education Policy aims to discuss, analyze and debate policymaking, policy- implementation and policy impact at all levels of an in all facets of education. It offers a forum for theoretical debate, and historical and comparative studies, as well as policy analysis and evaluation reports. The journal also analyses key policy documents and reviews, relevant texts and monographs.
  • Educational Research
    As the leading forum for informed thinking on issues of contemporary concern in education, Educational Research draws upon projects in universities, colleges of education and other institutions in Britain and around the world. The journal publishes research findings in all areas of education, from policy-making to classroom teaching.
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