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Diversity >> At-Risk Students

by Alexandra Pavlakis, Peter Goff & Peter Miller — 2017
This article aims to explore the unique impacts of homelessness—above and beyond poverty—on students’ academic growth.

by Angela Barton, Edna Tan & Day Greenberg — 2017
This article describes how and why youth engage in making in an after-school, youth-focused, community-based makerspace program. Using a mobilities of learning framework, authors discuss how youth appropriated and repurposed the process of making, and unpack how the program attempted to value and negotiate youths’ ways of making from an equity-oriented perspective.

by David Shernoff & Janine Bempechat — 2014
This introduction to the Yearbook focuses on: conceptualizations of engagement, the processes of engagement, portraits of engaging learning environments, and whole-school approaches to education.

by Sean Kelly & Heather Price — 2014
The authors examine changes in the level and dispersion of student engagement across the transition to high school. Changes in the total dispersion in engagement among all students, as well as divergence in engagement between students of differing gender, race, socioeconomic background, and initial levels of achievement are reported.

by Yibing Li, Jennifer Agans, Paul Chase, Miriam Arbeit, Michelle Weiner & Richard Lerner — 2014
This chapter explains the links between relational developmental systems theory and the strength-based, positive youth development (PYD) perspective. The Five Cs model of PYD (involving competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring) is used to assess the role of school engagement in PYD.

by Michael Furlong, Jeffrey Froh, Meagan Muller & Victoria Gonzalez — 2014
A body of research has emerged during the past three decades focusing on how students engage in the schooling process and the broader positive developmental outcomes associated with high levels of engagement and lower involvement in high-risk behaviors. This chapter suggests that gratitude might offer a unique contribution for understanding how affective engagement and positive relationships could enhance student school bonding and thereby student social-emotional and academic outcomes.

by Carrie Furrer, Ellen Skinner & Jennifer Pitzer — 2014
The quality of students’ relationships with teachers and peers is a fundamental substrate for the development of academic engagement and achievement. This chapter offers teachers and researchers a motivational framework that explains how positive and negative student–teacher and student–peer relationships are sustained in the classroom, and strategies for creating solutions to improve relationships.

by Janine Bempechat, Maureen Kenny, David Blustein & Joanne Seltzer — 2014
This chapter presents findings of a three-year longitudinal study of academic motivation and school engagement among low-income high school students enrolled in a corporate work–study program. Our findings demonstrate ways in which the workplace functioned for students as a conduit of emotional resources, offering instrumental support from caring and competent adults, knowledge about the connection between work and school, and an opportunity to occupy the essential adult role of worker.

by M. Callahan & Donalda Chumney — 2009
Callahan and Chumney use a comparative case study approach to examine the experiences and outcomes of remedial writing students enrolled in two urban public institutions: a community college and a research university. Applying Bourdieu’s theory of practice, this ethnographic study reveals that institutions further determine the advantage or disadvantage of remedial students by controlling their access to cultural capital, which is critical for navigating the field of higher education successfully.

by Nonie Lesaux — 2006
The growing population of English language learners (ELLs) in U.S. schools and the low academic achievement of many of these learners have been the subject of much debate. A significant related issue is determining the sources of ELLs' difficulty, namely, understanding the distinction between learning disabilities (LD) and learning difficulties due primarily to contextual factors and second-language learning. This article addresses the future directions for research in this area, with an emphasis on the need to build consensus through converging lines of evidence.

by David Berliner — 2006
David Berliner's 2005 Presidential Invited Speech to the American Educational Research Association meeting in Montreal, Canada, May, 2005.

by Sharon Nichols & Thomas Good — 2004
The authors argue that society holds largely negative views of youth. As a result, at least in part, too many youth are left alone or are given very little guidance and support. We must begin to view youth as an investment instead of a burden if we are to sustain the quality of our society.

by Stanley Pogrow — 2004
This article draws on the author’s experience both as a teacher in inner city schools and as a researcher to explain the cause of student's blank stare when asked open-ended questions, and the keys to eliminating the problem.

by Judith Pace — 2003
Drawing on an interpretive study of classroom authority relations in a U.S. metropolitan high school, this article describes and analyzes the character of these relations, and their connection to social theory and educational ideologies.

by Ronnie Casella — 2003
The article examines how zero tolerance policy is enacted in schools, and how the policy is supported by developments in technology, crime and prison policy, and social science theories of delinquency. The reseach is based on qualitative research and policy analysis, and has an interdisciplinary focus that would be of interest to educators, policymakers, and school administrators.

by William Lockwood — 2003
A story about "tacit to explicit" learning and the importance of conversation to the learning process.

by Sandra Mickens — 2003
This commentary argues that we must understand and respond to the emotional issues posed for students by violent school environments so that all students can begin to prepare for the academic challenges envisioned by the No Child Left Behind Act.

by Adam Lefstein — 2002
Study examines the relationship between pedagogy and classroom control in traditional and progressivist teaching practices. Based on study of current Israeli school reform program, I argue that this relationship has been inadequately addressed, both in theory and in practice.

by Deborah Land & Nettie Legters — 2002
What factors place a child at risk of academic failure and dropping out of school? In this chapter, we argue that educators, researchers, and policymakers are developing a richer and more complex understanding of the conditions and experiences that lead to negative educational outcomes. In the first section, we describe how thinking about risk in education has begun to shift from identifying risk factors solely in terms of students’ individual and family characteristics to an acknowledgment that substandard teaching and learning environments allow far too many children to fail. In the second section, we examine the scope of risk through an examination of individual/family-level risk indicators. In the third section, we explore school-related risk factors to round out our assessment of risk. We conclude with a brief summary of the extent and consequences of risk of educational failure in the U.S. in which we emphasize the need to focus on the compound nature of risk, specifically interactions between individual/family-level and school-level risk factors.

by Hersh Waxman, Jon Gray & Yolanda Padrón — 2002
This chapter explains how a perspective on educational resiliency might improve the education of at-risk students. Such a framework may also help educators design more effective educational interventions that specifically take into account those “alterable” factors that distinguish resilient from nonresilient students. First, we discuss issues related to the definition of resiliency. Next, we review several recent studies in the area of educational resiliency, specifically those that focus on differences between resilient and nonresilient students’ characteristics, family background, and perceptions of the classroom and school environment. The final sections of the chapter focus on implications for educational practice and research.

by Robert Jagers & Grace Carroll — 2002
The issues considered in this chapter overlap with concerns for all students. For example, the issues of educating the whole child, the role of teachers, and school choice, which we will address below, are part of the educational discussion in all segments of American society. However, our focus will be specifically on the schooling of urban African American children, because of their unique experience of racial oppression and the distinct cultural adaptations that occur in inner-city environments. We begin the chapter with a cursory treatment of race, class, culture, and learning outcomes.

by Yolanda Padrón, Hersh Waxman & Héctor Rivera — 2002
The focus of this chapter is to examine factors that may contribute to Hispanic students’ success and to address the complex issues created by cultural diversity among Hispanics in relation to their values and beliefs, since any single approach may not address the needs of all Hispanic students.

by Barbara Wasik, Mary Alice Bond & Annemarie Hindman — 2002
This chapter will first define the term “quality” with respect to preschool and kindergarten curriculum. An outline of the components of effective preschool and kindergarten programs for at-risk children will then be presented. These components are based on research findings from intervention practices that have been shown to have a positive impact on children’s later growth and development (Wasik, Bond, & Hindman, in press). In addition, systemic issues regarding class size, length of the day, and grouping practices will be addressed. Finally, the importance of professional development as the key to effective classroom practices will be discussed.

by Robert Slavin — 2002

by Robert Balfanz, Allen Ruby & Douglas Mac Iver — 2002
The first half of this chapter briefly summarizes the lessons learned to date regarding components that are absolutely essential for transforming high poverty middle schools. As developers of the Talent Development Middle School (TDMS) model,2 we draw upon our own experiences from the past 6 years working with high poverty middle schools in Philadelphia, Memphis, New Jersey, and Michigan. We argue that by focusing on the infrastructure of teaching and learning and by creating a communal organization of schooling, it is possible to make significant achievement and motivational gains in high poverty middle schools. In the second half of this chapter, we discuss several remaining instructional, school culture, and policy obstacles that must be overcome, and we consider the additional components that are still needed to reliably transform the most troubled high poverty middle schools into strong learning institutions.

by James McPartland, Robert Balfanz, Will Jordan & Nettie Legters — 2002
The extent and location of weak learning environments and poor student outcomes in American high schools need to be better understood if we are to focus attention and resources where reforms are most needed. We begin this chapter by providing various indicators of the serious problems affecting high schools and then describe how the indicators are concentrated in large high schools in high-poverty areas. There is an emerging consensus that comprehensive reform approaches that address high school organization and operations offer promising solutions to these problems. Therefore, we also provide a brief history of earlier reform recommendations that have evolved into the comprehensive change models now available. We conclude with a description of four common components of comprehensive reform models for high schools, with examples and recent evaluation evidence from one selected model that offers specific materials and support systems.

by Mavis Sanders, Glenda Allen-Jones & Yolanda Abel — 2002
This chapter discusses the current state of family and community involvement in the schooling of students placed at risk. It describes developments in research and policy in family and community involvement during the past decade. It also reports continued barriers to family and community involvement, especially in low-resource, high-risk schools and communities. The chapter concludes with suggestions for maximizing schools’ capacity to involve families and communities in the education of children and youth placed at risk. It emphasizes the importance of teacher preparation and professional development, a team approach to partnership program design and implementation, and district-level support and facilitation.

by Robert Rueda & Ellen McIntyre — 2002
Schools can and should provide access to purposeful, transformative, empowering experiences that move students from the ability to read to full literacy.

by Richard Durán — 2002
This chapter explores the issues underlying technology in the education of at-risk students. First it examines facts that have emerged from large scale surveys of students’ access to computers in home and school settings as related to low income status and ethnic/racial background. Then it examines some of the survey data on schools’ use of computers and research on achievement related to technology. The next section of the chapter discusses directions for research that might help illuminate the role of technology in the learning of at-risk youth, focusing on “situated case studies” of authentic instructional practices that carefully examine how technology is related to the unique cultural and social circumstances of learning settings. Particular attention is devoted to those instructional practices that build on students’ background knowledge and motivation to communicate and learn in after-school as well as classroom settings.

by Geoffrey Borman — 2002
In this chapter, I discuss the evolution and effectiveness of Title I, the largest federal investment in the nation’s public schools. Specifically, I summarize how the program has evolved from one that is ineffectual and poorly implemented to one that is relatively well implemented and somewhat effective, but clearly in need of further improvement. I conclude the chapter by discussing how the Title I research base may inform current and future efforts to research and evaluate the program.

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