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Social Context >> History of Schooling

Articles
by Sarah Deschenes, David Tyack & Larry Cuban — 2001
In the context of the current standards-based reform movement, the authors explore the “mismatch” between the structure of schools and the social, cultural, or economic backgrounds of students identified as problems over the past century and a half.

by Christopher Mazzeo — 2001
Using archival and secondary sources, the author examines the early history of state student assessment in the United States.

by Richard Venezky — 2001
The assortment of volumes, chapters, and chapter fragments of NSSE offers an amazing range of issues, treatments, and opinions about reading and reading instruction. Some of these continue to speak imaginatively to issues prominent today and merit republication; others served their time well but have been superseded or outdated. And others are best left in the musty obscurity of university archives and the occasional used book store. From another perspective, however, these materials can be read as primary source materials for the history of the NSSE, its selection processes, and the people who dominated the reading committees for almost half of the NSSE’s existence. This is a more difficult story to compose, given the limited form of evidence, but it is an important one for helping the NSSE select a viable future. This chapter is an attempt to present both of these perspectives, based upon an analysis of the NSSE treatment of reading, from Volume 1 in 1902 until Volume 99, issued at the beginning of the year 2000.

by Diane Ravitch, Richard Heffner, David Ment & Cally Waite — 2001
A discussion with Diane Ravitch on her book Left Back: A Century of Battles Over School Reform

by Jonathan Zimmerman — 1999
The author considers citizen action as an explanation for the decline of the traditional curriculum and the rise of a more practical differentiated curriculum in U.S. schools during the first half of the twentieth century.

by Anne Meis Knupfer — 1999
This article follows the rise of the visiting teacher movement and considers the lessons for current efforts to develop school-linked social services.

by James Leming — 1997
In this chapter I will explore the historical relationship between research into character education and the development of theory and practice in the field. I will also discuss the implications of prior research programs for the future of theory, research, and practice in the current character education movement.

by Connie Titone — 1997
This article presents Macaulay’s views as expressed in her noteworthy work Letters on Education, printed originally in 1787 and in revised form in 1790.

by Howard Segal — 1996
As far as we can determine in the absence of scientific public opinion polls for most of American history, a clear majority of Americans have associated technology with progress. Equally important, those Americans have usually equated technological progress with social progress. It is therefore reasonable to outline here what I call the American ideology of technological progress and then to suggest how it is changing as that historic technological optimism fades. The relevance of this change to education in America will be addressed in the final pages of the chapter.

by Benjamin Bloom — 1994
The phenomenal growth of the use of the Taxonomy can only be explained by the fact that it filled a void; it met a previously unmet need for basic, fundamental planning in education. For the first time, educators were able to evaluate the learning of students systematically.

by Lorin Anderson & Lauren Sosniak — 1994
The excerpts included in this chapter are taken primarily from the first part, with the exception of the bulk of the material included in the section we call "Translating Plan into Action: Filling in the Details."

by Elisabeth Hansot — 1993
In this essay I will look at three such reform efforts: the "boy problem," identified in the Progressive era when critics charged the schools with being too "female"; a concurrent discussion of the "woman question," when critics worried that women were not being adequately prepared for their adult vocations of wife and mother; and the critique of coeducation in the 1960s and 1970s, when feminists argued that the curriculum and training of girls was intentionally or inadvertently sexist.

by George Geahigan — 1992
Of all the forces that have affected American education, perhaps the most immediate and enduring has been the drive towards universal mass education). The rise of the common school movement in the nineteenth century and the rapid growth of the secondary school in the twentieth created enormous pressures to expand and diversify the curriculum to meet the needs of an increasingly heterogeneous student body. It was during these periodic phases of expansion that the arts were introduced into the public school curriculum.

by Maxine Greene — 1989
The image of the teacher—be he or she called "teacher," "educator," or simply "we"—in John Dewey's texts emerges from a convergence of the writer's lived experience and intellectual history. Behind each rendering lies a memory, perhaps a story of his Burlington childhood and youth.

by Sheldon Rothblatt — 1988
Whether we attribute the origins of the idea of the love of knowledge being its own reward to Aristotle or to Plato and Pythagoras, the fact must be that all education, including general education, is by definition practical. How it is practical is the operative question. Is it broadly or narrowly useful, general preparation for life in the world or for a specific career? Even this polarity hardly exhausts the possibilities of utility. General preparation for life presupposes some kind of life, some kind of social role, and the word "career" covers occupations as diverse as soothsaying to the writing of software manuals. Furthermore, some occupations require more general preparation than others; some demand only rudimentary instruction.

by Steven Selden — 1988
This article reviews positions of scientists, educators and publicists who resisted eugenics and determinism. The nature nurture controversy is discussed, as well as the impact of eugenics on American classrooms. Specific attention is given to four resisters: Dewey, Bagley, Jennings, and Lippmann.

by Laurel Tanner — 1988
This book is about the critical issues facing curriculum workers. It is about problems that are surrounded by intensity of feeling, such as the influence of testing on the curriculum and the censorship of textbooks; it is about problems that are widely recognized and on which there is a great abundance of material. (The dropout problem, which is now receiving a great deal of attention from the lay public and professional educators, is an obvious example.) It is also about problems that are not so well known but are, nonetheless, deeply felt by educators, and we are just beginning to define the nature of some of the less well-known problems.

by Herbert Kliebard — 1985
Over a period of several years two main traditions have dominated the way in which American education has been seen and interpreted. The older tradition has been to focus on the story of how American education expanded from elitist traditions, borrowed largely from Europe, to encompass the great mass of children and youth in the United States. American education, from this perspective, is the story of a gradual transformation from a selective and class-biased system to one much more in harmony with popular American democracy. In general, the data for this story are drawn from the ever-increasing numbers of students who were entering the schoolhouse doors. It is, in one sense, a very dramatic story, the story of an experiment in mass public education extending at least to secondary schools—an experiment that many people would insist is still under way and where the results are still inconclusive.

by David Moshman — 1985
The case of Faith Christian School is only one of a number of recent legislative and judicial battles over the issue of state control of private education. The case is discussed in detail and then the fundamental issues it raises are considered.

by William Thomas — 1985
School responses to Black migrant youth

by Bruce Kimball — 1985
A review is presented of the differences between Matthew Arnold's and Thomas Huxley's views on liberal education.

by Michael Apple — 1985
The fact that most elementary school teachers are female provides a key to understanding why there are often attempts by state bureaucrats, industry, and academics to control the curricular and teaching practices in classrooms. It also explains why these externally derived controls are often transformed by teachers once they are in their classrooms.

by Herbert Kliebard — 1984
"Humanism," John Dewey once remarked, "is a portmanteau word. ''l It packs together a variety of meanings, some drawn from its origins in fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Italy, some from its association with literature, particularly classical literature, some from its alleged opposition to theology, and, in more recent times, from its antiromantic and antinaturalistic temper. On its education side, it has come to be associated with a set of subjects, a segment of the school curriculum, believed to have the power to stir the imagination, enhance the appreciation of beauty, and disclose motives that actuate human behavior.

by Barbara Finkelstein — 1984
The current education reform movement reveals a retreat from democracy towards a commitment to technological advancement. The dangers inherent in this trend, where schools are turned into industrial and cultural instruments rather than developers of new political visions, are discussed.

by Phillip Schlechty & Anne Joslin — 1984
Metaphors used commonly in education do not adequately define school problems or help in reform. A new metaphor of the school as a knowledge work organization is offered with a description of teacher and student roles.

by Robert Zuber Jr. — 1984
The recent death of R. Buckminster Fuller was ample cause for students of religious and educational policy to pause and reflect. This man, widely regarded as an inventor, writer, architect, and social planner, had an influential and loyal following. His personal charm and enthusiasm for the potential lurking in the human mind to overcome old obstacles and create bold futures was a needed antidote to the cynicism and moral paralysis characteristic of much of our present age. It is thus with great respect and a tinge of remorse that the following bit of critical commentary is presented in testimony to Fuller’s life and death.

by Bruce Leslie — 1984
This article explores child and youth organizations created as a Socialist supplement to formal schooling in the early twentieth century. An examination of the Socialist party's views of educational policies is given.

by Eugene Provenzo Jr. — 1984
Educational materials such as textbooks often reflect and define a culture through the use of symbols and metaphors. The use of visual metaphors in frontispieces of reading and spelling texts during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries show the emergence of a patriotic iconography.

by John McDermott — 1983
This article discusses the development of the "individual" in America from John Dewey's and Josiah Royce's philosophical perspectives. Also outlined is America's changing role in the world.

by Charles Willie — 1983
The educational background and achievements of Benjamin Elijah Mays are related to illustrate points about the education of Black students. Such students need encouragement from teachers, a student-centered curriculum, and sometimes more time to perform well in college than classmates who are not educationally disadvantaged.

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Resources
  • Education-line
    Education-line [UK] is an indexed, full text, electronic archive of conference and working papers, reports, policy and discussion documents and early research results in the field of education and training. Education-line is an Anonymous FTP site for education—the only one of its kind in the field!
  • Letter to the Board of Directors of the City Club of Chicago" In A Report on Vocational Training in Chicago and in Other Cities.
    A report on industrial education in Chicago in 1912 by George Herbert Mead and others.
  • Education Review
    Education Review (ER) publishes review articles of recently published books in education. ER contains sixteen departments covering the range of educational scholarship, and is intended to promote wider understanding of the latest and best research in the field.
  • Criticizing the Schools: Then and Now
    An article comparing criticisms of education in 1957 with current criticisms
  • Britsh Journal of Educational Studies
    The British Journal of Educational Studies publishes scholarly, research-based articles on education which draw particularly upon historical, philosophical and sociological analysis and sources.
  • History of Education
  • The Educational Forum
    The Educational Forum presents scholarly inquiries that generate new knowledge and insights on issues of great importance in the improvement of education. It serves as a forum for learned discussion of these issues by presenting ideologically and culturally diverse viewpoints.
  • Historical Educational Attainment Reports from 1940 through 1989
  • FORUM: for promoting 3-19 comprehensive education
    FORUM has for almost forty years been the pre-eminent focal point in the United Kingdom for topical and informed analysis - very often highly forthright and critical - of all aspects of government policy as it influences the education of children from primary through to higher education.
  • Harvard Educational Review
    The Harvard Educational Review is a journal of opinion and research in the field of education. In addition to discussions and reviews of research and theory, HER welcomes articles that reflect on teaching and practice in educational settings in the United States and abroad.
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