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Talking 'Bout My Generation: Defining “First-Generation College Students” in Higher Education Research


by Robert K. Toutkoushian, Robert A. Stollberg & Kelly A. Slaton — 2018

Background/Context: There have been numerous studies conducted in the higher education literature to determine whether parental education is related to the academic plans and success of their children. Within this literature, particular emphasis is often given to children who are “first-generation college students.” However, researchers and policy makers have not reached agreement on what constitutes a first-generation college student and whether the definition affects the findings from their studies.

Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: In this study, we examined whether the way in which first-generation college status was defined affected its association with the likelihood of a student going to college. We used data from the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:02), which is a nationally representative longitudinal sample of 10th-grade students in 2002 who were followed up in 2004, 2006, and 2012.

Research Design: We used binary and multinomial logistic regression analysis to examine how first-generation college status, as well as other personal, family, and school characteristics, were associated with whether a student took a college entrance exam, applied to college, and enrolled in college. For this study, we constructed eight different definitions of a first-generation college student. The definitions varied with regard to the level of education needed for a parent to be considered “college educated” and the number of parents meeting the education criteria.

Conclusions/Recommendations: Our results showed that the connection between first-generation college status and these three outcomes varied depending on how first-generation college status was defined. In general, we found larger deficits for first-generation college students when neither parent was college educated and when college educated was defined as earning a bachelor’s degree or higher. First-generation college students faced the largest deficits for enrolling in college, and smaller (but often significant) deficits for taking a college entrance exam and applying to college. The results imply that researchers should be very specific about how they are defining first-generation college status and should determine whether their findings are sensitive to how the variable was defined.



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Cite This Article as: Teachers College Record Volume 120 Number 4, 2018, p. 1-
http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 22042, Date Accessed: 9/24/2017 10:36:20 PM

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About the Author
  • Robert Toutkoushian
    University of Georgia
    E-mail Author
    ROBERT K. TOUTKOUSHIAN is a professor of higher education in the Institute of Higher Education at the University of Georgia. His research focuses on the application of economic models and theories to issues in higher education. Recent studies of his include an analysis of the timing at which high school students decide to go to college, and the financial payoff to students and society from higher education. He is also the coauthor of the recent book Economics of Higher Education: Background, Concepts, and Applications (Springer, 2016).
  • Robert Stollberg
    University of Georgia
    E-mail Author
    ROBERT A. STOLLBERG is a Ph.D. student at the University of Georgia's Institute of Higher Education. He also works as a research analyst on the NPSAS family of postsecondary studies at RTI International. His research interests include crime in college towns and student loan debt effects on employment outcomes.
  • Kelly Slaton
    University of Georgia
    E-mail Author
    KELLY A. SLATON is a Ph.D. student at the University of Georgia’s Institute of Higher Education. She also works full time as a research analyst in the Office of Institutional Research at the University of Georgia. Her research interests include issues of access, first-generation college students, women in higher education, issues of work–life balance, and higher education data management.
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