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Coupling Between Metacognition and Emotions During STEM Learning With Advanced Learning Technologies: A Critical Analysis, Implications for Future Research, and Design of Learning Systems


by Roger Azevedo, Nicholas Mudrick, Michelle Taub & Franz Wortha — 2017

Metacognition and emotions play a critical role in learners’ ability to monitor and regulate their learning about 21st-century skills related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) content while using advanced learning technologies (ALTs; e.g., intelligent tutoring systems, serious games, hypermedia, augmented reality). In this article, we focus on the following: (1) presenting a succinct review of the assumptions, strengths, and weaknesses of two leading models of metacognition and emotions related to 21st-century skills typically not adopted by ALT researchers; (2) presenting and critiquing Azevedo and colleagues’ extension of the information processing theory of self-regulated learning by articulating the assumptions as well as describing the advantages and disadvantages of including the macro-level, micro-level, and valence of metacognitive processes; and (3) proposing future directions and presenting implications for the design of metacognitive and affect-sensitive ALTs for 21st-century skills in STEM.


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Cite This Article as: Teachers College Record Volume 119 Number 13, 2017, p. 1-
http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 21922, Date Accessed: 10/19/2017 2:18:41 PM

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About the Author
  • Roger Azevedo
    North Carolina State University
    E-mail Author
    ROGER AZEVEDO is a professor in the Department of Psychology at North Carolina State University and director of the Laboratory for the Study of Metacognition and Advanced Learning Technologies. He has 18 years of experience leading interdisciplinary projects funded by the NSF, IES, and NIH. He is the recipient of an NSF CAREER Award and a Fellow of the American Psychological Association. His main research examines cognitive, affective, metacognitive, and motivational self-regulatory processes with advanced learning technologies, including intelligent tutoring systems, hypermedia, simulations, and serious games. He is Editor of Metacognition & Learning and serves on the editorial board of other top-tier learning, cognitive, and computational science journals. He has published over 200 peer-reviewed papers, chapters, and conference proceedings. Relevant publications: Azevedo, R. (2015). Defining and measuring engagement and learning in science: Conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and analytical issues. Educational Psychologist, 50, 84–94; and Azevedo, R., Taub, M., & Mudrick, N. V. (in press). Using multi-channel trace data to infer and foster self-regulated learning between humans and advanced learning technologies. In D. Schunk & J. A. Greene (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation of learning and performance (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
  • Nicholas Mudrick
    North Carolina State University
    E-mail Author
    NICHOLAS MUDRICK is a third-year Ph.D. student in human factors and applied cognition at North Carolina State University. His research interests include the cognitive, affective, and metacognitive processes underlying comprehension and metacomprehension during learning with multimedia materials. More specifically, he is interested in using multichannel trace data such as log files, facial expressions of emotions, eye tracking, and electrodermal activity to predict and determine the accuracy of students’ metacognitive judgments as they learn with multimedia material. Relevant publications: Mudrick, N., Azevedo, R, & Taub, M. (2016, August). Using eye-movements to understand metacomprehension during learning with multimedia discrepancies. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI) Metacognition SIG, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Mudrick, N., Azevedo, R., Taub, M., & Bouchet, F. (2015). Does the frequency of pedagogical agent intervention relate to learners’ self-reported boredom while using multiagent intelligent tutoring systems? In D. C. Noelle, R. Dale, A. S. Warlaumont, J. Yoshimi, T. Matlock, C. D. Jennings, & P. P. Maglio (Eds.), Proceedings of the 37th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (pp.1661–1666). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.
  • Michelle Taub
    North Carolina State University
    E-mail Author
    MICHELLE TAUB is a Ph.D. candidate in human factors and applied cognition at North Carolina State University. Her research interests include using nontraditional statistical techniques (i.e., multilevel modeling) when analyzing multichannel data, such as eye tracking, videos of facial expressions, and log-file data, to examine students’ metacognitive monitoring during learning with different types of advanced learning technologies (e.g., intelligent tutoring systems, game-based learning environments, hypermedia, and simulations). Relevant publications: Taub, M., Martin, S. A., Azevedo, R., & Mudrick, N. V. (2016). The role of pedagogical agents on learning: Issues and trends. In F. Neto, R. Souza, & A. Gomes (Eds.), Handbook of research on 3-D virtual environments and hypermedia for ubiquitous learning (pp. 362–386). Hershey, PA: IGI Global; and Taub, M., Mudrick, N. V., Azevedo, R., Millar, G. C., Rowe, J., & Lester, J. (in press). Using multi-channel data with multi-level modeling to assess in-game performance during gameplay with CRYSTAL ISLAND. Computers in Human Behavior.
  • Franz Wortha
    Technische Universität
    E-mail Author
    FRANZ WORTHA is completing his master of science in psychology at Technische Universität Dresden, Germany. His interests lie in investigating emotions during self-regulated learning processes in hypermedia learning environments. Specifically, he is interested in analyzing emotions and their relation to cognitive and metacognitive processes through the use of online trace data, without interfering with the learning process. Relevant publications: Wortha, F., Azevedo, R., Taub, M., Mudrick, N. V., Martin, S. A., Millar, G. C., & Narciss, S. (2016, April). Emotion profiles: The importance of emotions during learning with a multi-agent hypermedia-learning environment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Washington, DC; and Wortha, F., Azevedo, R., Taub, M., Mudrick, N. V., Martin, S. A., Millar, G. C., & Narciss, S. (2016, August). Judgments of learning during learning with hypermedia—How do they affect study time allocation and study behaviors? Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI) Metacognition SIG, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
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