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A Longitudinal Model of School Climate, Social Justice Orientation, and Academic Outcomes Among Latina/o Students


by Leyla M. Pérez-Gualdrón & Janet E. Helms — 2017

Background: Social justice orientation (SJO) is the motivation to promote justice and equity among all in society. Researchers argue that students of Color with high SJO can resist structural racism in their schools/society and have positive academic outcomes.

Purpose: In the present study, a longitudinal model of cultural and environmental predictors (i.e., school relational climate, school language climate, Spanish language background, and English proficiency) and civic/educational outcomes (i.e., community engagement, grades, school engagement, school dropout) of SJO among Latina/o youths was developed and tested.

Participants: The study was conducted with a subsample of Latinas/os taken from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988. Participants were enrolled in eighth grade (N = 1,472), sampled from different schools and regions in the U.S., and followed through three waves of data collection from 8th through 12th grade.

Research Design: A longitudinal, correlational design was used to explore the association among the constructs studied.

Data Collection and Analysis: Secondary data analyses were conducted. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to analyze the data.

Results: Early school relational climate (8th grade) was a positive predictor of SJO, which in turn predicted more community and school engagement, higher grades, and decreased likelihood of dropping out of school (12th grade) via personal agency. In addition, school language climate and language skills predicted a greater sense of personal agency, which in turn predicted higher grades and a decreased likelihood of dropping out.

Conclusions: The results of the present study underscore the importance of strengths-based and cultural approaches in education in a sample of Latina/o students. Specifically, close attention should be paid to school cultural climate variables in which positive relational climates and cultural language climates are addressed in schools. The integration of sociopolitical context, critical consciousness, and SJO may be key factors in improving the educational and counseling experiences of Latina/o youths.



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Cite This Article as: Teachers College Record Volume 119 Number 10, 2017, p. 1-38
http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 21856, Date Accessed: 12/11/2017 11:48:25 PM

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About the Author
  • Leyla Pérez-Gualdrón
    University of San Francisco
    E-mail Author
    LEYLA PÉREZ-GUALDRÓN is an Assistant Professor at the Counseling Psychology Department at the University of San Francisco. Her research interests include social justice orientation, sociopolitical development, resistance to oppression, racial identity, bilingualism, multicultural counseling, and educational/civic outcomes among youths. She has published about topics related to urban youth educational experiences and multicultural counseling. She has recently published: Pérez-Gualdrón, L. M., & Yeh, C. (2013). Multicultural counseling and therapy: Counseling for social justice. In V. Benet-Martínez & Y. Y. Hong (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Multicultural Identity: Basic and Applied Psychological Perspectives. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Janet Helms
    Boston College
    E-mail Author
    JANET E. HELMS is the Augustus Long Professor in the Department of Counseling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology and Director of the Institute for the Study and Promotion of Race and Culture at Boston College. She has published in the areas of the integration of race, culture, and assessment; racial and cultural factors in education; test fairness in educational and occupational testing; race, culture, and trauma; and the intersection of multiple identities. She has recently published: Helms, J. E. (2016). Counseling Black women: Understanding the effects of multilevel invisibility. In M. Kopala and M. A. Keitel (Eds.), Handbook of Counseling Women (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
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