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Prompting Reflections for Integrating Self-Regulation Into Teacher Technology Education


by Tova Michalsky & Bracha Kramarski — 2015

Background: Technology represents a major topic in educational research. Nevertheless, a gap in the research remains concerning how teachers can bring technology into the classroom. This study focuses on the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) framework, which aims to consolidate the multidisciplinary professional knowledge related to technology, pedagogy, and content that teachers need so that they can teach and students can learn effectively using technology tools.

Purpose: The goal of the present study was to investigate the value of modification reflection prompts (“think ahead”) as a complementary reflective framework during the teacher preparatory program, beyond the more traditional judgment reflection prompts (“think back”). In particular, we examined how preservice science teachers may capitalize on learning from modification prompts versus judgment prompts versus both (“think back” and “think ahead”), compared with learning from generic prompts (“stop and think”) based on the IMPROVE model oriented to TPCK. We examined these four treatments’ effects on preservice teachers’ actual design of science lessons and development of their own self-reflection abilities.

Participants: Participants were 199 first-year preservice science teachers in their preparatory programs at a university in central Israel.

Research Design: We created a quasi-experimental opportunity for four groups of preservice science teachers to systematically contemplate ready-made TPCK-oriented lesson designs. Each used one of four different reflective methods (the independent variable): modification, judgment, combined modification+judgment, or generic prompts. Then we examined the differential contribution of these treatment methods to the two dependent variables: (1) preservice teachers’ skills for designing actual science lessons and (2) their judgment-type and modification-type self-reflection ability regarding the planning, monitoring, and evaluation phases of their lesson-design process.

Data Collection and Analysis: Data were scored by coding schemes and were analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance and follow-up analyses of variance with repeated measures.

Findings: Results indicated that preservice teachers who contemplated a combination of both judgment and modification reflections in treatment improved more in their lesson-design skills and in their self-reflection ability (of both types at the three phases), compared with preservice teachers who contemplated only a single type of reflective prompt (generic or only judgment or modification). Lasting effects (after a semester without the IMPROVE model, prompts, or TPCK focus) revealed that the combined approach continued to significantly outperform the single approaches.

Recommendations: The current study reinterprets the instructional-reflective framework of teacher education programs to include modification reflection too as a means of developing preservice teachers’ capacity to integrate technology in their lesson designs.



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Cite This Article as: Teachers College Record Volume 117 Number 5, 2015, p. 1-38
http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 17917, Date Accessed: 6/27/2017 8:24:13 AM

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About the Author
  • Tova Michalsky
    Bar-Ilan University
    E-mail Author
    TOVA MICHALSKY is a senior lecturer in the School of Education at Bar-Ilan University in Israel. Her work combines several interrelated academic fields from which she draws on her expertise as an educational researcher and her extensive professional experience in science education and teacher education. She developed an innovative method for teaching science called s-MINT (students’ Metacognitive guided Inquiry within asynchronous learning Networked Technology). This method is based on high-order thinking skills for teaching science inquiry in digital learning environments via guidance in self-regulated learning, cooperative learning, and feedback-corrective theories. Many websites have been developed in Israel based on the s-MINT method, for secondary schools and for teacher education. Moreover, she collaborated with various European countries (Spain, Greece, Cyprus) in designing s-MINT-based science curricula and was awarded Third Prize in the E-scola European Competition for Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Education in 2006. Today, she heads the s-MINT program at Bar-Ilan University. Recent publications: Michalsky, T. (2012). Shaping self-regulation in science teachers’ professional growth: inquiry skills. Science Education, 96(6), 1106–1133; and Michalsky, T., & Schechter, C. (2013). Preservice teachers’ self-regulated learning: Integrating learning from problems and learning from successes. Teaching and Teacher Education, 30, 60–73.
  • Bracha Kramarski
    Bar-Ilan University
    E-mail Author
    BRACHA KRAMARSKI is associate professor at Bar-Ilan University's School of Education in Israel. Her work encompasses a number of interrelated academic fields, where she combines expertise as an educational researcher with extensive professional experience in mathematics education and teacher education. She developed the innovative "IMPROVE" method for learning mathematics based on principles of metacognition and self-regulated learning (SRL), a cooperative learning approach, and feedback-corrective theories. Her major fields of research are mathematical education, metacognition and SRL, teachers' professional development, and students' growth in advanced-technology learning environments. Currently, she serves as head of Preservice Teacher Education in Mathematics and also as head of the Project for School Teachers' Professional Development with Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) at Bar-Ilan University. Recent publications: Kohen, Z., & Kramarski, B. (2012). Developing a TPCK-SRL assessment scheme for conceptually advancing technology in education. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 38, 1–8; and Kramarski, B., & Michalsky, T. (2013). Student and teacher perspectives on IMPROVE self-regulation prompts in web-based learning. In R. Azevedo & V. Aleven, (Eds.), International handbook of metacognition and learning technologies (pp. 35–51). New York, NY: Springer.
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