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High School Advanced Placement and Student Performance in College: STEM Majors, Non-STEM Majors, and Gender Differences


by Phillip L. Ackerman, Ruth Kanfer & Charles Calderwood — 2013

Background/Context: The past few decades have seen an explosive growth in high-school student participation in the Advanced Placement program® (AP), with nearly two million exams completed in 2011. Traditionally, universities have considered AP enrollment as an indicator for predicting academic success during the admission process. However, AP exam performance may be predictive of future academic success; a related factor in gender differences in major selection and success; and instrumental in predicting STEM persistence.

Purpose: This study focused on determining the influence of patterns of AP exam completion and performance on indicators of post-secondary academic achievement. These patterns were examined in the context of gender differences and for the prediction of grades, STEM persistence and graduation rates.

Subjects: The sample consisted of 26,693 students who entered the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) as first-year undergraduate students during the period of 1999-2009.

Research Design: Archival admissions records and college transcripts were obtained for entering first-year (non-transfer) students, to examine patterns of AP exams completed and performance on the exams, as they related to indicators of college academic performance, inflow and outflow STEM majors and non-STEM majors, and attrition/time-to-degree criteria. For predicting college performance, patterns of AP exams were examined in isolation, exams grouped by domain, and instances of multiple examinations completed (e.g., three or more AP exams in the STEM area). These patterns of AP exams were evaluated for predictive validity in conjunction with traditional predictors of post-secondary performance (e.g., high-school GPA and SAT scores). College course enrollment patterns were also examined, in conjunction with AP exam patterns, to determine the associations between AP exam performance and course-taking patterns in post-secondary study.

Data Collection and Analysis: Admissions records were obtained from Georgia Tech, including high-school grade point average information, along with college transcripts, including initial and final major declaration, attrition, and graduation data. Course enrollments were classified by level and by domain. Advanced Placement exam and SAT records were obtained from the College Board, and matched to the Georgia Tech records.

Conclusions/Recommendations: Although student completion of AP exams was positively related to post-secondary grades and graduation rates, this overall pattern masks the relation between AP exam performance and post-secondary success. Students who did not receive credit tended to perform at a level similar to those students who did not complete any AP exams. Increasing numbers of AP-based course credits were associated with higher GPAs at Georgia Tech for the first year and beyond. Students with greater numbers of AP-based course credits tended to complete fewer lower-level courses and a greater number of higher-level courses. Such students graduated at a substantially higher rate and in fewer semesters of study. Average AP exam score was the single best predictor of academic success after high school GPA (HSGPA). The most important predictors of STEM major persistence were receiving credit for AP Calculus and if the student had successfully completed three or more AP exams in the STEM areas. Men had substantially higher rates of these AP exam patterns, compared to women. Given that slightly over half of the AP exams are now completed by high school students prior to their senior year, it is recommended that admissions committees consider use of actual AP exam performance data, in addition to, or instead of AP enrollment data as indicators for predicting post-secondary academic performance.



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Cite This Article as: Teachers College Record Volume 115 Number 10, 2013, p. 1-43
http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 17149, Date Accessed: 5/25/2017 12:22:40 PM

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About the Author
  • Phillip Ackerman
    Georgia Institute of Technology
    E-mail Author
    PHILLIP L. ACKERMAN is a professor in the School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology. His research interests span psychological testing, human abilities, domain knowledge, personality, interests, trait determinants of adolescent and adult learning, along with selection and instructional applications.
  • Ruth Kanfer
    Georgia Institute of Technology
    E-mail Author
    RUTH KANFER is a professor in the in the School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology. Her research interests include motivation and self-regulation related to job skill training, academic achievement and job performance, teamwork, and employment transitions.
  • Charles Calderwood
    Georgia Institute of Technology
    E-mail Author
    CHARLES CALDERWOOD is a doctoral candidate in the School of Psychology at the Georgia Institute of Technology. His research interests focus on daily sources of stress, work - non-work relationships, cognitive fatigue, measurement and statistics.
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