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Moving Beyond Sinking or Swimming: Reconceptualizing the Needs of Beginning Mathematics Teachers


by Marcy B. Wood, Lisa M. Jilk & Lynn Webster Paine — 2012

Background/Context: New teacher induction programs frequently focus on the struggles of teachers who are, metaphorically speaking, sinking rather than swimming in the challenging waters of actual classroom teaching. Also, research on induction and induction programs doesn’t typically address the subject-specific needs of new teachers. Yet new teachers are not in generic environments in which content plays a minor role: They are negotiating the enormously complex context of teaching particular content to particular students in a particular moment.

Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: Our goal is to add to and challenge the conversations about what learning to teach mathematics requires and how its complexity makes content-specific induction and rich opportunities to learn not only desirable but also essential. We use a framing of teaching as a practice that is fundamentally about connection of students and content.

Population/Participants/Subjects: We report on the cases of two well-started novice mathematics teachers. These cases come from a larger study of novice mathematics and science teachers in subject-specific induction programs across the United States.

Research Design: Exploratory case study based on interviews and observations.

Findings/Results: One new teacher made considerable progress in thinking about and using knowledge of students to enhance mathematical learning. However, there were still several areas in which the new teacher missed opportunities to probe student understanding and further connect students to mathematics. And yet, because of the teacher’s competence relative to other new teachers, her support from her mentor was diminishing. This left her with few opportunities for support in reflecting on her practice. The second new teacher struggled to make sense of the role of the teacher. She was a strong beginning teacher in a context that provided support and encouragement for student-centered teaching. However, she struggled to envision and enact a teaching role that either allowed students to make their own connections to mathematics or enabled her to learn how to work toward that role.

Conclusions/Recommendations: Our two new teachers made considerable progress in their teaching. Although there was much to celebrate about their progress, there was still much about the complexity of teaching, specifically teaching math, that the new teachers had to learn. This study suggests that we need to go beyond evaluation of visible performance or attention to instructional strategies to help new teachers think about how to simultaneously manage the complex relationships with students, with mathematical content, and with the connection between students and mathematics in ways that help them to continually teach and learn from teaching.



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Cite This Article as: Teachers College Record Volume 114 Number 8, 2012, p. 1-44
http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 16528, Date Accessed: 11/1/2014 12:29:17 AM

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About the Author
  • Marcy Wood
    University of Arizona
    MARCY B. WOOD is an assistant professor in the University of Arizona’s College of Education. Her research interests include the role of discourse in mathematical learning and teaching and analysis of mathematical learning and teaching through the lenses of identity and metaphor. Her recent publications include “Not Understanding Andy: A Metaphorical Analysis of Students’ Resistance to Learning” in For the Learning of Mathematics and an upcoming book to be published by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics entitled Smarter Together! Groups, Equity, and Rigorous Mathematics in the Elementary Classroom.
  • Lisa Jilk
    University of Washington, Seattle
    LISA M. JILK is a former high school mathematics teacher and current faculty at the University of Washington, Seattle. Lisa spends much of her time in urban high schools supporting the transformation of math departments for the purpose of improving instruction and student learning. Her practice and research interests are focused on status issues as they impact students’ engagement with mathematics and their social and academic identities. Lisa has recently contributed a chapter about immigrant identity and mathematical success to an edited volume entitled Transnational and Borderland Studies in Mathematics Education and has coauthored an upcoming book to be published by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics entitled Smarter Together! Groups, Equity, and Rigorous Mathematics in the Elementary Classroom.
  • Lynn Paine
    Michigan State University
    LYNN W. PAINE is a professor in the Department of Teacher Education at Michigan State University. Her research focuses on understanding teaching and teacher learning comparatively and as situated practice, with much of her work involving comparative analyses of teacher education and teaching learning in practice, especially of beginning teachers. She has recently published, with colleagues, “Knowledge Expectations in Mathematics Teacher Preparation Programs in South Korea and the United States: Towards International Dialogue” in Journal of Teacher Education and “Teaching Mathematics as Deliberate Practice Through Public Lessons” in Elementary School Journal.
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