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An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking

by Edward M. Glaser - 1942

This study of the development of ability to think critically is concerned with a much larger problem—the problem of how American schools can educate more effectively for responsible and competent citizenship in our representative democracy.

THIS study of the development of ability to think critically is concerned with a much larger problem—the problem of how American schools can educate more effectively for responsible and competent citizenship in our representative democracy.1

The chief aims of this study are: (1) to develop materials and illustrative teaching procedures which may be used effectively at the secondary and college levels to stimulate growth in ability to think critically, (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of those materials and teaching procedures, (3) to ascertain whether there is a relationship between ability to think critically and other factors, such as intelligence and reading ability, and (4) to determine whether these factors are significantly associated with the amount of gain on critical thinking tests after receiving special instruction in critical thinking.

Four twelfth-grade English classes were used as an experimental group and four equated classes as a control group. Both groups were given a battery of tests, including the Watson-Glaser Tests of Critical Thinking.2 The experimental group alone then received special instruction in critical thinking during their daily English class. At the end of ten weeks both groups were re-tested, and other evaluation procedures, including evaluation by the students and the teachers, were employed.

Among the major findings are: (1) The experimental group gained significantly more than the control group in retest (Z) scores on the critical thinking tests;   diff  = 6.09. (2) The

                                                                                                  σ diff

aspect of critical thinking which appears most susceptible to general improvement is the attitude of being disposed to consider in a thoughtful way the problems and subjects that come within the range of one's experience. Development of skill in applying the methods of logical inquiry and reasoning, however, appears to be specifically related to, and in fact limited by, the acquisition of pertinent knowledge and facts concerning the problems or subject-matter toward which the thinking is to be directed. (3) The correlation between composite Z-score on the critical thinking tests and the Otis intelligence test was found to be .46. (4) There was a correlation of .33 between I.Q. and amount of gain on the critical thinking tests after special instruction. Many individuals with I.Q.'s of less than too (Otis) were found among those who profited most from the training. (5) Ability in language and reading comprehension is closely connected with ability to think critically. (6) The growth in ability to think critically appears to be retained in terms of both retest scores and observable behavior for at least six months after conclusion of the special instruction, and some aspects of the growth which the students experienced probably will be retained more or less permanently and will in turn afford a basis for further growth in ability to think critically.



The report of the survey of the public schools of Newark, N. J., was presented officially to the Newark Board of Education on February 2. It was submitted in two versions: one, a comprehensive and detailed report designed for the use of the administrative and teaching personnel of the schools; the other, a brief report intended for publication and distribution among the citizens of Newark. On February 5 the survey report was discussed with the teachers of Newark, and arrangements are now being made for meetings of citizens to consider the recommendations of the report.


Professor Morse A. Cartwright, executive officer of the Institute of Adult Education, has been appointed by Commissioner John W. Studebaker to membership on the United States Office of Education Wartime Commission. Professor Cartwright is serving as a member both of the Committee on Higher Education and of the Committee of State and Local School Administration of the Wartime Commission.



Professor Harold F. Clark attended the meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Dallas, Tex., in December. Professor Clark is vice-president of the Association and chairman of Section Q for 1942.

Professor Donald G. Tewksbury attended the conference of the Workshop Advisory Service at Highland Park, Chicago, Ill., November 28 to 30. This conference was held under the auspices of the Commission on Teacher Education of the American Council on Education and was called for the purpose of formulating policies relative to the future of the workshop movement, which is now closing its fifth year of experimentation under subsidy of the General Education Board. Professor Tewksbury also visited Ohio State University and Antioch College in connection with the work of the Teachers College course, A Cooperative Study of Teacher Education for New-Type Secondary School Curricula.


Miss Adria Galbraith, director of records and measurement in the Plainfield, N. J., High School, visited the course on The Research Bureau in a School System on January 6, and discussed the general purposes of records and procedures of record keeping. At the same meeting Professor Ruth Strang discussed the relationship between the guidance division of a school system and the research bureau, and suggested a number of enterprises in which the two might profitably cooperate.

The Statistics Discussion Group of the New York Section of the American Statistical Association, of which Professor Helen M. Walker is chairman, met at Teachers College on January 16. Dr. A. A. Weech of the Babies' Hospital addressed the group on "Statistical Problems Encountered in Medical Research."

At a combined meeting of the American Statistical Association and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics on "Some Technical Aspects of Sampling," held in New York during the meetings of the allied social science associations, Professor Walker presided and served as discussion leader.



As a representative of the Commission on Teacher Education of the American Council on Education, Professor E. S. Evenden attended the meetings of the National Conference of University and College Presidents held January 3 and 4 in Baltimore, Md.

On January 8 Professor Evenden discussed the work of the Commission on Teacher Education of the American Council on Education before the faculties of Hunter Elementary School, Hunter College High School, and the Department of Education of Hunter College.


The Administration Club held its regular monthly meeting on January 23, at the home of Professor and Mrs. George D. Strayer in Riverdale. An address and a discussion period were followed by a social hour.

A second report of the Commission on the Legal Structure of Rhode Island Public Education, of which Professor Paul Mort is serving as Director of Studies, has recently gone to press. The first report, published in February, 1941, dealt with public school finance. This second and final report deals with the principles and methods of public control. James F. Rockett, director of education, is chairman of the Commission. James L. Hanley, superintendent of schools in Providence, Elmer S. Mapes, superintendent of schools in Bristol, James E. Martin, superintendent of schools in Central Falls, Joseph C. Sweeney, superintendent of schools in Burrillville, Clovis W. Mitchell, superintendent of schools in Charlestown, Exeter, and Gloucester, and Michael Walsh, acting superintendent of schools in Newport, are members of the Commission. Other members of the Commission are Professor Bruce M. Bigelow of Brown University, Professor C. E. Ekstrom of Brown University, Professor Daniel J. O'Neill of Providence College, Miss Francesca deS. Cosgrove of the Providence Schools, and John F. Brown of the Board of Trustees for State Colleges.

The following school committee members have been active as advisers: Preston Arnold of West Barrington, Francis J. Brady of Providence, Mrs. Elisha Browning of Narragansett, I. Leo Cantwell of Bristol, Luigi Capasso of Cranston, J. J. Gearon of Woon-Warwick, Mrs. John R. Coggeshall of Portsmouth, Mrs. Frederick H. Devere of Cranston, J. J. Gearon of Woon-socket, Angelo Gencarelli of Westerly, Grover C. Haberlin of Pawtucket, and Mrs. Jessie D. Sutcliffe of Saylesville.

Elmer Smith of the Providence Schools is executive secretary of the Rhode Island Educational Conference. Miss Carolyn MacDonald, who is at present a member of the Advanced School of Education at Teachers College, is Director of Permanent Relations of this organization.

Professor John K. Norton has been appointed chairman of the Central Committee of Teachers College on Problems of War and Defense.

Professor Norton attended a meeting in Baltimore of the National Conference of College and University Presidents, sponsored by the National Committee on Education and Defense and the United States Office of Education. The purpose of the meeting was to consider means by which higher education can best serve the national interest in the war period.

"Financing Education in a War Period," an article by Professor Norton, appeared in the February issue of The National Parent-Teacher.



Professor Ruth Strang spoke at a meeting of the Guidance and Personnel Association of New Jersey held on January 22 in Newark. Her topic was "Problems of Orientation in High School and College."

President Nicholas Murray Butler set aside the first days of the second semester as a time when the University might give especial consideration to religion and its place in the modern world. Teachers College appointed a committee of staff and students, with Professor Esther Lloyd-Jones as chairman, to develop a program for the College and to cooperate with the All-University program. Most of the clubs of the College cooperated, through the Student Council, by developing their February meetings around themes related to religion. An open meeting of the course Education 200F, Educational Foundations, was devoted to a discussion of religion. Special chapel services were held in connection with the program, and two All-University events were held.

Professor Lloyd-Jones will attend the meetings of the Council of Guidance and Personnel Associations to be held in San Francisco February 18 to 20. She will stop at various points en route, returning to Teachers College about March 1.


During the Christmas holidays Professor Harry D. Kitson conferred with leaders in vocational guidance in Toledo, among them Miss Eloise Voorheis (Summer Session 1939). Miss Voorheis is chairman of the staff who teach the course in Everyday Living at the Libbey High School.

Mr. Don Jones (A. M. 1940) is working in an airplane factory in Bridgeport, Conn.

Miss Rowena Diamond (A. M. 1941) is in the Personnel Division of the American Red Cross in Washington, D. C.



At a meeting of the Ohio Education Association in Columbus on January 2 and 3, Professor H. L. Caswell addressed the elementary principals' group on "Evaluation of the Elementary Curriculum," and the curriculum group on "Development of a Curriculum for Modern Life in Elementary and Secondary Schools."

Professor Gertrude P. Driscoll addressed the Woodmere-Hewlett, L. I., Parent-Teacher Association on January 6, taking as her topic "Factors That Influence Choice of Vocation." On January 12 she addressed the Parent-Teacher Association at Larchmont, on the topic, "Safeguarding the Human Resources of Our Community."

Professor Ernest G. Osborne has been asked by the Commission on Teacher Education to serve as a consultant in the School Department of Newton, Mass. He will work with the group studying the effects of time pressure on children.

Professor Roma Gans met with the Parent-Teacher Association of Tenafly, N. ],, on January 20. On January 24 and 25 she met with the members of the Executive Committee of the Progressive Education Association in New York City.

The members of last year's major class in Early Childhood Education held a reunion on January 17 at the Women's Faculty Club.

Professor Donald P. Cottrell acted as chairman of a national conference of representative leaders in the field of mission education held January 16 in New York City. The subject discussed was "American Racialism."

On January 26 Professor Cottrell attended a meeting of the Board of Directors of the American Missionary Association of the Congregational and Christian Churches, which was held in Evanston, Ill.

The Elementary-Early Childhood Workers' Group held its regular monthly meeting on January 19 in Room 278 Annex. A report was made and a discussion held by a committee working on materials designed to encourage good morale among children in air raid shelters.

The revised edition of Enriched Teaching of Science in the High School, by Woodring, Oakes, and Brown was issued recently by the Bureau of Publications of Teachers College. This is a source book for teachers of general science, biology, physics, chemistry, and other sciences, listing chiefly free and low cost illustrative and supplementary materials.


A new course in Science and Civilian Defense will be offered during the Spring Session by Professors F. L. Fitz-patrick and H. J. Arnold. It will deal with the special problems which teachers and administrators are likely to face in these times of civic emergency. Among the topics to be covered are: (1) general emergency measures, including blackouts and fire control, (2) explosive and incendiary bombs and protections against them, (3) nutrition and minimum diets, and (4) the principles of first aid.

The Storehouse of Civilization, by C. C. Furnas, one of the Science in Modern Living Series published by the Bureau of Publications of Teachers College, has been selected as an entry in the exhibition of United States Bookmaking which will tour the South American countries under the auspices of the American Institute of Graphic Arts and the Pan-American Union. This exhibition presents a cross section of United States book design, illustration, and manufacture during the last ten years. The exhibit will open in Washington at the Pan-American Union in February before being sent on tour to South America.


Professor W. D. Reeve attended a meeting of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics at Bethlehem, Pa., during the Christmas holidays. While there he also attended the annual meeting of the Board of Directors of that organization.


Professor Magdalene Kramer, who is a member of the executive council of the National Association of Teachers of Speech, and chairman of the Committee on Teacher Education, attended the annual convention of the Association in Detroit, Mich., December 28 to 31. Professor Kramer was chairman of the committee appointed to organize four sectional meetings on the subject, Oral Interpretation of Literature, and was chairman of two of these meetings.

Professor George A. Kopp attended the annual meeting of the American Speech Correction Association and the National Association of Teachers of Speech in Detroit, Mich., December 29 to 31, and acted as chairman of one of the programs.


Some special short term courses in Fine and Industrial Arts are being offered during the Spring Session to meet the present emergency. Professor Elise Ruffini will give a course on Art for the USO and Civilian Recreational Centres, Professor Sallie B. Tannahill will give one on Posters, Publicity, and Lettering, and Professor Fred Strickler one on Blue Print Reading. In a number of the department's regular courses the content will be revised to give emphasis to the part that art can play during this critical period and the period of reconstruction which will follow. In particular, Professor Ray Faulkner wUl give a course on the Present Emergency and Art Education, in which will be studied the role of art education during the present emergency, the impact of the war on the arts, and the place of the artist and teacher in national defense and offense.

The Fine and Industrial Arts staff participated in the one-day conference on "The High School Teacher and the War Emergency" held at Teachers College on January 24.

Professor Faulkner spoke to the students of the New Jersey State College on January 6, taking as his subject "Art Education and the Emergency."

Professor Ruffini gave a talk to the Columbia Dames on January 13 on the use of inexpensive and easily obtainable materials for the improvement of the home.

Professor Edwin Ziegfeld is co-chairman of the Informational Studies Committee of the Eastern Arts Association, and Professor Faulkner is a member of both the Policies Committee and the Conferences Committee.

Professor Fred Strickler's book, An Art Approach to Education, which was published in November, is distributed by A. G. Seller, New York City.


Professor Norval L. Church attended the annual meeting of the Music Teachers National Association in Minneapolis December 26 to 31.

Professor Raymond Burrows was chairman of the convention of the Eastern Province of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia Fraternity of America held in New York City December 27 and 28. The programs included meetings, concerts, a banquet, and attendance at a performance of the Metropolitan Opera. Many students and faculty members of Teachers College were present at the convention. Dr. Sigmund Spaeth and Mr. Joseph Fischer were speakers at the banquet, on which occasion Professor Harry R. Wilson was toastmaster and Professor Howard Murphy was a guest of honor.

Professor Harry R. Wilson conducted a choral and voice clinic at the State Teachers College in Springfield, Mo., on January 23 and 24 and at the Southeastern Louisiana College, Hammond, La., on January 26.


In order to be of service in the present war emergency and to meet the demands of workers in the field, the department of Household Arts and Sciences is offering several new courses and is redirecting the emphasis in some of the existing courses. A refresher course in Nutrition is being given by Professor Grace MacLeod and Professor Clara M. Taylor for the Home Economics Women in Business of the Home Economics Association of Greater New York. An intensive training course for dietitians' aids will be offered from March 2 to April 27, with the cooperation of the following hospitals: Columbia-Presbyterian, St. Vincent's, Montefiore, Bellevue, the Hospital for Joint Diseases, and New York Hospital. The course will be under the direction of Professor Mary deGarmo Bryan. A course in nutrition and canteen service is being given by the members of the Nutrition and Foods and Cookery staff for the major students in the department. This course is under the joint direction of the department and the New York Chapter of the American Red Cross. It will include a unit in canteen cookery and one in field service. A certificate for Red Cross teaching will be awarded on the completion of this work. Mrs. Ruth P. Casa-Emellos is giving a course for public health nurses on the selection and preparation of food on limited budgets. An advanced course dealing with the economic aspects of food is also being given by Mrs. Casa-Emellos for major students.

A series of lectures is to be delivered in the Spring Session by representatives of Federal agencies in order to acquaint students with the normal functioning of government departments dealing with Home Economics problems and especially to outline their war service programs in which home economists are asked to participate. Included among the speakers are representatives from the following agencies: U. S. Office of Education; Bureau of Home Economics; Cooperative Extension Service; Office of the Coordinator of Health, Welfare, and Related Defense Activities; Farm Security Administration; Farm Credit Administration; Surplus Marketing Administration; Works Projects Administration; Office of Price Administration and Civilian Supply; and U. S. Office of Civilian Defense. Speakers from the American Home Economics Association and the American Red Cross will also outline their programs.

At the National Conference on Family Relations, recently held in New York, the programs arranged by Professor B. R. Andrews, acting-chairman of the Committee on the Economic Basis of the Family, included items of interest to Teachers College. In the program concerned with "An International View of the Family" Miss Muriel Heagney, Australian delegate to the International Labor Conference, discussed the provision made for wives and children of enlisted soldiers, the price-fixing commissions, and the fair rent courts. Miss Angelica Mendoza, of the National University of Buenos Aires, a graduate student in Teachers College and holder of the Federation of Women's Clubs Fellowship, read a paper on "The Rural Family in Argentina" which showed many conditions like those in North America—the tenant and share-cropper problem; the movement for realistic rural education to emphasize farming and farm homemaking—and mentioned a recent study of rural school consolidation and pupil transportation in the United States made by an Argentine government representative and published in Argentina. The introduction was written by Professor I. L. Kandel. Miss Graciela Mandujano, formerly a student in Teachers College, is now Director of the Institute for Rural Information, Santiago, Chile, which was described in a paper read before the Conference. Mrs. Maria Gonzales-Vera of Chile, graduate student in Teachers College, discussed the "Status of Woman and of Adult Education in Chile." The position of women in Brazil was discussed by Mrs. Maria deLourdes Pereira of the Ministry of Education, who is a Fellow in the University of Pennsylvania, and a paper on "Day Nurseries in Havana" was given by Miss Nohema Cabalerro of the Yale Psychological Clinic. Dr. Samuel Henry Prince, professor of economics and sociology at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, who as chairman of the Nova Scotia Housing Commission has shared in the Summer Session forums on housing at Teachers College, presented a thorough analysis of "The Canadian Family in War Time," and Professor Paul H. Nystrom of the Columbia University School of Business read a paper on "The Wartime Economic Situation Confronting the American Family." Other papers were presented by Miss Elsa Castendyck of the Children's Bureau, and by Mr. Peter Kasius, of the Social Security Board.

In the round tables on the Economic Basis of the Family, contributions were made by Mrs. Marion Luitweiler, who discussed "The Employment of the Married Woman," and by Mrs. Luise Addiss, of the New York Community Society Service, Mrs. Margaret Dreis-bach of the Farm Security Administration, Miss Genoeffa Nizzardini of the Office of Production Management, Dr. Dorothy Brady of the Bureau of Home Economics, and Mrs. Sidonie M. Gruenberg of the National Child Study Association, who discussed various aspects of financial counseling and guidance of families.

Professor Mary Evans attended the American Vocational Association meetings in Boston December 13. The Home Economics section gave attention to Vital Issues Affecting Families, Teacher Training, and Curriculum Developments to Meet Family Needs—the latter presented by a panel with more than a dozen specialists participating. Professor Hamden L. Forkner addressed the Business Education section on "Today's Crisis and Business Education"; Professor Harry D. Kitson discussed "Discovery of Needs for Vocational Education" before the Vocational Guidance group; and Professor Nystrom spoke on "Long Term Needs for Vocational Training."


Sixty graduate students of the department of Business Education of Teachers College have formed an organization to be known as The Society for the Advancement of Research in Business Education. This organization differs from all other organizations in the field of education in that no one may be a member or continue his membership in the organization unless he is actually at work on some problem that has bearing on his teaching work.

The society is in the organizational stage at this time, and officers have not been elected. Professor Hamden Forkner, acting as organizational chairman, is laying plans for the details of the organization.

The primary function of the organization is to center the interests of teachers in the field on problems that confront them in their teaching or curriculum or community relations. Through joint efforts on the part of teachers and through publication of research findings, the society expects to make a valuable contribution not only to the literature of business education but also to the practices of teachers everywhere.

The society believes that effective research can be carried on by most classroom teachers provided they have some incentive and receive recognition of their efforts. It is also believed that research is simply finding better ways of doing the everyday things which teachers do, or finding justification for the things they do and the manner in which they do them. It is recognized that there are all degrees of research, some of which are extremely technical, but for the most part the kind of research that is going to affect teaching is the kind that is simple and understandable to the average classroom teacher.

It is the plan of the society to publish a journal to be known as the "Journal of Research in Business Education." This journal will carry digests of important studies of members of the society as well as other research materials of interest to business teachers. It will also carry each year a list of members, together with a statement of their research projects and what educational position the member holds.


On December 22 and 23 Professor W. L. Hughes met with the Coordinators in the National Physical Fitness Program in New York City to discuss future plans for the program.

Professor Hughes attended the meetings of the College Physical Education Association and the American Football Coaches Association held December 29 to 31 in Detroit, Mich. He spoke on the topic, "National Civilian Physical Fitness Program."

On January 19 and 26 Professor Josephine Rathbone spoke before the Y.W.C.A. in Jersey City and led the discussion on "Physical Conditioning" and on "Relaxation." The group consisted of the industrial managers in that area.

On January 10 Professor Rathbone held at her home a committee meeting of the women of the Eastern District Society of the American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, who are responsible for corrective physical education.


Miss Virginia A. Henderson addressed the meeting of the Hudson Valley Nursing Association, Troy, N. Y., on December 13, taking as her topic, "Studies in the Instruction in and Performance of the Nursing Arts." On January 15 Miss Henderson spoke to the Institute of the Connecticut State League of Nursing Education in New Haven on "Case Study in Nursing."

Mrs. R. Louise McManus talked to the Education Section of the Connecticut State Nurses' Association on January 9 about the Pre-Nursing and Guidance Test Service now being operated by the National League of Nursing Education, under the direction of Mrs. McManus.

Miss Margaret L. Shetland, a candidate for the Master of Arts degree in Teachers College, joined the staff on January 5 as assistant to Professors Lillian A. Hudson and Mary E. Chayer in the public health nursing work of the Division.

Students and staff of the Nursing Education Division have accepted the responsibility for organizing first aid corps to serve in Teachers College halls and residences in case of emergency. Miss Helen Bunge, a student in the Advanced School of Education, was appointed chairman of the First Aid Committee and Miss Frances Reiter was appointed secretary. Several consultants were appointed to assist the committee.


Professor Eleanor M. Witmer is serving on the Executive Board of the Columbia University Committee on War Relief. She is also a member of the Teachers College Central Committee on Problems of War and Defense.

Professor Ethel M. Feagley is serving in an advisory capacity to the Library Committee of the American Association of Teachers Colleges.

Professor Feagley is a member of the committee of the Teacher Training Section of the American Library Association which is planning to study teaching materials used in library instruction.

Mr. Scott Adams is a member of the Executive Council, Metropolitan Junior Members Round Table of the American Library Association, 1941-42. He is also the author of "The Remainder Trade; an Analysis for Librarians," which appeared in a January issue of The Publishers' Weekly.

Miss Eleanor M. Dye is chairman of the round table section of the American Library Association dealing with Work with Teachers and School Administrators.

A list of fifty of the outstanding books for children published during 1941 has been prepared by the School Library Laboratory. Copies of this list, which appeared as the December 1941 issue of Classroom Literature, are available at 15 cents each in Teachers College Library.

Professor Carter Alexander and his student assistant, Mr. Austin A. Cole, have prepared a summary of the returns from Professor Alexander's check lists on knowledges and library skills needed by secondary and elementary pupils. Copies of the mimeographed summary are being sent to all those who filled in the check lists.


The following list continues the appointments of Teachers College Alumni reported in the January RECORD:

Nonenmaker, Helen Violet (B.S. 1940), teacher of kindergarten, Public Schools, Lordship, Stratford, Conn.

Norman, Philip B., assistant professor of mathematics, Tusculum College, Greeneville, Tenn.

O'Brien, William F. (A.M. 1941), teacher of social studies, High School, Crisfield, Md.

Olsson, Greta, primary teacher, Ecole Francaise du Saint Esprit, New York City.

Parks, Dorothy Whitcomb (A.M. 1941), instructor in physical education, East Carolina Teachers College, Greenville, N. C.

Pitluga, George E. (A.M. 1933), instructor in science, State Normal School, Oswego, N. Y.

Pugh, Nansi M., teacher of social studies, College Preparatory School for Girls, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Purnell, Mildred Ayars, dean of girls and teacher of English, Oakwood School, Poughkeepsie, N. Y.

Rasmussen, Elmer M. (A.M. 1940), head of department of education, Dana College, Blair, Neb.

Rasmussen, Margaret A. (A.M. 1941), teacher of second grade, Munsey Park School, Manhasset, N. Y.

Renzetti, Henrietta (A.M. 1941), teacher of fifth grade, Fifth Avenue Elementary School, Bay Shore, N. Y.

Reston, Neil B. (A.M. 1938), teacher of shorthand and history, Parker Vocational High School, Dayton, Ohio.

Reynolds, George R. (A.M. 1940), teacher of fifth grade, Elementary School, Soffern, N. Y.

Rock, Charles Clifford, teacher of arts and crafts, Anderson School, Staatsburg-on-Hudson, N, Y.

Roll, Grace A., teacher of physical education and English, Central High School, Carmel, N. Y.

Rosnagle, Laura E. (A.M. 1935), associate director of school of nursing, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Conn.

Rundlett, Winifred (A.M. 1939), teacher of second grade, Lindner Place School, Malverne, N. Y.

Rustad, Maxine L. (A.M. 1939), professor of home economics, Georgia State Woman's College, Valdosta, Ga.

Salchow, Otto C. (A.M. 1940), teacher of mathematics, High School, St. Clair, Mich.

Savage, Benedict J. (A.M. 1938), teacher of commercial subjects, High School, Georgetown, Del.

Savage, Elnore D., teacher of public speaking, High School, Brattleboro, Vt.

Sears, Clarence B. (A.M. 1938), teacher of English, social studies, and band, High School, Rehoboth Beach, Del.

Sheingold, Helen Abrahams, teacher of kindergarten, P.S. 135, New York City.

Shotwell, Henry P. (A.M. 1940), teacher of mathematics, High School, Bound Brook, N. J.

Shuman, Phil B., assistant in modern language department, Canterbury School, New Milford, Conn.

Smith, Janet Katherine, professor and head of department of applied art in home economics, Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa.

Stadelmann, Dorothea R., teacher of English and speech, Junior High School, Cranford, N. J.

Starkweather, Dorothy A. (A.M. 1933), teacher of tea room management to N.Y.A. students, Madison College, Harrisonburg, Va.

Starner, Dorothy A., teacher of secretarial science, Shenandoah College, Dayton, Va.

Stern, Elaine L. (A.M. 1941), assistant teacher of music, Dalton School, New York City.

Stewart, Edith Mary (A.M. 1936), social adviser, Mississippi State College for Women, Columbus, Miss.

Stimson, Pauline E. (A.M. 1937), director of women's physical education, Simpson College, Indianola, Iowa.

Stone, M. Beverley (A.M. 1940), residence head of dormitory and instructor in history, Tusculum College, Greeneville, Tenn.

Stoops, Isabel (A.M. 1941), teacher of English, Glenbard Township High School, Glen Ellyn, Ill.

Strawn, Alice (A.M. 1936), teacher trainer and teacher of high school home-making, High School and East Carolina State Teachers College, Greenville, N. C.

Sullivan, Alice Antoinette (A.M. 1941), teacher of Gregg shorthand and typewriting, Pratt School, New York City.

Swift, Jane Nichofs (A.M. 1941), teacher of English, Arnold College, New Haven, Conn.

Tate, Mae S. (A.M. 1940), director of practice house and instructor in home economics, Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C.

Tate, Merze (A.M. 1930), dean of women and associate professor of political science, Morgan State College, Baltimore, Md.

Thomas, Pearl (A.M. 1940), instructor in home economics, Senior High School, Selma, Ala.

Thulin, Elizabeth S. (A.M. 1935), assistant to counselor of students, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.

Trickett, Lucie (A.M. 1937), instructor in home economics, National Park College, Forest Glen, Md.

Tubb, Annie Elizabeth, teacher of mathematics, Phillips High School, Birmingham, Ala.

Ullmann, Alarjorie Nelson (A.M. 1939), teacher of English and social studies, Hewitt School, New York City.

Wallenbergh, H. C. W. (A.M. 1938), instructor in English, Junior-Senior High School, Nyack, N. Y.

Wangerin, Eleanor L., teacher and supervisor of art, Public Schools, Sayville, N.Y.

Wasson, Elsie P., dietitian, Evangeline Residence for Women, New York City.

Wheeler, Genevieve Josephine (A.M. 1941), teacher-trainer in home economics, Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College, Tallahassee, Fla.

Wight, Addison D. (A.M. 1940), instructor in arithmetic, hygiene, and English, Junior School, Millersburg Military Institute, Millersburg, Ky.

Willmann, Rudolph R., instructor in music, State Normal School, Osweso, N.Y.

Winters, Charline Lane, instructor in physical education, Public Schools, Robstown, Texas.

Yansky, Vera M., dietitian, Eastern Long Island Hospital Association, Greenport, N. Y.

The following recent appointments of Teachers College Alumni are reported by the Office of Placement Service:

Adams, Margaret M. (B.S. 1941), school nurse, Public Schools, Leonia, N. J.

Adair, Ellen (A. M. 1933), director of physical education, Lenox School, New York City.

Alexander, Doris (A.M. 1941), teacher of mathematics, High School, Seattle, Wash.

Askin, Augustus (A.M. 1938), teacher of mathematics, High School, Riverhead, N.Y.

Barr, Olive Haege, dietitian, McClean Hospital, Waverly, Mass.

Beal, Anne Elizabeth, vocational guidance counselor, Public Library, Brooklyn, N.Y.

Bellingham, Andrew S. (A.M. 1940), teacher of industrial arts, Lyndhurst, N. J.

Bergman, M. Myrtle Larsen (A.M. 1941), staff nurse, Community Service Society, New York City.

Biddle, Mark (A.M. 1938), associate professor of music education, Knox College, Galesburg, Ill.

Bogaty, Anne (A.M. 1941), nursery school teacher, Rockwood School, New York City.

Brearley, Emily (A.M. 1939), teacher of first grade, Miss Fines School, Princeton, N.J.

Brown, Helen C., teacher of history, Housatonic Valley Regional High School, Falls Village, Conn.

Brown, Milton T., employment interviewer, National Refugee Service, New York City.

Bryant, Lenna, teacher of the deaf, Public Schools, Richmond, Va.

Burau, Gertrude (A.M. 1941), head of music department and physical education department, State Normal School, Johnson, Vt.

Burnett, Margaret, teacher of health and science in fifth and sixth grades, Union Free School, Valley Stream, New York.

Capen, Alma (A.M. 1941), assistant professor of home economics, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Va.

Caples, Curry N., instructor in home management, University of Maryland, College Park, Md.

Carrington, Evelyn M., associate professor of education, Texas State College for Women, Denton, Texas.

Casserino, Mildred (B.S. 1941), rural school teacher, Crook, Colo.

Caswell, Elizabeth A. (A.M. 1941), teacher of Latin, Spanish, and biology, Drew Seminary for Girls, Carmel, N. Y.

Cepreghy, Pauline C., special class teacher, Public Schools, Prospect Park, N. J.

Clarke, Imore Wright (A.M. 1933), director of home management house and instructor in child care, North Carolina College, Durham, N. C.

Clay, Augusta Stuart (A.M. 1938), supervisor of kindergarten, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio.

Condon, Arnold (A.M. 1938), assistant professor of business administration, University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz.

Corwin, Kenneth R., program director, Boys' Club, Chicago, Ill.

Counts, Beatrice (M.S. 1926), consultant in nutrition, State Department of Health, Akron, Ohio.

D'Andrea, Frank L. (Ed.D. 1941), instructor in music education, State Teachers College, Indiana, Pa.

Desgrey, Janet H. (B.S. 1941), teacher of home economics, Elementary School, Edgewater, N. J.

Dietrich, Donald H., instructor in educational psychology, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Doane, Donald C. (Ph.D. 1941), instructor in education, San Francisco State College, San Francisco, Calif.

Dubats, Gertrude, instructor in commerce and head resident of freshman dormitory, Arizona State College, Tempe, Ariz.

Dull, Mary Lou, teacher of English, Junior High School, Port Byron, N. Y.

Dunham, Myra (A.M. 1940), instructor of English, Howard College, Birmingham, Ala.

Elliott, Eileen (A.M. 1941), instructor in foods, Agricultural and Mechanical College, Stillwater, Okla.

Evans, Janet (A.M. 1941), assistant in kindergarten, Grammar School, Rye, N. Y.

Failor, Clarence (Ph.D. 1939), executive secretary, National Vocational Guidance Association, New York City.

Farrow, Elizabeth Z. (AJW. 1932), business girls' secretary, Y.W.C.A., Hartford, Conn.

Fedder, Ruth (Ph.D. 1939), assistant county superintendent, Lehigh and Buck Counties, Pa.

Feinauer, Marcella (B.S. 1941), acting director of pediatric nursing, Children's Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Fernow, Alice, supervisor of elementary education, Public Schools, Stoneham, Mass.

Froehlke, Henrietta (A.M. 1932), director of nurses, Presbyterian Hospital School of Nursing, Chicago, Ill.

Fullerton, Doris M. (A.M. 1937), director of physical education for girls, Junior and Senior High Schools, Port Jervis, N. Y.

Green, Mary Isham Jones (A.M. 1934), director of public relations, Home for Crippled Children, Newington, Conn.

Hackman, Vera R. (A.M. 1936), teacher of Latin, English, and social studies, Lykens Valley Joint Vocational High School, Ber-rysburg, Pa.

Hallack, Esther R., teacher of foods, Ballard School, New York City.

Hall, Eleanor A. (B.S. 1939), instructor in nursing arts, Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.

Hart, Jean I. (A.M. 1940), supervisor of home management house and student teaching in the grades, Northern Illinois State Teachers College, DeKalb, Ill.

Hartley, William H. (Ed.D. 1940), assistant professor of education, State College for Teachers, Albany, N. Y.

Haun, Ruth R. (A.M. 1929), instructor in speech and director of Women's speech activities, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Hawes, Wilton Granville, teacher of mathematics, High School, Pelham, N. Y.

Hays, Edna, instructor in English, Pine Manor Junior College, Wellesley, Mass.

Hebert, Berthe (B.S. 1936), instructor of fine arts, Junior High School, State Teachers College, Fitchburg, Mass.

Hickis, Frances (A.M. 1939), principal and teacher of grades one to four, School #3, Mahwah, N. J.

Hines, Caroline (A.M. 1938), director of religious activities, Episcopal Church, University of Oregon, Eugene, Ore.

Hoagland, Helen G., assistant manager, Gore Mountain Garnet Lodge, North Creek, N. Y.

Holer, Thekla R. (A.M. 1937), director of guidance and teacher of science, Junior High School, Hudson, N. Y.

Hon, Helen E. (A.M. 1939), teacher of sight-saving, Elementary School, St. Louis, Mo.

Howe, Mildred C. (B.S. 1933), teacher of fourth grade, Public Schools, Franklin Square, N. Y.

Huffert, Anton M., junior statistician, Mutual Life Insurance Co. of New York, New York City.

Hughes, Virginia G. (B.S. 1940), teacher of first grade, Public Schools, Patchogue, N. Y.

Hundy, Mabel F. (A.M. 1931), acting supervisor of schools of nursing, Massachusetts Board of Registration in Nursing, State House, Boston, Mass.

Idleman, Hillis K. (A.M. 1939), head of English department, Williams Memorial Institute, New London, Conn.

Jaffe, Nina (A.M. 1940), resident teacher and director of music, Normandy School, Miami Beach, Fla.

Jarosz, Genevieve, assistant dietitian, General Hospital, Yonkers, N. Y.

Jeffery, Henrietta M., housekeeper, Carleton College, Northfield, Minn.

Johnson, Barbara, teacher of ninth grade English and social studies, Junior High School, Chevy Chase, Md.

Johnston, Dorothea M. (A.M. 1941), teacher of Spanish and commercial subjects, St. Mary's Hall, Burlington, N. J.

Kapelsohn, Minna, assistant children's librarian, Public Library, New York City.

Kaufman, Esther (A.M. 1935), public health nurse, United States Public Health Service, Washington, D. C.

Keller, Nancy E. (A.M. 1941), teacher of art, Public Schools, Shelton, Wash.

Kennedy, Florence M. (A.M. 1941), kindergarten teacher, Westside Day Nursery, New York City.

Kerr, Mary, principal and teacher of upper elementary grades, Otterburn School, Front Royal, Va.

Kincaid, William A. (A.M. 1928), superintendent of public schools, Summit, N. J.

Kinney, Helen E. (B.S. 1941), assistant director and educational supervisor, Public Health Department, Englewood Hospital, Englewood, N. J.

Kumler, Katherine W. (A.M. 1920), associate professor of home economics education, Agricultural and Mechanical College, Stillwater, Okla.

Langhans, Rosann, supervisor and teacher of art, Central School, Richfield Springs, N. Y.

Lannen, Helen D. (A.M. 1941), teacher of commercial subjects, Rochester Business Institute, Watertown, N. Y.

Leach, Elizabeth (A.M. 1940), teacher of all grades, Rural School, Mt. Kisco, N. Y.

Lewis, Ethel (A.M. 1937), instructor in home economics education, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind.

Light, Anna M. (A.M. 1939), instructor in therapeutics, University Hospital, Ann Arbor, Mich.

Light, J. Everett, assistant professor of vocational and industrial education, Teachers College of Connecticut, New Britain, Conn.

Lindsay, James (Ph.D. 1933), associate professor of adult education, Mississippi State College, State College, Miss.

Lomax, Alice G., instructor of home economics, Swift Memorial Junior College, Rogersville, Tenn.

Lord, Mildred J. (A.M. 1938), teacher of mathematics, Coolidge High School, Washington, D. C.

Ludwig, Donald (A.M. 1941), teacher of mathematics and coach of football, High School, Amherst, Ohio.

Lunceford, Louisa (A.M. 1938), teacher of secretarial subjects, Wood Secretarial School, New York City.

Lutz, Jean A. (A.M. 1938), teacher of second and third grades, Alta Vista School, Montgomery County, Md.

Lyle, Ella M. (A.M. 1938), assistant professor of home economics education, Texas Technological College, Lubbock, Tex.

Marsh, M. Lucille, teacher of art, North Country School, Lake Placid, N. Y.

Martin, Charles E., teacher of mathematics, Junior College, Kents Hill, Maine.

Martin, Ellen M. (A.M. 1941), teacher of physical education, Junior High, Locust Valley, N. Y.

Massee, Margaret L., food supervisor and dietitian, Colonnade Cafeteria, New York City.

Matthews, Anne R. (M.S. 1936), nutritionist, United Fruit Company, New York City.

McCormac, Mary Louise, field assistant, United Service Organizations, Y.W.C.A., Monroe, N. C.

Medl, Carolin (A.M. 1941), teacher of fine arts, High School, Catonsville, Md.

Merritt, James, teacher of English and history, High School, Roaring River, N. C.

Miklas, Milton, director of guidance and teacher of English, High School, Wellesley, Mass.

Mitchell, Frances H. (Ed.D. 1941), psychologist, Child Guidance Clinic, Public Schools, San Francisco, Calif.

Morrison, Mary E. (A.M. 1941), teacher of first grade, Norwood School, Royal Oak, Mich.

Mersheimer, Elizabeth (B.S. 1941), second assistant director, Muhlenberg Hospital School of Nursing, Plainfield, N. J.

Morton, Christine Morgan, instructor in psychology, Hood College, Frederick, Md.

Nelson, Anna C. (A.M. 1940), director of school of nursing and nursing service, Margaret Pillsbury General Hospital, Concord, N. H.

Neuendorffer, Ruth, teacher of social studies and recreation, Lincoln School, Marion, Ala.

O'Connell, Kathleen, teacher of mathematics, Dalton School, New York City.

Olsen, Edward G. (Ed.D. 1937), chairman of the education faculty, Russell Sage College, Troy, N. Y.

Olsen, Margaret (A.M. 1940), instructor of textiles and clothing, State Agricultural College, Logan, Utah.

Orme, Rhoda (A.M. 1933), academic dean, Junior College, Bradford, Mass.

Ortiz, Margarita M. (A.M. 1937), teacher of Spanish, High School, Cranford, N. J. Palermo, Maurice R., director of physical education in primary grades, Buckley School, New York City.

Parks, Arthur L., teacher of social studies, Junior and Senior High Schools, Port Jervis, N. Y.

Parrish, Marjorie (A.M. 1035), teacher of commercial subjects, High School, Bisbee, Arizona.

Parry, Helen (A.M. 1934), teacher of seventh and eighth grades, Valley Institute, Pharr, Tex.

Pasternak, Mimi (B.S. 1935), instructor in science, General Hospital, Yonkers, N. Y.

Patchell, Marjorie (A.M. 1929), instructor in art, State College for Women, Columbus, Miss.

Pawling, William H., teacher of English, Junior High, Bethlehem Central School, Delmar, N. Y.

Penhale, Helen E. M. (A.M. 1941), supervisor of clinical instruction and staff education, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass.

Peterson, Eunice M, instructor in nutrition and foods, Endicott Junior College, Pride's Crossing, Mass.

Pise, Eleana M. (A.M. 1941), supervisor in out-patient department, Polyclinic Hospital, New York City.

Pitt, Anne Bradley (A.M. 1940), assistant teacher of biology, Hunter College High School, New York City.

Pitt, William Jones (A.M. 1940), morale and recreation officer, United States Navy Recreation Station, South Brooklyn, N. Y.

Poinsetti, Georgia E. (A.M. 1941), manager of college cafeteria, Clark College, Atlanta, Ga.

Powers, Madelon (A.M. 1939), assistant in art department, East Carolina Teachers College, Greenville, N. C.

Ragsdale, Mary Adele, staff dietitian, Tilton Hospital, Fort Dix, N. J.

Rappaport, Josephine (B.S. 1935), assistant principal, School of Nursing, Sinai Hospital, Baltimore, Md.

Riggs, Helen M. (A.M. 1928), dietitian, Pawling School, Pawling, N. Y.

Roberts, Maude Mildred, head of home economics department, Storer College, Harpers Ferry, W. Va.

Robinson, Ellen W., instructor in advanced clothing. Princess Anne College, Princess Anne, Md.

Robinson, Ruth, elementary supervisor, Public Schools, Bristol, Va.

Roe, Janet (B.S. 1941), kindergarten teacher, Norris School, Norris, Tenn.

Rood, Dorothy (Ph.D. 1935), professor and chairman of department of Public Health Nursing, School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Russell, Helen A. (A.M. 1938), teacher of music, Public Schools, Westminster, Md. Rylander, Edith, teacher of music, Thorsly Institute, Thorsly, Ala.

Schneider, Betty (A.M. 1938), director of kindergarten, Kate Baldwin Free Kindergarten, Savannah, Ga.

Schneider, Etta (A.M. 1937), elementary teacher, Seat Pleasant School, Prince George's County, Md.

Scott, Adelin White (Ph.D. 1929), research psychologist, Letchworth Village, Thiells, N. Y.

Sellman, Margaret G. (A.M. 1941), director of nursery school, East Carolina Teachers College, Greenville, N. C.

Shelby, Lucy (A.M. 1941), principal of elementary school, Public Schools, Rockville, Md.

Shulman, Myra, assistant dietitian, Woman's Hospital, New York City.

Slocum, Amy (A.M. 1940), instructor of physical education, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga.

Steinbrenner, Arthur (A.M. 1941), teacher of mathematics in seventh, eighth, and ninth grades, Graham-Eckes School, Palm Beach, Fla.

Stewart, Donald H., assistant professor of history, Union College, Barbourville, Ky.

Stoddard, Hesther Lee (A.M. 1941), teacher of clothing and English, Public Schools, Overland, Mo.

Stout, Jean L (A.M. 1941), teacher of English, mathematics, and social studies, River Street School, Red Bank, N. J.

Sweeney, Kenneth F. (A.M. 1939), teacher of mathematics, High School, Great Neck, N. Y.

Tait, Jean D. (B.S. 1927), residence director, Y.W.C.A., Meriden, Conn.

Taylor, Dorothy M., instructor in speech, English, and dramatics, Larson Junior College, New Haven, Conn.

Teal, Everett A., coordinator of distributive occupations, High School, Wallingford, Conn.

Thuma, Marion E. (B.S. 1941), director of school of nursing and nursing service, White Plains Hospital Association, White Plains, N. Y.

Travers, R. M. W., instructor in psychology, State University, Columbus, Ohio

Traylor, Dorothy C., teacher of commercial subjects, High School, Lockport, N. Y.

Vail, Edith, teacher of music, Hananauoli School, Honolulu, T. H.

Vance, Margaret V., administrative dietitian, Montefiore Hospital, New York City.

Vansant, Joseph A. (Ed.D. 1941), administrative assistant and director of guidance, Lower Camden County Regional High School, Clementon, N. J.

Viglione, Amy E. (B.S. 1941), instructor in pediatric nursing, School of Nursing, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.

Wagner, Daniel (A.M. 1041), teacher of science, Junior High School, Baltimore.

Washington, Alice C. (A.M. 1937), instructor in home management, State College, Pine Bluff, Ark.

Whitaker, Georgia (A.M. 1936), teacher of first grade, Public Schools, Glen. Echo, Md.

Wilkins, Juanita (A.M. 1940), instructor in home economics, State College, Montevallo, Ala.

Williams, E. Jane (A.M. 1939), teacher of English, High School, Bethesda, Md.

Williamson, Douglas B., instructor in physics and mathematics, Gordon Military College, Barnesville, Ga.

Young, Bess M. (A.M. 1930), teacher of English and social studies, Junior High School, Springdale School, Canton, N. C.

Young, Kathleen F. (A.M. 1938), principal of school of nursing and director of nursing service, Eastern Maine General Hospital, Bangor, Me.


Dr. Truman L. Kelley (Ph.D. 1914), professor of education at Harvard University, is working on problems of measurement and war psychology. An article by Dr. Kelley, "When 'Cease Firing' Sounds," was published recently in The Christian Science Monitor.

Mr. William L. Connor (A.M. 1924), superintendent of schools, Allentown, Pa., and his son, Mr. William H. Connor (A.M. 1940), are the authors of The Contributions of the Irish to the American Way of Life, which is Volume VII in The Continued Study Units of the European Background Series, published by F. A. Davis Company, Philadelphia. Mr. William H. Connor prepared some of the later chapters while he was a graduate student at Teachers College.

Miss Pearl Scales (A.M. 1930) has served as director of elementary education in Oklahoma City, Okla., for eleven years.

Miss Helen A. Field (Ph.D. 1930) has been promoted from associate professor of education to professor of education at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Miss Maud E. Hayes (A.M. 1913) is president of the Pasadena-Foothill Division of the California Retired Teachers Association for 1941-42.

Dr. James Laurence Meader (Ph.D. 1928), president of Russell Sage College, Troy, N. Y., sponsored an Inter-American Week in October to celebrate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding of the College. It took the form of a Community Celebration attended by Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt, who presented six South American women of note for their honorary degrees. Other notables from North and South America included the Minister Plenipotentiary from Mexico and consuls from Bolivia, Cuba, Brazil, the Argentine, and other countries.

Dr. Emma Grant Meader (Ph.D. 1928) has been made a member of the lay committee of the New York State Nurses' Association, which held its first meeting in Albany in December. In the autumn Mrs. Meader gave readings from Alice Duer Miller's The White Cliffs and Paul Galileo's The Snow Goose to raise funds for British War Relief.

Miss Bessie Myers (A.M. 1924) is a field worker in the State Department of Public Welfare in San Antonio, Tex.

The Reverend Erwin L. Shaver (A.M. 1918) has been serving the International Council of Religious Education as chairman of the Committee on Vacation and Weekday Church Schools and as Acting Director of the Department of Weekday Church Schools. In connection with the latter work he has prepared a detailed pamphlet of information regarding weekday church schools and a teachers' guide for a training course in the subject.

Dr. Winifred E. Bain (Ph.D. 1928), principal of Wheelock School, Boston, Mass., reports that that institution has become Wheelock College, following the expansion of its course from three to four years and the award by the legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts of the charter enabling it to grant the degree of Bachelor of Science in Education. The school was established in 1889 for the preparation of teachers of children in the nursery, kindergarten, and primary grades, and it was incorporated in 1939 for non-profit. The advancement to senior college status and the change in name come as a climax to this long history of progress.

Dr. Caroline Zachry (Ph.D. 1929) has been appointed to the position of Director of the Bureau of Child Guidance of New York City.

Miss Mary E. Moxcey (Ph.D. 1922) retired in November 1940 and is now doing volunteer work in religious education, and also some free lance writing.

Dr. Homer Howard (Ph.D. 1941) is a member of the faculty of State Teachers College, Radford, Va., with the rank of full professor.

Miss Ethel M. Hopkins (B.S. 1937) is director of nursing education in Jefferson Hospital, Philadelphia.



MORE than six hundred high school teachers and principals gathered at Teachers College on January 24, 1942, to consider questions relating to "The High School Teacher and the War Emergency."

In the opening general session in the morning Professor Thomas H. Briggs4 stated that we must face the fact that "unfortunately it cannot be denied that the enemies of democracy are more definite in what they want, superior in making long-term plans for its attainment, and more persistent in carrying out their program." He stated and discussed eight questions that confront teachers in the present emergency:

1. What sort of new world do we want?

2. How can we contribute to clarifying the meanings of democracy?

3. How can we prepare youth to share effectively in solving post-war problems?

4. How can we learn and teach how to sacrifice willingly for desired general welfare?

5. How can we give youth perspective and also appreciation of permanent values?

6. How can we learn and teach how to select trustworthy leaders?

7. How can we contribute to keep morale high?

8. How can we preserve education by justifying the schools to the public?

"Teachers," concluded Professor Briggs, "can knit sweaters, roll bandages, act as air-raid wardens, buy victory bonds, and perform other such services in common with other citizens. But unlike most of their fellows they have an unrivaled opportunity and a high duty to perform the unique functions of leadership that their education fits them for and that their employment obligates them to accept. If they are worthy teachers, they will become worthy leaders in democracy."

Professor Merle Curti, whose address on "Immediate Problems of the Schools" follows, analyzed the general problem of the preservation of democracy into some of its specific applications to high school classrooms and activities.

In the afternoon thirteen discussion groups were held, in which the special opportunities and problems of teachers of Business and Vocational Education, of English, of the Education of the Exceptional, of the Fine and Industrial Arts, of Foreign Languages, of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, of Home Economics, of Mathematics, of Music, of Natural Sciences, of Social Studies, and of Speech were considered. A discussion group for high school principals, under the chairmanship of Professor Will French, was also held. Summaries of each of the thirteen discussions appear in this issue following Professor Curti's address.

The arrangements for the Conference were made by a committee whose members were Lennox Grey, Professor of English, Chairman; Donald P. Cottrell, Professor of Education; and Erling M. Hunt, Professor of History. At the request of teachers who attended the sessions some follow-up meetings have been planned.

1 BY EDWARD M. GLASER, PH.D. Teachers College, Columbia University, Contributions to Education. No. 843.

2 Watson, G. B., and Glaser, E. M., The Watson-Glaser Tests of Critical Thinking, World Book Company, Yonkers, N. Y., 1942.

3 Any student who is taking or has taken twelve points of work at Teachers College or any graduate of Teachers College may register with the Office of Placement Service. For initial registrations covering three years, no fee is charged. For information write to the Placement Office for its booklet, Employment of Teachers and Administrators.

4 Professor Briggs' address, under the tide "Cassandra Speaks," was published in School and Society for February 7, 1942.

Cite This Article as: Teachers College Record Volume 43 Number 5, 1942, p. 409-410
https://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 9106, Date Accessed: 1/23/2022 10:13:12 AM

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