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Public Education and the Structure of American Society: III. Education Beyond the High School

by James Bryant Conant - 1945

A perspective on the variety of educational opportunities that might be offered following high school completion

THE critical period in a young man's life as far as the relation of his education to his career is concerned lies between the ages of sixteen and twenty-one.1 If he drops out of high school, or finishes high school and does not go on to college, many roads are barred; for example, only with the greatest difficulty can he become a doctor, lawyer, or engineer. On the other hand, if he graduates from a four-year liberal arts college, in many cases he will consider that his "higher education" was thrown away if he takes up an occupation largely recruited from non-college men. Assuming for the moment that all barriers of economics and geography and national origins were swept aside by a magic wand, how would a wise educator proceed to plan the education of thousands of young men in any one of the forty-eight different states? Is everyone to go to college? If so, what kind of college? If not, on what basis are some to be denied "the privileges of a higher education"?

Here we must meet head on an issue I mentioned earlier in considering some of the objections to public education as an instrument for providing mobility in the social order. Will a democracy support a scheme by which educational opportunity beyond the high school is to be determined solely by brains defined in conventional academic terms? Would not this result merely in a cutthroat competition among potential members of Phi Beta Kappa? How are we to avoid a snobbery based on education alongside one based on birth?

To my mind the crux of the problem is to be found in such phrases as "the privileges of a higher education." If we could eliminate the words "higher education" we could at least make a start toward thinking more clearly about the relation of our colleges to the structure of American society. For the adjective "higher" implies at once that those who do not go to a four-year college are forever on a lower plane. And any discerning teacher in our secondary schools will testify that the social implications of "going to college" weigh quite as heavily with parents and children as does proven aptitude for college work. Furthermore, any placement officer of a college knows full well that it is a rare holder of a bachelor's degree who is anxious to take up as his lifework a trade or vocation for which he might have been trained in a technical high school.

In the last fifty years in many sections of the country the colleges have been considered to no small degree as vocational ladders (though many a professor would shudder at the term) not because of the intellectual content of their curricula or the training of the mind, but because of the "friends one made." The tendency of management to hire as junior executives only college men (to which I referred earlier) is merely one manifestation of the undefined but very definite recognition on the part of ambitious people that "without a college education you cannot get ahead." The extent to which such ideas confuse our thinking about education beyond the high school can hardly be exaggerated.

Let us, therefore, substitute the word "advanced" for "higher" and get squared away for a discussion of high school and college in terms of the basic premise of these lectures: that is to say, let us discuss education beyond the high school in terms of the ideal of equality of educational opportunity. Instead of raising the question, "Who should be educated?" let us rather consider the problem, "How long should be the education of the members of each vocation?" Of course, those who consciously or unconsciously reject the premise of working toward a more fluid social order should stick to the word higher education and underline the adjective. Anyone who wishes to solve our educational problems along hereditary class lines is well advised to support an educational pattern in which collegiate training is primarily for students who can pay for it; this training to be suitable both for those who enter the professions and for those who are to be managers of industry and commerce. Public education would then be largely concerned with providing another type of terminal schooling for future clerical workers, still another for manual workers, and so on through a close-knit stratified social system. The exceptionally brilliant boy (measured in academic terms) can be taken care of under such an arrangement by a relatively inexpensive system of scholarships, or at least he can in theory.

On the other hand, if we want to move toward a more flexible social structure, we must consider the final years of formal education not as something "higher"—a privilege of those who can afford to pay, or to be won by a few with high scholastic skill—but as something open to all who deserve it and need it. And the emphasis on the word need is all-important, provided we define need in terms of subsequent vocation. Therefore, let me talk, if I may, about different stages of advanced education rather than different levels of higher education.

When we are considering education as a social process we cannot for a moment disassociate the training of a youth from his future role as an adult. If we are to plan our education intelligently, we must lay out roads which lead to fairly definite vocational goals. Of course, we must see to it that there are many interconnecting paths and no insurmountable walls to prevent a shift from one road to another. Of course, no one expects every boy of sixteen with a high I.Q. to decide whether he is to be a doctor or a lawyer or go into business, but with proper guidance he can each year move along an educational route leading in the general direction of the professions. Even the "purest" educator who rejects all discussions of education which do not center around the life of the mind would admit that it would be a social waste if fifty per cent of our law school graduates decided each year to study medicine and then went on to medical school for four years more, or vice versa. After all, life is short; by and large one wishes to have a youth get into his lifework while he is still young; yet one wishes the same youth to be equipped with as much knowledge and skill as possible. The time factor alone requires us to plan as carefully as we know how for the advanced stages of education.

If you will grant all this, then it seems evident at first sight that certain vocations require longer periods of formal training than do others. As now conceived, public health tops the list; medicine and the academic careers requiring a Ph.D. in arts or letters are next; research in science is not far behind; then come law and engineering—to name only a few of the well-recognized professions. All of these have demanded, in the past at least, four years beyond high school, medicine usually eight. What the postwar pattern will be remains to be seen, but the time involved certainly cannot be reduced by as much as fifty per cent without great loss to the professions.

Taking as our point of reference the years immediately before the war, I believe it is fair to say that the vast majority of the graduates of four-year liberal arts colleges with high standards (or their equivalents within many of our universities) looked forward either to careers in the professions I have named above (and certain others closely allied) or else in business. But going into business did not mean entering permanently into the ranks of labor; a job on an assembly line or in a steel mill as a manual worker was for nine-tenths of this group but an apprenticeship to a white-collar job.

Now I do not suppose that even a world war will alter this situation greatly. And those of us who want to see our educational system develop in the direction of greater democracy must take these facts into consideration. If the four-year colleges are the roads to white-collar jobs, particularly good jobs in management, as well as to the professions, what should be the criteria for admission? Clearly, scholastic aptitude, necessary for the professions, is hardly the test. Furthermore, it is evident that the present method of testing this aptitude in many colleges is such that if a parent can choose his child's preparatory school irrespective of expense, all but the most dull-witted can at least enter college. In short, family economic status plays a predominant role.

But suppose we raise the academic bars still higher and by improved methods of testing sort out the academically brilliant from those who have been "well prepared for college work." What kind of colleges would we have if they were composed only of members of Phi Beta Kappa? Institutions very different from the present we may be sure, and quite unsuited for the general education of our future professional men. And where would our future businessmen (that is, our executives, bankers, and independent small operators of their own shops and stores) obtain that general education we all admit they need?

The more one thinks about this phase of education the more difficult becomes the task of suggesting how we should plan the advanced stages of our public education in the United States. We seem to be caught on the horns of a dilemma: either reject an ideal of equality of opportunity through education and quietly move to make our colleges and universities institutions for perpetuating the pres-sent social stratification by training sons of management and the professions for management and the professions, or else "have everybody go to college." But what would be the social consequences of providing vast numbers of young men with the type of education now given in most liberal arts colleges? Would not a great many believe themselves headed for business jobs only to find these jobs nonexistent? For there is a limit to the number of positions in management and in the professions even in an era of great prosperity.


The ideal pattern for advanced education in the United States can be described only after we have answered certain basic social questions. Do we or do we not want to move in the direction of a more fluid social structure with the minimum of visibility? If we do, then through education we must work toward a society in which a great variety of occupations have equal social status. To the extent we near this goal, the particular type of advanced education offered by a four-year college has no special appeal to the socially ambitious. To the extent we move in this direction, we reverse one of the currents now flowing in our educational network. For there is perhaps no better example of the interaction of educational and other social forces than in the development of the prestige of an occupation by giving it academic standing.

Slowly, and in spite of the resistance of the older universities, the careers for which a university prepares a man have increased in number in the English-speaking countries, until in the second quarter of the twentieth century we find in the United States a bewildering number of "practical subjects" which in most academic centers appear to be on a par with the ancient disciplines of law and medicine. Universities under both public and private control have arranged curricula and granted degrees in increasing numbers to men and women preparing for a wide variety of occupations. The word profession, in danger of being stretched beyond the elastic limit, was long ago supplemented by the term semi-profession.

For the first forty years of this century, both the enrollments and the diversity of training increased each decade. But soon the voice of harsh critics was heard throughout the land. Able and distinguished citizens became alarmed at this transformation of the idea of a university in American hands. When you once abandon the concept of a university as a home of learning, a place where the life of the mind is to be cultivated at all costs, you have destroyed our centers of higher education, they declared. But in spite of these strictures the development proceeded on its way. One of our oldest universities strengthened its school of business administration in the 1920*5, and established a school of public administration in the i93o's. Another continued to give degrees in forestry and nursing. Privately controlled universities in our urban areas were as catholic in their offerings as any institutions supported by the state.


The forces of American democracy have taken the European idea of a university and utterly transformed it; this transformation is no less significant because it has been to a large degree unconscious. We in the academic world have been at times loath to admit this fact; nor have we always frankly acknowledged the basic reason, namely, that American parents fortunately placed as to geography and income insisted that their children should all receive an education the social equivalent of that of the lawyer or the doctor. They insisted that degrees and academic hoods should be as much the right of the son who went into his father's business as of the one who graduated in engineering. In other words, the dominant position of the traditional learned professions was not only threatened but overthrown within the universities themselves. How this was possible and by what means it was accomplished is another story which I hope some day an historian will tell.

Whether we like it or not, the American university is as different from the nineteenth century Continental universities as the Renaissance universities of Italy and the Netherlands were different from those of the Middle Ages. Personally I think the basic philosophy which unconsciously has shaped the growth of the modern American university is sound, for it is none other than a philosophy hostile to the supremacy of a few vocations; it is a philosophy moving toward the social equality of all useful labor. I say unconsciously because the motivating force for more than one increase in a university's offering has been a desire to raise the prestige of an occupation and thereby increase not decrease the total social differentiation. But the farther the movement proceeded the more evident was the outcome. When a club embraces too many members, its claim to exclusiveness disappears overnight.

What is to be done about it? Turn back the clock and have the typical American university once again become concerned only with the traditional professions and training scholars and research workers in the pure sciences? As impossible as undesirable, though there are a few privately controlled institutions which still hew fairly closely to the orthodox line. Expand our universities another tenfold and take in essentially all the graduates of our high schools for four years of advanced education of one sort or another at public expense? Almost impossible, certainly highly inefficient, and probably highly undesirable.


The solution appears rather to be in the direction of a vast development of local centers for advanced education beyond high school. Already we have many such institutions in certain states, usually designated as junior colleges, and plans for the establishment of a greater number still; in some localities the older teachers colleges (themselves outgrowths of normal schools) are being transformed into junior colleges. Here we have the most exciting area of educational activity and one that holds great promise for the future. Here we need to think through our problems with great care, and examine the relation of these institutions to the total educational picture with both rigour and imagination.

At the risk of wearisome repetition, I should like to emphasize again that this problem is one that cannot be solved or even stated in national terms except in a very general way. The specific pattern must be evolved locally; it will vary from state to state and within a state from town to town, and, of course, the needs of a rural community or even a small city are very different from those of a large urban area.

But there are some general considerations which can certainly govern our thinking. The fundamental premise must be derived from a hard economic fact, namely, that the major cost of advanced education, if the student is away from home, is board and lodging. Therefore, I assume that if we are to expand at public expense educational opportunity beyond the high school, the education should as far as possible be provided locally. To envisage using public funds to provide four or even two years of free board and room for any considerable fraction of our high school graduates is to envisage a vast and needless expenditure of public money. On the other hand, to provide two years of education beyond high school for as many as fifty per cent if they live at home is by no means an extravagant undertaking.

What sort of education should be provided in these local centers? How should they be organized? What should be their relation to the orthodox four-year liberal arts college, to our universities and technical schools? In Education for All American Youth one finds depicted a provision for advanced education in a rural area of 200 square miles by means of a consolidated secondary school which embraces Grades VII through XIV (ages 12 through 19). This school, which draws its students from 4000 families on farms, 1000 in one town, and 1000 in four other villages, is to be so organized as to give opportunity for those who wish to continue their studies beyond the end of the conventional high school (Grade XII). To quote from the document in question: "Half or more of the students' time in Grades XIII and XIV is spent in study and practice related to occupations, including productive work under school supervision. Vocational education in these two upper grades is directed toward three purposes: to build all-round proficiency in the broad occupational fields of farm and village; to equip students with knowledge of the sciences and mathematics relevant to their occupations, so that they can meet new problems and improve their practices after they leave school; and to help each student more fully to understand the place of his or her occupation in the contemporary economy and culture." For the relatively small number of students who wish to continue their education after Grade XIV through college or professional school, a program is to be mapped out which fits the particular plans and needs of each student. These boys and girls who hope to become physicians, teachers, lawyers, clergymen, engineers, nurses, or research scientists are a small but exceedingly important group. They may number "not more than 20 in each class of six times the number" for the type of community in question, but among them is found a high proportion of youth of superior intelligence and unusual capacity for leadership.

In outlining a plan for advanced education in a typical large American city, however, the Educational Policies Commission recommends a different method of handling post-high school students. A "community institute" is envisaged as providing for those who wish to continue education in Grades XIII and XIV (youths 18 and 19 years of age). This institute is to take care of the students who come from the city itself, but is also "the only institution of its kind in an area of some 3000 square miles with a population of some 170,000 people excluding that of the city, and therefore approximately one-third of its students will come from the twelve high schools of this tributary area."

There are five groups of students who might be expected to attend such a community institute, (1) Those who want to prepare for "various technical and semi-professional occupations which require all the training the high schools can give and one or two years in addition; for example, (future) accountants, draftsmen, laboratory technicians, dietitians, assistants in doctors' and dentists' offices, and managers of various businesses." (2) Those who wish further training in the occupations for which high schools provide the basic preparation. As examples of such occupations the report mentions "machine shop, metal trades, retail selling, office management, automobile and airplane mechanics, and the various building trades." One or two years spent by such a student at a community institute would "extend his mastery of basic operations, enlarge his knowledge of related science and mathematics, secure more practical work experience, and advance his understanding of economic processes and industrial and labor relations." (3) Those who look forward to professional training in universities or technical schools but for various reasons prefer to take the first two years' work while living at home. (4) Those who wish "to round out their general education before entering employment or becoming homemakers." In addition, "there is yet a fifth group," the authors say, "composed of adults and older youths, mostly employed, who no longer attend school full time, but wish to continue their education during their free hours. Their interests are wide and varied. Some spring from their daily work, some from their civic activities, some from their use of leisure time, and some simply from the desire to 'keep on going'." It is suggested that some of the students will enroll in the regular institute courses but a majority will attend evening classes which are organized especially for them. These classes might meet anywhere in the city but would all be a part of the community institute program which is planned as the school system's agency of adult education.

Such in very brief outline is the recommendation contained in Education for All American Youth as regards the program for boys and girls of eighteen and nineteen. Certainly my summary of this detailed plan does much less than justice to the authors: I can only refer any who are not familiar with the book to the original document. Along some such lines, both in rural areas and in cities, we may hope for the further evolution of our American system of education. One looks to a considerable expansion of the numbers of youth of eighteen and nineteen who are continuing formal education on a part-time or full-time basis; one looks forward to this type of education being given to a large degree locally; one looks forward to a diverse program of instruction to be offered to a heterogeneous group bound together by the common social activities of the school ("there is no aristocracy of 'subjects' in the curriculum ... mathematics and mechanics, art and agriculture, history and home making are all peers," to quote again from Education for All American Youth); and finally one looks forward to such wide educational opportunity coupled with wise guidance as to allow each student to obtain as lengthy an education as he or she may need.


At this point I must say a word or two about the all-important subject of guidance or counselling. It can be argued that really effective counselling is the keystone of the arch of a widespread educational system dedicated to the principle of equality of opportunity. For in a democracy, unlike in a totalitarian state, youth cannot be forced into what the authorities consider the appropriate groove of advanced education. No, in this republic of free men, no official can decree what line of study must be pursued. Though public opinion might well be aware of the fact that the number of doctors should be greatly increased, yet the state is powerless (and should be) to order the most promising youths with scientific talent into the study of medicine. There is even a strong popular feeling of resentment against any tendency of educational authorities to tell boys and girls what they cannot study. Any idea of telling them what they must study of a specialized nature would be thrown out of court by the American public without a hearing.

Yet if we consider a thousand boys and girls, we all know how wide is the spread of ability among them and how varied are the talents. For the welfare of youth as well as for the welfare of the country, the varied talents should be developed in different ways. Some individuals in this group, to find their most useful and satisfying place, need but little formal education beyond high school. Some, however, should have many further years of intensive training.

How is this sorting out process to be accomplished? The answer is by the democratic method of enlightenment and persuasion. To quote from Education for All American Youth once again, "the keystone of the school program is guidance—personal assistance to individual boys and girls in making their plans and decisions about careers, education, employment, and all sorts of personal problems.

"Guidance is no mechanical process, whereby counselors and teachers sort out boys and girls as a grading machine sorts apples. . . . Guidance is rather the high art of helping boys and girls to plan their own actions wisely, in the full light of all the facts that can be mustered about themselves and about the world in which they will work and live.… Important new factors enter into guidance as boys and girls move into the later teens. During the years just ahead, most of these youth will make plans and decisions with far-reaching effects on their lives. They will have to decide what occupations they are going to enter; whether they will stay in the . . . district or move away; what education they want and where to get it; when to go to work, where, and at what jobs; whether to marry soon or wait a few years; and so on. For each decision, plans must be formulated and carried out."


In my remarks about education beyond the high school, I have so far laid great emphasis on those who are not going to enter the professions. I have done so because to my mind the proper advanced education of this group is the major educational problem of the second half of the twentieth century. Nevertheless there are very important questions before the country which concern the professional group. Are we recruiting the best talent available for law, medicine, engineering and the sciences, for example; are we educating for these professions in such a way as to produce broad gauge citizens as well as efficient specialists?

American public opinion as voiced by the press and translated into action by elected representatives has been very loath until recently to admit the reality of talent. Only in matters connected with organized sport does the average American think clearly and realistically about the significance of innate ability. Countless parents condemn schools, colleges, and universities because their offspring are not being transformed into doctors and lawyers of great promise; but very few condemn the athletic director and his coaches because a son failed to develop into an All-American football player; and fewer still expect the college to make even an average athlete out of a frail and badly coordinated youth. Yet when it comes to studies, parents and children often expect the school and college to accomplish the equivalent of turning a cripple into a football player. And for this attitude the educational fraternity must take its share of blame. Every teacher worth his or her salt has to take a roseate view of both the potentialities of the pupils and the transforming power of education. Furthermore, friends and supporters of various schools and colleges, who in this century have wanted either more public funds, or more students, or more gifts (or all three), have quite consciously fostered the idea that education can work miracles. As a result of all this muddy thinking, the reality of intellectual talent is all too often denied by the average American citizen.

What has been called the "Jacksonian tradition" in American thinking, combined with the propaganda of certain educators, has spread the idea that any American child can if he wants, with the aid of proper education, become anything he desires. The very fact that so-called higher education, particularly in the institutions with the highest standards and greatest reputation, has been available to a large degree only to the children of the upper income groups has made suspect the whole process of professional education. By denying the reality of intellectual talent, the "Jacksonian democrat" can also minimize the significance of professional training. Neither "brains" nor wealth determines which men get ahead in this American democracy, he declares; the only thing that counts, this sturdy individualist would maintain, is will power. And in spite of the historic connection between the mores of the U.S.A. and the doctrine of predestination, most Americans are quite convinced that each man's will is free.

We meet here a social phenomenon of great interest and one that has played an important role in the development of the United States. One of the most baffling experiences for a foreigner is to encounter this strain in our thinking; it seems to him the democracy of the "levellers" of three centuries ago; it seems equalitarianism gone wild. To assume that the graduate of a night law school is just as well trained as one who has won honors at a famous university school of law seems to a foreign scholar either ludicrous or disastrous. Yet, while admitting that this American blindness to differences in ability and training along professional lines has worked much evil in the past, I believe it has been a healthy symptom of the vitality of our democratic life. Such levelling doctrines were the antibodies supplied unconsciously by the body politic to counteract the claims of those who had enjoyed "the privileges of a higher education." Here we have one of the instinctive defense mechanisms of American democracy at work to guard against the ascendency of a privileged group.

There may be some who think I am stretching a long bow in thus ascribing to the American electorate a prejudice against high standards of professional training, and breaking the bow perhaps in relating this prejudice to a general social and political philosophy. If so, I only ask the skeptics to try to persuade a legislative group in Washington or a number of state capitals as to the desirability of finding intellectual talent and educating this talent at government expense. I ask the same skeptics to look at the recorded debates on the state approval of medical schools with inadequate staffs and low standards. The fact that so many of our elected representatives are lawyers has had an important bearing on educational legislation. Because some men of great native ability have been successful in the practice of law even on the basis of very poor preparation, the false conclusion has been drawn that law schools with high standards are either unimportant or a positive evil. And by analogy the same argument has been advanced regarding medical and scientific training.

Clearly the remedy for the evil which has evoked this democratic defense response—the evil of inequality of educational opportunity—is not to deny the reality of talent or the significance of superior advanced education, but to provide funds so that the boy of real talent may get as good an education as he needs. And to meet the argument that the job of the colleges and universities is to make anyone who has the "will power" a first-rate lawyer, doctor, engineer, or scientist, one must daily educate the American people about the realities of human nature. In such education the analogy with athletics to which I have already referred is not without its value. But equally important is the emphasis on the social equality of a great variety of occupations. As matters seem to be moving now, the economic rewards are no longer at all commensurate with the length of advanced education (if they ever were). Is it too Utopian to hope that we can look forward to the day when in a typical American high school boys and girls will determine their future educational plans largely in terms of their ability and their real interests, not in terms of parental wishes or of monetary and social ambitions? Is it totally unrealistic to hope that those concerned with our colleges and universities will cease advertising their brand of education by subtly (and sometimes not too subtly) implying that there are no transformations of human nature beyond their powers?


During the past two years the discussion of the education of the veteran has illustrated in a most striking fashion the current confusion in our thinking. As a result we have what may be called an educational bonus law. The length of education to which a veteran is entitled at government expense is to be measured by his length of service. Clearly the whole philosophy back of such a provision is that education, like cash, is something to be given as a reward; the longer you have served your country, the greater the privilege to which you are entitled. As long as we regard education beyond high school as a special privilege, just so long will we have this type of legislation.

President Roosevelt's committee on the postwar education of the serviceman analyzed the problem clearly: their report laid down the basic principle that the education of the veteran was not to be a bonus for the individual but something the Federal Government should finance for the good of the entire country. They recommended an optional year of education at Federal expense for everyone (a sort of trial year as it were) and then further education only for selected individuals headed for vocations which required prolonged formal training and which had a deficit of men. These thoroughly sound principles received very little support even among professional educators and almost none among laymen. Those who criticized the present law and advocated the adoption of the President's committee's premises were met by such derisive questions as: Selected men—selected by whom? For what? On what basis? Who in this free country has the right to tell any veteran what he can or can't study? Or, as one Congressman said to me, "Every young man in the United States has a right to make a fool of himself by studying something he isn't able to handle," to which I replied by the counter question, "Even at government expense?"

Legislation, like water, cannot rise higher than its source. In the present state of public opinion (or perhaps I should say public confusion), the chances of getting Congress to enact a wiser educational section of the G. I. Bill are slim indeed. Ideally we could imagine a G. I. Bill which provided one year of education for everyone—to try out his intellectual prowess, so to speak—and then as many more years of advanced study as was required for the professional training contemplated. State Boards, we can imagine, could select fairly and reasonably intelligently those most likely to succeed in the study of law, medicine, engineering, and advanced work in the arts and sciences. I am firmly convinced that such a system could be made to work in this country to great advantage to the nation. But the adoption of any such scheme is out of the question at the present time.

The results of the G. I. Bill will be interesting to watch. By and large, it will do a great deal of good for there can be no doubt that the present law is much better than a law without educational benefits. On the other hand, as has been pointed out by many, we must expect some unfortunate results. We can only hope that, by and large, a conscientious job of guidance and counselling will be done and that the employment situation will be so favorable that there will be no undue pressure sending back to formal study young men who had much better get on with a job.

In spite of the unsatisfactory outcome of the discussion of the education of the veterans, I am optimistic about the future; clarification of professional and public thinking about the matter is sure to come. In the first place, questioning and skepticism about education which is now so rampant will act as a corrective force tending to eliminate some of the improper claims of so-called higher education. But most important of all, I believe, will be the emphasis which we must place on professional training in the sciences, pure and applied, including medicine. Whether we like it or not (and most verbal-minded people over thirty do not like it) we are living in an age of science and technology. Able doctors, engineers, research physicists and chemists, to give just a few examples, are going to be demanded by the public and in greater numbers than before.

Now, it just so happens that the professional training in the sciences can be correlated with subsequent professional success in a much more striking manner than can training in the majority of fields where verbal-mindedness plays a greater role. Just because the target at which the engineer or scientist aims is relatively clear-cut, one can judge his shooting accurately. He is expected to perform professionally and is judged in this way. Now exactly the same thing is true in law, but this is not recognized outside of professional circles. The public is confused because so many lawyers act in a non-professional capacity, as politicians or as industrial executives; and in these latter capacities it is not intellectual brilliance but integrity and human sympathy—qualities so important but so hard to assess—that are of predominant importance. So the success story of the boy "who did badly in his studies," got his law in a night school, and now is an outstanding public servant is paraded daily before our eyes to confuse our thinking. In science, such parallel cases are in modern times nonexistent; even the man in the street now realizes that we are not living in the age of Edison. Therefore, I believe the public will support a national approach to scientific professional education including medicine.

Let me consider briefly the complex problem of the relation of the Federal government to education. The concept of the individual states as the educational sovereign units is basic to the further development of our system of public education, including the education of boys and girls two years beyond high school. Federal aid to education, including aid to general college education, should flow to the states without restrictions or control. But when we come to preparation for a profession we encounter an entirely different situation. The social factors influencing the practice of the professions are to a large extent national; the coherence of each profession is largely on a national basis. To be sure, state laws still determine the qualifications for practice in many instances, but more and more the leaders of the professions tend to regard the differences in the state standards as anachronisms. The leading professional schools draw students from all over the country and the graduate may find his permanent home in a section of the United States far distant from his origin.

For all these reasons, it seems desirable to distinguish clearly between professional education and other types of advanced education when considering the role of the Federal Government. In general, Congress should finance education only by grants to the states to be spent as they may determine. But if Congress were to appropriate money for the support of a system of scholarships to widen the base from which the professions are recruited, such action would not violate the principle of local autonomy of public education. Federal scholarships for university students would not jeopardize the principles of state responsibility for public education. The arguments in favor of such a system of Federal aid for high school graduates have been marshalled in the report of Dr. Vannevar Bush to the President entitled, "Science the Endless Frontier." They have been presented to the Senate Committee considering the Magnuson and Kilgore bills.

Dr. Bush was concerned only with answering certain questions raised by President Roosevelt. Therefore, he and his advisers were not in a position to consider the problem of recruiting for professions other than those embraced in the term "research scientists." Clearly, however, the future of medicine and medical research depends quite as much on the calibre of the young recruits as does physics or chemistry. And I am inclined to think that the evidence indicates that the present situation is more unsatisfactory in medicine than in any other profession.


The training of a physician and surgeon today is a very expensive business, whoever foots the bill. It is both costly and time-consuming. For the pre-clinical work, expensive laboratories and equipment are required; for the clinical work, extensive hospital facilities with many patients must be at hand. This last point is often not appreciated by the layman. You simply couldn't set up a first-rate medical school in an isolated small city with all the money in the world; there wouldn't be patients enough in the hospital to provide the requisite teaching material. That medical schools have developed only in those large communities where there are hospitals and patients is no accident. The number of these schools cannot be increased beyond certain limits. The number of students in each school likewise probably can be increased only slightly without seriously reducing the amount of experience with patients which the profession now deems the minimum to be required for an M. D. degree. Furthermore, as everyone knows, graduation from a medical school is by no means the end of a doctor's training; the young graduate must serve many months of internship before he is considered qualified to be on his own; indeed, if he is to become a specialist it is a question not of months but of years of further apprenticeship.

We are very proud of the present high standard in medical education in this country and we boast of the great strides in medical practice that have gone hand in hand with the raising of these standards. But let us not dodge the fact that as a consequence of our raising our sights, we are now in a position where we cannot increase greatly the number of men trained each year in this very superior manner. And furthermore, this training requires a long period of advanced study, a minimum of seven years beyond high school (two in college, four in medical school, one as an intern) and for many as much as ten or twelve. Quite apart from the fact that the tuition fees in the leading medical schools are relatively high, living expenses for this long period of years mean a considerable financial outlay. The medical student today is much too occupied with his work to be able to take on part-time employment. Working one's way through a medical school, except in unusual circumstances, is a hazard to physique and nerves. The result is that the profession is being recruited, by and large, from a relatively small portion of the population. With the exception of the urban boy who can live at home (to whom I have referred more than once already), the medical student of today must almost of necessity come from the upper income groups. By this one does not mean he is rich, of course, as the word is commonly used, but he or his family must have some financial resources. The number of medical students who were not living at home and who came from families with an income of less than $5,000 a year before the war must have been very small. And let us remember at that time (1941) 2.3 per cent of the families of the country received incomes of $5,000 a year or greater.

The importance to the country of recruiting the medical profession from a large pool of capable young men is obvious. The qualities that make a man a good doctor are hard to gauge; perhaps in none of the traditional professions is the selection of candidates on a more uncertain basis. Although in the prewar years there were twice as many candidates as there were openings in the medical schools (and the leading schools were oversubscribed many fold), there is a good deal of dissatisfaction with the quality of each class. The top men are excellent, of course, but the spread of ability between them and the rest is far too great. One cannot help believing that a much wider basis for the recruiting of the profession would improve the quality. To this end a system of Federal scholarships, it would seem to me, should be instituted. The national need is, I believe, clear, and though selection would be more difficult than with the sciences, with patience and hard work an equitable and feasible scheme could surely be evolved.

In the few moments which now remain of this, the last of my three lectures, I shall recapitulate my arguments. And in so doing try to reconcile what some of you may have felt was a certain inconsistency between them.

My first lecture argued for minimizing all social and economic differentiation. Yet in my second lecture I suggested that we could not consider general education apart from vocational goals, and that any realistic survey of the present situation shows vocational goals to be closely related to the social and economic family background. And in the last lecture I have favored the doctrine of the social equality of all useful labor, yet shown considerable concern with the recruitment of only one type of talented youth, namely, those needed by the professions.

To charges of carrying water on both shoulders I should reply that is inherent in my method of approach. For my objective has been twofold: first, to show how we may examine public education in the light of our knowledge of the present structure of American society; and second, to set goals which we must reach if we are to modify the present structure in the direction I believe essential in order to stabilize this industrial democracy of free men. I have, therefore, spoken frankly of the stratified nature of our society and at the same time expressed the hope that the layers may be made less rigid and less visible by suitable changes in our educational system. In short, I have tried at one and the same time to be both an analyst of a social process and an advocate of change. To me there is nothing inconsistent in combining the two attitudes. Indeed, one might be inclined to question whether or not a person could think clearly about education without having formulated a social philosophy on the one hand and probed into the realities of our social situation on the other. Whether or not my own endeavor has been successful in these directions, I shall have to leave to the judgment of this audience.

Finally I must express my deep appreciation to Dean Russell and the Faculty of Teachers College for the privilege of thinking aloud on Public Education and the Structure of American Society—a subject which I venture to believe is not only of interest to teachers and professors, but of significance for the future of the nation.




Volume 1, 1935-March 1, 1945

(Continued from the November RECORD)

223. MINER, ROBERT J. AND FARIES, MIRIAM A proposed program of student personnel work for the main center, evening session of the College of the City of New York. 1942.

224. MITCHELL, EVA CORNELIA Integrating student teaching and related courses in education in the education of elementary teachers at Hampton institute. 1941.


A plan for the improvement of reading instructions in sight conservation classes of the public schools of the city of New York. 1940.


The functions of the health education program in an administrative unit. 1938.


The improvement of maintenance practices in the central rural schools of New York state. 1941.


A plan for the organization of camps as an integral part of the public school system of the city of New York. 1943.


A plan for reconstituting the Colored orphan asylum in order to solve more adequately the problem of dependent colored children in New York city. 1940.


A plan for organized adult education in Texas. 1939.

231. MOSHER, HOWARD JOSEPH Preliminary plans for a professional education course in the state normal school at New Paltz, New York. 1941.


A proposal for the improvement of assignment practices in secondary schools with special reference to teacher training techniques at the Pennsylvania state college. 1942.


Courses in school administration to be offered in Alabama polytechnic institute, Auburn, Alabama. 1941.


A plan whereby a series of problems of school organization and administration in Columbus, Ga., may be selected and formulated; whereby ways and means of studying these problems as bases for policy making may be devised; and whereby some appropriate materials may be described and pertinent resources indicated. 1941.


A source book in individual development and guidance (for students in Yenching university, Peiping, China). 1938.


Educating for journalism. 1938.

237. NATESH, A. M.

The education and vocational rehabilitation of the visually and acoustically handicapped of Mysore, India. 1941.


A developing program in English, John Burroughs school, Saint Louis, Missouri. 1941.


The integration of home, school, and community life. 1940.


Guidance in the Montreal catholic high schools; a plan for the development of guidance based on evidences of needs obtained from pupils and school staff. 1944.


A plan for the education of exceptional and handicapped children in Montana with implications for other sparsely settled states. 1942.


Religion and social crisis. 1940.

243. O'DONNELL, ROSE, SISTER Continuance of the professional growth of the Sister of St. Benedict. 1941.


Social economics for industrial workers. 1937.


A plan for the development of an adult education program for rural Newfoundland. 1944.


A survey of the music program of the public schools of Rutherford, N. J., with evaluation and recommendations. 1938.


Mathematics in aviation. New York, Macmillan, 1942.


Value-aims to be taken into account in an introductory course in philosophy of education; an effort at schematization. 1938.


The theory and practice of democratic administration in religious education. 1943.


Consider the calendar. New York, Teachers college, 1944.


The initiation of the Michigan study of the secondary school curriculum. 1941.


A plan for a Christian college after the war with a view to enable such a college to carry out its distinctive functions in liberal higher education. 1944.


Speech education in elementary schools. 1940.


The planning and initiation of a cooperative curriculum revision program in the state teachers colleges of Alabama. 1941.


An evaluation of the teacher education program for undergraduate women students. 1944.


A plan for the reorganization of the school administrative structure of Kansas. 1940.


Curriculum improvement in a junior high school, 1935-1939. 1940.


Report to the secretary and committees of the Oklahoma education association. 1935.


A plan for guiding Minneapolis teachers in the study of the community. 1940.


Percussion, a handbook for the instrumental teacher. 1944.


State leadership in the improvement of instruction in North Carolina. 1943.


To investigate the need and to plan for the organization of a private school which will help to adjust the emotionally unstable child to his environment. 1937.


Adaptability in the schools of the Fowler union high school district. 1943.


The organization of a campus laboratory elementary school for the Texas state college for women. 1943.


Science excursions into the community; a handbook for teachers of grades 4 through 8. 1942. Later published: New York, Teachers college, 1943.


Training through recreation. New York, Teachers college, 1942.


A course of study in health, physical education and recreation, London, Ontario (Kindergarten—Grade XIII). 1943.


How to measure adaptability expectancy of a community's school system. 1943.


School building and organization problems in Yonkers, New York, and Tulsa, Oklahoma. 1935.


A proposed school of speech in Fordham university. 1938.


A plan of scholarships for men at the University of Vermont. 1940.


Functional preparation for the elementary school principalship. 1935.


A high school reading program. 1940.


A model indefinite teacher tenure law. 1940.


Modern dance for the youth of America, a text for high school and college teachers. New York, Barnes, [1944].

276. RAHN, GRANT O. G.

How may Shorewood high school make more significant progress in stimulating the individual to optimum growth in the class situation. 1936.


Instructional problems in the core curriculum. 1943.


A suggested plan for the education of rural teachers in a small liberal arts college. 1939.


A psychology of artistic creation as evidenced in autobiographical statements of artists. 1941. Later published: New York, Teachers college, 1942.


A program of adult education for New Mexico. 1937.


Film forums in a public library. 1944.


A plan for the development of a Latin American institute at the Horace Mann-Lincoln school of Teachers college. 1943.


A cooperatively evolved course in the areas of personal and home living at college level. 1940.


An approach to revision of the program and procedures of Centralia high school through the organization and interpretation of school records. 1939.


A plan for the interpretation of certain functional data concerning the financing of education in the public school system of the United States. 1944.


A projected introduction to contemporary art education. 1944.


The use of personnel records in summer camp; a means of achieving greater effectiveness in the guidance of the individual camper. 1941.


Cooperative practices in educational administration. 1944.


Liberal religious education in a Protestant orphange in Italy; a discussion of suggested improvements in religious education at Casa Materna, Portici, Italy. 1939.


Promotion or failure for the elementary school pupil? New York, Teachers college, 1941.


The reorganization and revision of the curriculum of Department of education at Rosary college. 1938.


Some next steps in the high school supervisors' work in Montgomery county, Maryland; a design for teachers' self-discovery and curriculum improvement. 1940.


Curriculum development in a reform Jewish school. 1942.


Working methods and materials for the diagnosis and improvement of the speech of students in the Thomas Jefferson high school, Council Bluffs, Iowa. 1938.


A study of certain social agencies serving the developmental needs of young children; a handbook for student teachers, presenting purposes and procedures of certain social agencies serving the welfare of children. 1942.


Proposals for the foundations of a state program of instructional improvement in the elementary schools of Chile. 1942.


A study of health, physical education and the physical recreational activities of the public schools and community of the borough of Rutherford, New Jersey. 1936.


A euthenics program suitable for the junior-senior level of women's colleges in India and for the B. A. requirements of the Board of examiners of Lucknow university, United Provinces. 1941.


A study of the requirements for the master's degree for men students majoring in physical education at Teachers college. 1939.

300. SHEN, YE

A proposed program for a Chinese junior high school in respect to gifted children as compared with other children. 1936.


The formulation and installation of a plan to develop a music and art curriculum for the Fresno, Calif., city elementary schools (Kindergarten to grade VI). 1941.


The initiation of a creative arts program in a situation based upon competitive scholarship and a uniform manual arts course. 1943.


The coordination of personnel services in institutions of higher education. 1943.


Elementary schools as centers in community education; procedures which community and neighborhood leaders may use in developing a local program. 1942.


Final report on initiation and promotion of the state curriculum development program for Alabama, 1935-1940. 1939.


Working for democracy, (†) 1942.


Exploring the arts in dramatic production with the college student. 1943.


The improvement of reading of students of Western Maryland college, Westminster, Maryland. 1940.


The periodic advancement salary plan and the Scarsdale salary schedule. 1940.


A program for individualizing instruction in secondary school mathematics. 1941.


Trends significant to the financial policies of the Pittsburgh public schools. 1941.


Curriculum-making in Pittsburgh. 1941.


Schools for our democracy. 1941.


A plan for the organization and presentation of certain functional data concerning the financing of education in the public school systems of the United States. 1943.


The emerging high-school curriculum and its direction. New York, American book co., 1940.


Developing a plan for the revision of the rural teacher education program at the Southern Illinois state normal university. 1942.


To formulate a plan for the improved coordination of student personnel activities at Boston university. 1942.


A program of health, safety, physical education, and recreation for the public schools. A study of health, safety, physical education and the physical recreational activities of the public schools and community of Metuchen, N. J. 1940.


Education for home and family life at the elementary level. 1943-


Some social aspects of residence halls for college women. New York, Professional and technical press, 1942.


Suggestions for teaching general science in the schools of the Panama canal zone. 1941.


Preparing teachers for newer school programs. 1942.


Character and religious education in Christian middle schools in China. 1937-


Procedures in social science with special reference to the curriculum program at the State teachers college, Troy, Alabama. 1942.


Employing participation in making a survey of North Tarrytown, New York, and its school plant facilities. 1937.


A plan for the use of artist performers in teaching in the Department of music at North Carolina college. 1942.


Educational motion pictures in the elementary department of the Horace Mann school, Teachers college, Columbia university. 1940.


Do adolescents need parents? 1937. Later published: New York, Apple-ton-Century, [1938].


A proposed plan for the placement of student teachers of Teachers college, Columbia university, in the cooperating laboratory schools in the metropolitan area of New York. 1943.


Organization of a school and community guidance program in North Plainfield, New Jersey. 1937.


Increasing the adaptability of public schools. 1943.


To discover the degree of mental hygiene consciousness on the part of village schools of Westchester county, and to develop suggestions for improvement in the program. 1942.


French in the grades, a plan for the teaching of French to gifted children in a group of New York public elementary schools. 1941.


Individual child study for the elementary school teacher. 1940.


A plan for improving the certification of physical education teachers in the secondary schools of Connecticut. 1943.


Cooperative curricular improvement, to formulate a plan for securing community understanding, cooperation, and support in making basic program changes in the high schools of Alabama. 1941,


School and community progress; a handbook for guiding youth and adults to more effective living. 1938.


A continuing plan for the Pittsburgh public schools for critically interpreting comparative figures on school expenditures in Pittsburgh and certain other large cities. 1941.


A plan for the improvement of character education in Quaker secondary schools of the Philadelphia area. 1941.


Physical training for airmen; a manual for the high school physical education teacher. 1942.


A survey of building facilities and conditions in the parish elementary schools of Manhattan. 1944.


A program of speech education for Talladega college, (f) 1943.


The training of prison guards in the state of New York. New York, Teachers college, 1938.


Educational leadership as social engineering. 1935.


The coordination of educational and county planning of land uses with special reference to comprehensive planning in rural America. 1942.


The selection of elementary instrumental music students. 1942.


A plan for the preparation of secondary school teachers in Hopei province, China, 1943.


The development of a program of student adjustment in the New York state normal school at Geneseo. 1936.


The art workshop; "166 and all that," a study of education in democracy. 1942.


A plan for in-service training of teachers and leaders in the Methodist church schools of Puerto Rico. 1938.


The correction of foreign accent. 1939.


A proposed plan for public elementary schools in the Hill district of Pittsburgh, Pa., with special reference to three federal housing projects. 1940.


A chemistry teaching unit for consumer education in the high school. 1943.


Religious education in the senior high schools of the Presbyterian mission in Syria. 1942.


A plan for reorganization of the administrative units of the public school system, which will better serve the educational needs of the state of Wyoming. 1936.


Why is popular writing more readable? A study of the qualities which contribute to readability. 1938.


How to teach consumers' cooperation. New York, Harper, 1942.


Foundations as a functional curriculum for rural schools in western Bengal. 1937.


Pre-flight meteorology for high schools. [New York], Teachers college, 1943.


The coordination of teacher education through a program of guidance at the University of Kentucky. 1940.


A plan for developing the religious quality of life in and through significant areas of student experience at Soochow university, China. 1936.


A plan for continuing cooperative study, by administration, faculty, and students, of purposes and selected policies of the College of business administration of Boston university. [Ann Arbor, Michigan, Edwards brothers], 1941.


Procedures in evaluating a guidance program. 1942.

Later published: New York, Teachers college, 1945.


To determine the procedure for developing a program of religious education in the liberal arts college at Lincoln university, Pennsylvania. 1936.


The New college plan for educating teachers of music. 1938.


Case materials for guidance courses. 1942.


A plan for the improvement of training teachers of music at the University of Arkansas. 1944.


A program of guidance and recreation in the day care of children of working mothers in Hartford, Conn. 1944.


The westward movement; a book of readings for high school students. 1937-


Relating the curriculum to the community. 1937.


Public planning source book. 1944.


A proposed program of orientation for freshmen at the School of business, City college, College of the city of New York. 1942.


A study of the possibilities of educational leadership of an elementary school principal; a leadership built on the concept of democracy. 1936.


French through the activity program; reorganization of private studio work in Philadelphia, Pa., for the teaching of French to young children. 1940.


An implementation program in Pennsylvania secondary schools. 1939.

376. Yu, SIU-WEN

A guidance program for Chinese youth in the Chinese Christian center, New York city. 1940.


The numbers refer to items in the Register, not to pages.

Academic freedom: 28

Accounting: 212

Activity programs: 13 2, 3 74

Adaptation, Educational: 106, 144, 263, 268, 331

Adjustment: 348

Administration: 222, 268, 288

County: 345

Curriculum: 233

Elementary schools: 28, 114, 143, 171, 194


Alabama: 233

California: 263

Columbus, Ga.: 234

Florida: 75, 97

Illinois: 59,129

Kansas: 256

Nebraska: 24

New Brunswick, Canada: 201

Newark, N. J.: 133, 194

Seattle, Wash.: 143

Springfield, Mass.: 115

Westchester co., N. Y.: 141

Westwood, Calif.: 118

Wyoming: 355

Local units: 24,129, 201, 258, 355

Secondary schools: 59, 75, 115, 118, 209

State: 24, 129, 355

Teacher participation: 117

Universities and colleges: 30, 362

Adolescence: 187, 284, 328

Adult education: 29, 55, 111, 136, 151, 176, 216, 230, 245, 280, 356

Advanced school, Teachers college, Columbia university, New York city: 17

Agriculture, Cooperative: 65, 210

Alabama: 148, 233, 254, 305, 322, 336, 342

Alabama polytechnic institute, Auburn, Alabama: 233

Alabama state teachers college, Troy, Ala.: 123, 324

Alabaster: 158

Algebra: 95

American Baptist mission, Burma: 165

American museum of natural history, New York city: 2

Apprentices: 153

Argentine republic: 207


Teaching: 190

Arkansas: 178, 367

Arkansas, University, Fayetteville, Ark.: 178, 367

Art: 162

Art education: 51, 77, 82, 158, 286, 301, 302, 307, 349

Artists: 279

Ashley, Pa.: 80

Assignments: 232

Association of colleges and universities of New York state. Commission on defense activities: 39

Athletics: 79

Atypical children: 12

Auditing: 212

Augsburg college, Minneapolis, Minn.: 76

Aviators: 340

Ball state teachers college, Muncie, Ind.: 9

Bands: 135

Baptists: 8, 205

Bay Shore, N. Y.: 117

Bayonne, N. J.: 121

Bengal, India: 358

Benjamin Franklin high school, New York city: 64, 221

Berar, India: 176

Bilingualism: 52

Blind: 12, 237

Board of education: 97

Boards of examiners: 183

Bonds: 34

Book selection: 140

Books and reading: 356

Boston. University, Boston, Mass.: 57, 317, 362

Brooklyn, N. Y., Public library: 281

Brooklyn public school 144, New York city: 114

Budgets: 88

Buffalo. University, Buffalo, N. Y.: 179

Burma: 165

Business education: 107

Buying: 94,120

Calculus: 14

Caledonia central district, Vt.: 149

Calendar: 250

California: 50, 263

Camp McCoy, Pinecrest, Calif.: 287

Camps: 228, 287

Canada: 101, 200, 201, 240, 267

Canal zone junior college, Balboa, C. Z.: 153

Casa Materna, Portici, Italy: 289

Case method: 366

Castana, Iowa: 131

Ceramics: 77

Certification of teachers: 336

Character education: 323, 339

Chemistry: 353

Chester, Pa.: 370

Chestnut street junior high school, Springfield, Mass.: 113

Child development: 159, 235, 295

Child study: 85, 157, 217, 334

Child welfare: 295


Hartford, Conn.: 368

New York city: 229

Children's literature—Bibliography: 48, 140

Children's questions: 15

Chile: 296

China: 54, 55, 166, 204, 235, 300, 323, 347, 361

Chinatown, New York city: 376

Chinese Christian center, New York city: .376

Chinese in the U. S.: 376

Choirs (music): 8

Church music: 8

City planning: 371

Clubs: 104

College elementary school, Mt. Pleasant, Mich.: 46

College of the city of New York, New York city: 103

College professors and instructors: 30

College students: 103

Colorado: 132

Colorado state college of education, Greeley, Colo.: 158

Colorado University, Boulder, Colo.: 132

Columbia college, Columbia university, New York city: 134

Columbus, Ga.: 234

Commercial education: 107

Commercial products: 94

Community and school: 9, 11, 16, 53, 64, 71, 81, 92, 106, in, 125, 136, 148, 176, 177, 221, 239, 259, 304, 325, 330, 336, 377, 358, 370

Community centers: in, 121, 136 Community life: 71, 72, in, 239, 297, 325, 344, 370

Composition: 151

Connecticut: 181, 335

Connecticut. University, Storrs, Conn.: 181

Consumer education: 44, 120, 353, 357

Cooperation: 65, 204, 210, 288

Core curriculum: 277

Council Bluffs, Iowa: 294

Council for clinical training, inc., University of Michigan hospital, Ann Arbor, Mich.: 23

Cranford, N. J.: 26

Criminals: 170

Cripples: 41, 221

Curriculum: 26, 105, 130, 147, 219, 251, 257, 267, 305. 312, 322, 336, 358, 370

Elementary schools: 15, 114, 120

Junior high schools: 257

Rural schools: 36 Secondary schools: 87, 98, 115, 118, 120, 131, 173, 184, 189, 207, 209, 238, 251, 276, 277, 284, 292, 315

Teachers colleges and normal schools: 83, 123, 127, 231, 254, 324

Universities and colleges: 14, 51, 76, 163, 214

Curriculum construction: 26, 87, 98, 147, 254, 257, 305, 312, 336, 370

Dance: 101, 275

Deaf: 96, 237

Decatur, Ill.: 136

Degrees: 110, 299

Delta, Colo.: 11

Delta cooperative farm, Mississippi: 65

Democracy and education: 222, 249, 313

Denver, Colo.: 99

Dominican college, New Orleans, La.: 186

Dormitories: 320

Dover, Del.: 91

Drama: 200, 307

East Harlem, New York city: 64, 221

East Orange, N. J.: 122, 139, 171

Economic policy: 371

Economics: 37, 244

Educational adaptation: 106, 144, 263, 268, 331

Educational guidance: 17, 112, 132, 157

Educational sociology: 65, 125, 132, 160, 192

Egypt: 12, 210

Elementary education: 3, 7, 15, 69, 114, 143, 171, 193, 194, 206, 215, 253, 264, 272, 290, 296, 301, 304, 319, 333, 334

Elmont, N. Y.: 239

Employment management: 152

Engineering education: 14

English language: 351

Composition: 151

Teaching: 52, 208, 238

English literature Teaching: 208, 238

Environment: 9, 192

Etiquette: 122

Euthenics: 298

Evening schools: 103

Excursions: 16, 139, 265

Extension education: 21

Extra-curricular activities: 148, 180

Failures: 290

Family life, Education for: 283, 319

Fantasy: 159

Finance: 10, 34, 42, 88, 148, 150, 164, 212, 285, 311, 314,338,355

Florida: 47, 75, 97

Fordham university, New York city: 270

Forums: 281

Fowler union high school district, Fresno co., Calif.: 263

French language

Teaching: 333, 374

Freshmen: 372

Fresno, Calif.: 301

Friends, Society of: 339

Frontier life: 369

Georgia: 86, 89, 163

Georgia state college for women, Peabody school, Milledgeville, Ga.: 98

Georgia state college, Collegeboro, Ga.: 89

Gifted children: 93, 300, 333

Gifted students: 93, 211

Girls: 104, 187

Grading and marking: 100

Graduate work: 17

Group discussion: 29

Guidance: 17, 25, 64, 84, 103, 123, 132, 157, 187, 217, 220, 221, 235, 240, 287, 303, 317, 320, 330, 360, 363, 366, 368, 376

Hackensack, N. J.: 257

Hampton institute, Hampton, Va.: 224

Harlem, New York (city) Social conditions: 221

Hartford, Conn.: 368

Hawaiian islands: 191

Health education: 32, 76, 178, 199, 226, 267, 297,318

India: 298

Highland Park, Mich.: 185



Secondary schools: 48

Home and school: 53, 84, 85, 239

Home economics

Teaching: 174, 283

Hongkong: 180

Hopei (province), China: 347

Horace Mann-Lincoln schools, Teachers college, Columbia university, New York city: 282

Horace Mann school of Teachers college, Columbia university, New York city: 327

Housing: 81, 352

Howard university, Washington, D. C: 152, 174

Hygiene: 76

Illinois: 59, 66, 129, 142, 291, 316

Illinois state normal university, Normal, HL: 66, 69,142

India: 176, 237, 298, 358

Indiana: 9, 214

Indiana. Ball state teachers college, Muncie, Ind.: 9

Indians: 37

Industrial arts: 302

Industrial education: 244

Infants: 159

In-service education: 33, 47, 56, 68

Instrumental music: 57, 78, 260

Integration: 51, 209, 277

Internship in teacher training: 4

Iraq: 3

Italy: 289

Japan: 119

Jewish center Hebrew school, New York city: 167

Jewish community center, White Plains, N.Y.: 293

Jews: 167, 293

John Burroughs school, St. Louis, Mo.: 238


Teaching: 236

Junior colleges: 153, 182, 202

Junior high schools: 45, 113, 257, 300

Kansas: 256

Kansas city, Mo.: 33

Kentucky: 360

Kentucky. University, Lexington, Ky.: 360

Laboratory schools: 20, 89, 92, 98, 208, 264, 329

Land: 192, 345

Latin America: 282

Latin language

Teaching: 66

Law and legislation: 258

Leadership: 7, 104, 205, 261, 373

Leisure: 116,216

Lesson plan: 61

Lexington, Ky.: 56, 215

Libraries: 140, 145, 161, 281

Lincoln school of Teachers college, Columbia university, New York city: 16, 40

Lincoln university. Lincoln university, Pa.: 364

Lingnan university, Canton, China: 54

Lingman university, Middle school, Hongkong: 180

London, Ontario: 267

Louisiana: 19, 35, 186

Lucknow university, Lucknow, India: 298

Luzerne co., Pa.: 157

Madison, N. J.: 344

Madison college, Harrisonburg, Va.: 4

Manhasset, N. Y.: 25

Marin co., Calif.: 112

Maryland: 147, 273, 308

Massachusetts: 57, 317, 362

Mathematics: 13, 14, 190, 247

Curriculum: 173

Teaching: 14, 21, 80, 95, 310

Medicine, Clerical: 23

Mental defectives: 241

Mental hygiene: 332

Meteorology: 359

Methodist Episcopal church: 350

Metuchen, N. J.: 318

Michigan: 251, 349

Michigan university hospital, Council for clinical training, inc., Ann Arbor, Mich.: 23

Military service, Compulsory: 62

Military training: 2, 62, 79, 266

Mills college, Oakland, Calif.: 50

Minneapolis, Minn.: 7, 259

Minnesota: 76, 190, 243

Minnesota state teachers college, Laboratory school, Duluth, Minn.: 208

Minnesota state teachers college, Mankato, Minn.: 190

Mission schools: 119, 165, 204, 254

Mississippi: 68

Mississippi. University, University, Miss.: 68

Missouri: 108, 182

Missouri state teachers associations: 108

Montana: 241

Montgomery co., Md.: 292

Montreal, Canada: 240

Morris Brown college, Atlanta, Ga.: 163

Mt. Pleasant, Mich.: 46

Moving pictures: 1 137, 281, 327

Muncie, Ind.: 9

Museums: 2, 145, 198

Music: 8, 67, 135

Curriculum: 215, 301

Music education: 43, 51, 57, 67, 78, 91, 203, 215, 246, 260, 301, 326, 346, 365, 367

Mysore, India: 237

Nassau co., Long Island, N. Y.: 81

National Baptist convention: 205

Natural resources: 192

Navaho Indians: 37

Nebraska: 24

Negroes: 19, 86, 152, 163, 174, 205, 224, 229, 278, 326, 342, 364

New Brunswick, Canada: 101, 201

New college, Teachers college, Columbia university, New York city: 43, 365

New Jersey: 14, 31, 213

New Jersey state teachers college, Paterson, N.J.: 21

New Jersey state teachers college, Trenton, N.J.: 213

New Mexico: 82, 280

New Rochelle, N. Y.: 156, 161

New York city: 43, 49, 64, 73, 74, 93, 110, 114, 125, 134, 144, 160, 167, 195, 225, 228, 229, 270, 282, 299, 329, 333, 341, 346, 365, 376

New York (city). Benjamin Franklin high school: 64, 221

New York (city). College of the city of New York: 103, 372

New York (city). Colored orphan asylum: 229

New York (city). Hunter college: 346

New York (city). Public school 500: 220

New York (city). Speyer school: 220

New York (state): 39, 42, 53, 63, 96, 179, 227, 231

New York (state) central guard school, Wallkill state prison, N. Y.: 343

New York (state) normal school, Geneseo, N.Y.: 348

New York state teachers college, Brockport, N.Y.: 83

New York state normal and training school, New Paltz, N.Y.: 231

New York (state) war council: 128

Newark, N. J.: 31, 133, 145, 194

Newark technical school, Newark, N. J.: 14

Newburgh, N. Y.: 45

Newfoundland: 245

Newton, Mass.: 90

Norris, Tenn.: 169

North Carolina: 95, 206, 261, 326

North Carolina college, Durham, N. G: 326

North Carolina. University, Chapel Hill, N.C.: 1

North Dakota: 41

North Plainfield, N. J.: 330

North Tarrytown, N. Y.: 325

Nursery schools: 368

Oak Park, Ill.: 29

Ohio: 20, 173, 255, 283

Ohio state university, Columbus, Ohio: 255

Ohio state university. University high school, Columbus, Ohio: 173

Ohio university, Athens, Ohio: 283

Ohio Wesleyan university, Delaware, Ohio: 20

Oklahoma: 8, 258

Oklahoma Baptist university, Shawnee, Okla.: 8

One teacher schools: 36

Orientation: 372

Orphanages: 229, 289

Panama canal zone: 153, 321

Parent-child relationships: 328

Parent education: 85

Parent teacher relationships: 84, 85

Parochial schools: 120, 341

Paterson state teachers college, Paterson, N. J.: 21

Payrolls: 164

Penal education: 343

Perm Hall, Chambersburg, Pa.: 202

Pennsylvania: 22, 38, 232, 364, 375

Pennsylvania state college, State college, Pa.: 232

Pennsylvania state teachers college, Slippery Rock, Pa.: 22

Pensions: 60

Percussion instruments: 260

Personality: 159

Peru, Ill.: 212

Philadelphia, Pa.: 339, 374

Philosophy of education: 105, 248

Phonetics: 351

Physical education: 1, 50, 70, 79, no, 124, 128, 134, 175, 178, 196, 199, 202, 255, 267, 297, 299, 318, 335, 340

Physically handicapped children: 41, 49, 73, 96, 195, 225, 237, 241

Physics: 188

Piano: 43, 203

Pittsburgh, Pa.: 78, 164, 177, 311, 312, 338, 352

Police: 155

Portici, Italy: 289

Pottery: 77

Presbyterian mission, Syria: 354

Principals: 272, 373

Prisons: 170, 343

Private schools: 262

Problem children: 262, 331

Prognosis: 213

Promotion: 117, 290

Providence, R. I., Museum of art: 198

Psychology: 279

Public school relations: 28, 106

Publicity: 106

Puerto Rico: 52, 350

Putnam co., N. Y.: 226

Quakers: 339

Questions: 15, 154

Reading: 22, 83, 193, 225, 273, 308, 356

Records and reports: 6, 10, 100, 148, 284, 287

Recreation: 101, 121, 136, 266, 267, 297, 318, 368

Regional planning: 371 Rehabilitation of the disabled: 237

Religion: 242

Religious education: 54, 102, 167, 205, 249, 252, 289, 293, 323, 350, 354, 361, 364

Research: 177

Reserve, La.: 186

Residence halls: 320

Retarded children: 48, 220

Retirement system, New Haven, Conn.: 60

Richville, New York city: 144

Ridgewood, N. J.: 130

Rockland co., N. Y.: 146

Rosary college, River Forest, Ill.: 291

Rural schools: 36, 345

Rural schools


Egypt: 210

India: 176, 358

Louisiana: 19,186

New York state: 42, 227

Vermont: 149

Rural sociology: 101

Rutherford, N. J.: 71, 105, 246, 297

Safety education: 155,318

St. Louis, Mo.: 10, 109, 138, 197, 238

St. Mary's college, Notre Dame, Ind.: 214

Salaries: 197, 309

Scarsdale,N. Y.: 309

Schedules: 209

Scholarships: 271

School buildings: 45, 81, 111, 304


New York city: 341

New York state: 227

Newark, N. J.: 31

Newburgh, N. Y.: 45

North Tarrytown, N. Y.: 325

Pittsburgh, Pa.: 352

St. Louis, Mo.: 109, 138

Summit, N. J.: 172

Tulsa, Okla.: 269

Yonkers, N. Y.: 269

School life: 111


Teaching: 3, 40, 44, 265, 321

Sculpture: 158

Seattle, Wash.: 143

Secondary education: 6, 13, 40, 80, 87, 140, 154, 168, 173, 184, 188, 189, 247, 251, 277, 284, 310, 315, 353, 359


Alabama: 336

Argentine republic: 207

Canada: 240

Castana, Iowa: 131

Connecticut: 335

Florida: 75

Illinois: 59

Maryland: 273

Michigan: 251

Montgomery co., Md.: 292

New York state: 63

Newton, Mass.: 90

North Carolina: 95

Pennsylvania: 38, 232, 375

St. Louis, Mo.: 238

Shorewood, Wis.: 276

Springfield, Mass.: 115

Syria: 354

Tulsa, Okla.: 209

Westwood, Calif.: 118

Sendai, Japan: 119

Shorewood, Wis.: 276

Siam see Thailand

Sight-saving classes: 225

Sisters of St. Benedict, Duluth, Minn.: 243

Slippery Rock state teachers college, Slippery Rock, Pa.: 22

Social psychology: 104

Social sciences

Teaching: 13, 130, 137, 154, 170, 324

Social service: 295

Social work: 160, 366

Soochow university, China: 361

Soundmiror: 203

Southern Baptist church: 8

Southern Illinois normal university, Carbondale, Ill.: 316

Spanish language

Teaching: 52

Special education: 12, 241

Speech: 5

Speech defects: 49, 351

Speech education: 5, 49, 214, 253, 270, 294, 342, 351

Speyer school, New York city: 220

Springfield, Mass.: 113, 115

Standardization: 94

Standards, Educational: 38

Student aid: 168

Student teaching: 4, 46, 61, 66, 174, 181, 186, 218, 224, 329

Students: 122,211,320,361,372

Summer schools: 132

Summit, N. J.: 172

Supervision: 7, 46, 86, 292

Surveys: 268


Elmont, N. Y.: 239

New York city: 73

Newark, N. J.: 31

North Tarrytown, N. Y.: 325

Rutherford, N. J.: 71, 246

Springfield, Mass.: 113

Vermont: 72 Syria: 354

Talladega college, Talladega, Ala.: 342

Teacher tenure: 274

Teacher training: 58, 92, 162, 272

Aeronautics: 126

Arithmetic: 190

Elementary teachers: 22, 61, 127, 224

Home economics: 174, 181


Arkansas: 367

China: 347

Colorado: 132

Connecticut: 181

Florida: 47

Georgia: 89

Illinois: 66, 142, 291, 316

Indiana: 9

Kentucky: 360

Louisiana: 186

Michigan: 349

Minnesota: 190, 243

Mississippi: 68

New Jersey: 213

New York state: 179, 231

Ohio: 20, 255

Pennsylvania: 22, 232

Texas: 278

Virginia: 4, 224

Washington, D. C.: 174

In-service: 47, 56, 68, 149, 189, 243, 350

Latin language: 66

Mathematics: 190

Music: 365, 367

Physical education: 110, 255, 299

Rural schools: 19, 186, 278, 316

Secondary teachers: 20, 56, 142, 347

Teachers Certification: 335

Elementary schools: 171

Retirement and pensions New Haven, Conn.: 60

Salaries: 197

Secondary schools: 56

Selection and appointment: 183, 360

Supply and demand: 35

Teachers' associations: 108

Teachers college, Columbia university, New York city: 17, 43, 110, 127, 199, 299, 329

Teachers college, Columbia university, Aviation education research group, New York city: 126

Teachers colleges and normal schools: 89, 123, 211, 231, 324, 348

Curriculum: 83, 254

Tenafly, N. J.: 88

Tennessee valley authority: 169

Tennis: 1

Texas: 150,230,264,278

Texas college, Tyler, Texas: 278

Texas. Department of public safety: 155

Texas. State college for women, Denton, Texas: 264

Thailand: 27

Theological education: 23

Toledo. University, Toledo, Ohio: 244

Topology: 46

Travel study courses: 16

Trumpet: 67

Tulsa, Okla.: 209, 269

Union college, Schenectady, N. Y.: 58

United States Army: 2

Army air corps: 79

Civil aeronautics administration: 126


Bibliography: 48

National youth administration: 168


V-12 program: 134

Units of work: 353

Universities and colleges: 30, 51, 195, 203, 252, 303, 307. 320, 329


Alabama: 233, 342

Arkansas: 178, 367

California: 50

Canada: 200

China: 54, 204, 235, 361

Colorado: 132

Connecticut: 181

Georgia: 163

Hongkong: 180

Illinois: 291

India: 298

Indiana: 214

Kentucky: 360

Louisiana: 186

Maryland: 308

Massachusetts: 57, 317, 362

Michigan: 349

Minnesota: 76

Mississippi: 68

New Jersey: 14

New York city: 43, 110, 134, 270, 299, 329, 346, 365

New York state: 39,179

North Carolina: 326

Ohio: 255, 283

Oklahoma: 8

Pennsylvania: 232, 364

Texas: 264, 278

Vermont: 271

Virginia: 4, 244

Washington, D. C.: 152

Vermont: 18, 72, 149, 271

Vermont. University, Burlington, Vt.: 271

Virginia: 4, 224

Vocational education: 33, 146, 153

Vocational guidance: 107, 112, 146

Wallkill state prison, Wallkill, N. Y.: 170

Ward college, Buenos Aires, Argentina: 207

Washington, D. C.: 152, 174

Wayne university, Detroit, Mich.: 349

West, the: 369

West Orange, N. J.: 253

Westchester co., N. Y.: 141, 332

Western Maryland college, Westminster, Md.: 308


Westwood, Calif.: 118

Wheeling, W. Va.: 216

White Plains, N. Y.: 293

Winnetka, Ill.: 102


Health: 128, 255

Workshops: 74

World war, 1939— and education: 39, 173, 184

Wyoming: 355

Yenching university, China: 235

Yonkers, N. Y.: 269

York, Pa.: 193

Youth: 72, 99, 146, 376




PROFESSOR Paul R. Mort spoke before the Passiac County, N. J., School Boards Association October 25. In his speech, Professor Mort stressed the unparalleled opportunity which the teacher with a "seeing eye" for bringing out hidden talents in children possesses in the metropolitan school system.


AN address, "The 'Needs' Approach to the Social Studies," was given by Dr. Ruth Cunningham before the Elementary Division of the National Council for the Social Studies in Milwaukee, Wis., on Nov. 23.



PROFESSOR I. L. Kandel spoke before the assembly of Trenton State Teachers College, Trenton, N. J., October 16. His topic was "Problems of International Education." He was also a speaker at a dinner conference of American and Canadian educators in Cleveland, Ohio, October 13.

AN institute on understanding the needs of teen-age youth was conducted by Professor Goodwin Watson at a session of the Connecticut Conference«of Social Work held in Hartford, November 7 and 8.

Two lectures, "Youth's School" and "Youth's World" were given by Professor Watson at the annual teachers' institute in Chester, Pa., October 23.


MRS. Doris Kraemer, assistant in educational psychology, has been awarded a fellowship in clinical psychology, granted under the auspices of the New York Committee on Mental Hygiene. This fellowship provides opportunity for experience under supervision in several clinics in New York City.


ON September 28, Professor Karl W. Bigelow was the speaker at a general meeting of the tri-county conference of teachers held at State Teachers College, Oneonta, N. Y. Recognizing that 1945 marks the one hundredth anniversary of the founding of the New York State Teachers Association, Professor Bigelow spoke on "Teachers for a New Century."

At Montreal, on October 4 and 5, Professor Bigelow took part in the annual convention of the Provincial Association of Protestant Teachers, addressing both general sessions. His topics were "Trends in Teacher Preparation" and "Teacher Growth in Service." He took part in an all-day conference on the implications of intergroup problems for teacher education held October 15 in New York City, under the sponsorship of the Bureau for Inter-cultural Education.

PROFESSOR E. S. Evenden attended a meeting of the Committee on Standards and Surveys of the American Association of Teachers Colleges held at the Commodore Hotel in New York City, October 17 and 18, at which time the studies to be conducted by that Committee were outlined for the year.

TOGETHER with Professor Bigelow, Professor Evenden attended a meeting of the Committee on Teacher Education of the American Council on Education held October 29 and 30. This committee was appointed primarily to supervise the completion of the publications of the Commission on Teacher Education and to stimulate ways and means of getting the findings and recommendations of the Commission more widely known and practiced. Professor Evenden is chairman of the committee.

PROFESSOR H. H. Linn conducted a one-day conference for school custodians at Hudson Falls, N. Y., October 19, in connection with the Washington County Teachers Institute.

PROFESSOR John K. Norton is the author of an article, "The Myth of Educational Opportunity," which appeared in the January issue of The American Mercury.


PROFESSOR Donald E. Super spoke on the subject "New Tools for Counselors Developed by the Army and Navy" at the Bergen County Institute for Teachers, Tea-neck, N. J., November 1. In his talk, Professor Super reviewed some of the materials now available for civilian use, such as the Army Vocational Information Kit, and other new developments in the field of the measurement of interest and personality.

AMONG the special lecturers who have addressed majors in student personnel administration during the past few months have been Dean David Roberts of Union Theological Seminary and Dean Francis Bradshaw, on leave from the University of North Carolina.

PROFESSOR Esther Lloyd-Jones has made several trips to Chicago within the past few months. Two of these trips were in connection with meetings of the Student Personnel Work Committee of the American Council on Education. Another trip was made to receive the Award of Merit given her by Northwestern University.

Together with Dr. A. J. Brumbaugh, vice-president of the American Council on Education, Professor Lloyd-Jones spoke at the inauguration of Dr. Paul Russell Anderson as president of Pennsylvania College for Women, Pittsburgh, Pa. On November 13, she addressed the Child Study Association of Orange, N. J., and the Mothers' Guild of Rye, N. Y., on November 19. With Mr. Lawrence Frank, she led two seminars of the National Board of General Federation of Womens Clubs in Washington, D. C., November 30.

THE numbers of students have increased so much in the department this fall that the services of Dr. Genevieve Chase were secured to help with the counseling of the group and the administration problems of the department. Dr. Chase took her Ph.D. at Iowa University in the field of psychology. She had a year of post-doctoral study in the Teachers College guidance laboratory, and has served as dean of students at Kalamazoo College and dean of Adelphi College. Most recently she has served on the administrative staff of the Girl Scouts of America.

DR. Ruth Fedder, director of guidance in the summer demonstration school, who had an emergency operation during the summer, has completely recovered and is serving again this fall as assistant superintendent of schools in Bucks County, Pa.

AN address, "Trends in Guidance" was given by Professor Ruth Strang before the Atlantic County, N. J., Association of Public School Administrators and Supervisors and the Guidance and Personnel Association.

In the joint meeting of the Elementary Curriculum and the Health Education Sections of the New York Society for the Experimental Study of Education on November 16, Professor Strang participated in the planning of the meeting and in leading the discussion.



PROFESSOR L. Thomas Hopkins spoke before an institute for Kent County, Mich., public school teachers on the topic, "What Are the Essentials?" on November 5.

He was also a speaker at the annual meeting of the Northeastern Ohio Teachers Association in Cleveland, October 26.

ON November 3, Professor H. L. Caswell addressed the Boston Elementary Teachers Club in Boston, Mass. His topic was "Looking Forward in Elementary Education."

MISS Millie Almy attended a joint working conference of the New York Association for Nursery Education, of which she is chairman, and the New York State Association for Childhood Education held in Albany, N. Y., November 9, 10, and 11. She also addressed a parent-teacher group of the Chelsea, N. Y., School on the topic "Do Today's Children Need Discipline?"

PROFESSOR W. B. Featherstone, on leave from the College, was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel this past summer and is stationed with the Allied Commission Headquarters in Vienna.

AT their November 15 meeting, Mrs. Celia Burns Stendler addressed the Seacliff, L. I., Parent Teachers Association on the topic "Modern Trends in Education."

PROFESSOR Jean Betzner attended the meetings of the Virginia Education Association which were held in Richmond, Virginia on November 20. Professor Betzner addressed the Department of Supervisors, the Department of Classroom Teachers, and the Art Section. She served as consultant November 26 for a group of people in Syosset, Long Island, who are interested in providing and maintaining better schools for their children.

Two members of the department of curriculum and teaching are associated with the Emergency Committee for Better Schools for New York's Children which has charged that the New York City public schools are in a chaotic state and is calling for a public hearing. Professor Ernest G. Osborne is vice-chairman of the steering committee and Professor Roma Cans is a member of the sub-committee on research.

THE students and staff in the area of Childhood Education—Young Children, are participating in the present nation-wide inquiry concerning the future of child care centers and feasible ways of meeting the permanent needs of young children.

PROFESSOR Roma Gans spoke before the Paterson, N. J., Kindergarten Association October 17, on the subject "What Makes A Good Kindergarten Program?" On October 25, she addressed the State Teachers Institute of Rhode Island and the Catholic Teachers Institute, both held in Providence.


THE need for more emphasis on the common interests of the United States and Canada and less on their differences in the writing of their respective textbooks was stressed by Professor Erling M. Hunt, in addressing a meeting of the Canada-United States Committee on Education in Cleveland, Ohio, October 13.


PROFESSOR Gerald S. Craig is serving as consultant in science for the public schools in Wayne, Pa. He worked with a committee of third grade teachers at Wilmington, Del., on October 29. On November 12, he visited schools in Prince George's County, Md., with the State Supervisor of Elementary Schools, Miss Grace L. Alder. He has taught a number of sessions of an extramural class at Seaford, Del., which is being conducted under the supervision of Professor L. Thomas Hopkins.


IN keeping with the departmental policy of strengthening out-of-class experiences of A.M. candidates in the various communication arts, the English Club has established the first of this year's interest groups in play reading, creative writing, and book reviewing. Others are being considered in arts, motion pictures and radio.

THE first issue of Volume II of Horizons, jointly published by Professor Ida A. Jewett's summer and winter session classes in the teaching of composition, appeared early this month.

As delegates for the English Club, Professor Jewett and Miss Bernice Freeman attended the Thanksgiving meeting of the National Council of Teachers of English in Minneapolis, Minn.

FIFTY-FIVE students attended the first meeting of the Foreign Language Club in the French House on October 31. A piano recital of Puerto Rican music was featured.

THE communication skills Profile developed jointly by the English group of the Metropolitan School Study Council and Professor Lennox Grey was featured in the teacher edition of Scholastic Magazine for November 12.

PROFESSOR Grey presented a paper on "Improving In-College and In-Service Preparation of Teachers of English" at the Minneapolis meeting of the National Council of Teachers of English on November 23. As co-chairman of the committee on bibliography of articles and books on the college teaching of English from 1942 through 1944, he reported on the completion of this bibliography, prepared largely by Dr. Edna Hays (Ph. D. 1936). This cumulative bibliography will be followed by annual bibliographies designed to be equally serviceable to liberal arts college, teachers college and junior college instructors.

Professor Grey is carrying on his consultant services to the Committee on Institute Curriculums of the New York State Education Department in part through Professor Francis Shoemaker (Ph.D. 1943) of the Colorado State College of Education, Greeley, Colo. Dr. Shoemaker, on Professor Grey's recommendation, is on temporary appointment in Albany, N. Y., following his return from work as field director of the Red Cross in India and pending his return to Greeley in the winter quarter.


PROFESSOR Jane Dorsey Zimmerman spoke to members of the Connecticut State Teachers Association in Bridgeport, Conn., on October 26. Her topic was "Problems in Speech Correction."

THE subject of Professor Magdalene Kramer's talk to the Junior High School English teachers of Bergen County, N. J., November 1, was "Speech in the Junior High School."


ON October 26, Miss Bernice Magnie spoke before the Parent Teachers Association of New Rochelle, N. Y., on the subject of child guidance through art education.

A brief address on "Art in Daily Life" was given by Professor Elise Ruffini at the Contemporary Gallery of Art in New York City, November 4.

On November 8, she will speak on "Creative Plastic Art" before the art teachers in Washington, D. C.


A demonstration and lecture on the principles of singing as applied to choral groups was given by Professor Harry R. Wilson before the music teachers of the schools in Philadelphia, Pa.

He also lectured on community music to the "In and about Music Educators Club" of Harrisburg, Pa., on November 6.


MRS. Karen Bech, Assistant Secretary of Commerce of Denmark, visited the department of home economics on October 26. She was interested in securing help for the introduction of a department of home economics at the University of Copenhagen.

ON October 4, Professor Mary deGarmo Bryan participated in the school lunch workshop in Wilmington, Del., and addressed two groups on the subject of the importance of the school lunch in modern education.

PROFESSOR Helen Judy-Bond spoke recently to the senior class of Pratt Institute on opportunities in the field of home economics and possibilities in regard to graduate work at Teachers College.

AN address on "The Principles of Work Simplification as Applied to Household Tasks" was given by Professor Elaine Knowles to the Vermont Home Economics Association, October 13. On October 30, Professor Knowles talked to household equipment salesmen and women at Bambergers, Newark, N. J., on "Problems in the Home Which Influence Choices of Equipment."

PROFESSOR Clara M. Taylor talked to a group of ministers at the Central Harlem Health Center on the subject of nutrition in daily living, October 24.

A talk on nutrition was given by Professor Orrea Pye to a group of New York City teachers at Roosevelt High School. The talk was sponsored by the Bronx Tuberculosis and Health Committee, as part of one of the alertness courses for teachers.


A luncheon meeting of former students in business education was held in conjunction with the Southern Business Education convention in Lexington, Ky., November 23.

PROFESSOR Thelma Potter is the author of a series of monthly articles appearing in The Business Education World on the subject "Guidance in Business Education."

She addressed the business education teachers of Missouri at their annual meeting in St. Louis, November 8, on "Finishing the Job on the Skills for Today's Offices."


PROFESSOR Clifford L. Brownell addressed the Province of Quebec Teachers Association at Montreal, Canada on October n and 12. His topics were "Physical Education Faces Its Greatest Challenge" and "The Goals We Seek." On October 16, Professor Brownell spoke before the Connecticut School Men's Association at the Willimantic State Teachers College on the subject, "Health and Physical Education in Post War Years."

PROFESSOR Marjorie Hillas, chairman of the New York Board of Women Officials of the National Section Committee on Women's Athletics, has released the winter calendar of written and practical examinations, demonstrations and clinic sessions for those interested in acquiring or renewing officials ratings in basketball, volley ball and swimming.

PROFESSOR Harry A. Scott, vice-president of the American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, attended in St. Louis, Mo., on October 12-14, a program arrangement committee meeting for the Association's annual convention. The convention will be held in St. Louis April 9-13, 1946. Professor Scott is also program chairman of the 1946 convention of the New York State Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, which will be held in Syracuse, N. Y., on January 31 and February 1 and 2, 1946.

PROFESSOR Josephine L. Rathbone participated in a meeting of the Health Education Committee of the National Board of the Y.W.C.A., held in New York City on November 2. Professor Rathbone is also a member of the Physical Education Committee of the National Board which met October 14.


A book entitled "You Can Learn to Read Braille" by Miss Madeleine S. Loomis has been published by Harper and Bros., in three volumes. One ink-print and two Braille volumes form each set. The purpose of the book is to enable people to read Braille without benefit of a teacher. Any sighted person can help them, without having any knowledge of Braille.

PROFESSOR Charles C. Wilson is working with a New York State Department of Education group in surveying health programs and programs for the handicapped in some of the rural areas.

A panel discussion on "New Developments in Health Education," of which Professor Wilson was chairman, took place at the conference on community health education held at the Rochester, N. Y., Academy of Medicine on October 17. At the October meeting in Lock Haven, Pa., of the central convention district of the Pennsylvania State Education Association, Professor Wilson spoke on "The Campaign for Health and Fitness."


MEMBERS of the nursing education division and their guests enjoyed a lecture on nursing in China in the Teachers College Chapel on Wednesday evening, November 14. Miss Gertrude Hodgman spoke on "The Leadership and Achievements of Chinese Nurses" and introduced Colonel Chow Mei-yu, commandant of the Chinese Army Nurse Corps, who spoke on "Rural Public Health Nursing School Work in China."

PROFESSOR Isabel Stewart, who is a member of the Children's Bureau Advisory Committee on Maternal and Child Health Services, attended a conference held by the Bureau November 8 and 9 to consider some aspects of the proposed Maternal and Child Welfare Act of 1945.

FORMER students and other friends of Dr. Robert Olesen, lecturer in public health administration in the division of nursing education, have learned with deep regret of his sudden death in the late summer. As medical director of the United States Public Health Service and chief quarantine officer of the port of New York, Dr. Olesen carried a very heavy responsibility, particularly in recent years, in the protection of our citizens from epidemic diseases. His work as a lecturer in nursing education courses from 1941 to 1945 was undertaken as an additional contribution to the public health administration field during the difficult war years.


IN the final draft of the manuscript "Significant Educational Books, 1937-1944," prepared by the Library and published in our October issue, the title below was inadvertently omitted.

Briggs, T. H. Improving Instruction: supervision by principals of secondary schools. 587 p. Macmillan. $3.50. 1938.

This book should have been included in Section 3, Administration and Supervision.


The following recent appointments of Teachers College Alumni are reported by the Office of Field Relations and Placement:

Ainley, Edward G., teacher of social studies, High School, Greenwich, Conn.

Alex, Frances C. (A.M. 1943), teacher of physical education, State Teachers College, West Chester, Pa.

Alexander, Maudeline, instructor in clothing, Texas College, Tyler, Tex.

Anderson, Jean Mae (B.S. 1939), teaching assistant in biology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn.

Armbruster, Violet S., teacher of art, High School, Southold, N. Y.

Bader, Dorit, teacher of fourth grade, West School, Long Beach, N. Y.

Bainbridge, George, director of instruction, Public Schools, Rutherford, N. J.

Barnes, Gertrude A. (A.M. 1941), instructor in music, Moravian College for Women, Bethlehem, Pa.

Barringer, Benton E. (Ph.D. 1925), vocational advisor, Veterans Administration, New York, N.Y.

Battaglia, Blanche Mascola (A.M. 1945), psychologist, Elwyn Training School, Elwyn, Pa.

Berger, Dorothea, teacher of French, Latin and English, Central School, Hancock, N. Y.

Best, Miriam Lane, teacher of mathematics, Locust Valley School, Locust Valley, N. Y.

Boggs, Ruby F. (A.M. 1934), dean, Highland Manor Junior College, West Long Branch, N. J.

Bosetti, Gladys Clarisse, teacher of art, Junior High School, Cliffside Park, N. J.

Bower, Margaret M. (A.M. 1945), instructor in music, Mary Hardin-Baylor College, Belton, Tex.

Bressi, Elizabeth (A.M. 1940), nursery school instructor, Practice School, New York State Teachers College, New Paltz, N. Y.

Brilty, Inez Norma (A.M. 1945), teacher of speech, Hunter College High School, New York, N. Y.

Brush, Evelyn Griffin (B.S. 1937), teacher of social studies and English, Park Avenue School, Williston Park, N. Y.

Bucknell, Genevieve J. (M.S. 1945), director of residence and lecturer in home economics, Rockford College, Rockford, Ill.

Buonaguro, Louise D. (A.M. 1944), teacher of health and physical education, St. Mary's College of Notre Dame, Holy Cross, Ind.

Cassidy, Catherine M. (B.S. 1945), nursery school teacher, Bronxville Nursery School, Bronxville, N. Y.

Chisholm, Leslie L., professor of school administration, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb.

Cirlot, Dora, associate professor of fine arts, Henderson State Teachers College, Arkadelphia, Ark.

Clowes, Amy I. (Ed.D. 1943), instructor in elementary education, State A. & M. College, Magnolia, Ark.

Cohen, Freida S., teacher of physical education, Public Schools, New Rochelle, N. Y.

Cokeley, Addie M. (A.M. 1929), dietitian, Blue Ridge Sanitorium, Charlottesville, W. Va.

Cole, Starr L., director of instrumental music, Mt. Pleasant School District and Alexis I. duPont School District, Wilmington, Del.

Collins, Marian Josephine, instructor in business education, Adelphi College, Garden City,


Cowgell, Corinne (A.M. 1937), teacher of English, Senior High School, Hagerstown, Md.

Crofton, Anne Marie (A.M. 1943), teacher of second grade, Leonard School for Girls, New York, N. Y.

Daniel, Gertrude (A.M. 1934), coordinator of home and family life education, Public Schools, New Brunswick, N. J.

Daugherty, John H., assistant professor on Board of Examiners, Michigan State College, East Lansing, Mich.

Davenport, Leonard S. (A.M. 1939), instructor in biology, physics and chemistry, High School, Port Byron, N. Y.

Davidoff, Doris S. (A.M. 1945), teacher of five year old group, Little Red Schoolhouse, New York, N. Y.

Decker, Richard G. (A.M. 1940), teacher of English, Thornton Township High School, Harvey, Ill.

Delehanty, Ann (B.S. 1935), kindergarten teacher, Watchung School and Northeast School, Montclair, N. J.

Demetrius, Daisy (A.M. 1943), supervisor of student teaching, Bluefield State College, Bluefield, W. Va.

Dickey, Janet, instructor in music, Northwest Missouri State Teachers College, Maryville, Mo.

Docter, Margaret, teacher of music, Labadie Junior High School, Wyandotte, Mich.

Dubats, Gertrude, assistant professor in commerce, Illinois State Normal University, Normal, Ill.

Dunn, Josephine Joy, teacher of French and Spanish, High School, Grosse Pointe, Mich.

Enslin, Joyce E., teacher in charge of kindergarten, Barnard School for Boys, New York, N. Y.

Erickson, Amy Mabel (A.M. 1940), instructor in public health nursing, New York University, New York, N. Y.

Everitt, Fredrica D. (B.S. 1935), dietitian, Montclair Academy, Montclair, N. J.

Farmer, Ray (A.M. 1938), principal, High School, Onalaska, Wash.

Fasel, Oscar (B.S. 1943), teacher of Spanish and German, Tilton School, Tilton, N. H.

Fort, Louise, head teacher, Harlem Children's Center, New York, N. Y.

Foster, Joseph T. (A.M. 1938), teacher of social studies, High School, Sea Cliff, N. Y.

Fox, Vivian Martha (A.M. 1945), instructor in English, Russell Sage College, Troy, N. Y.

Friedman, Alfred (A.M. 1933), executive director, Hebrew Sunday School Society, Philadelphia, Pa.

Gail, Harry R. (A.M. 1938), publicity representative, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Gardner, Emma W. (A.M. 1934), director of nutrition, American National Red Cross, Tucson, Ariz.

Green, Margaret Evans (B.S. 1944), teacher of fourth grade, Elmont Road School, Elmont, N.Y.

Grosjean, Lorraine W., teacher of seventh grade, Jefferson School, Lyndhurst, N. J.

Halabi, Sophie (A.M. 1945), assistant cafeteria director, University of Vermont, Burlington.

Hall, Myrtis W., associate professor of home economics, Winthrop College, Rock Hill, S. C.

Hamalainen, Arthur E. (Ph.D. 1943), principal, Plandome Elementary School, Manhasset, N.Y.

Hamilton, Phyllis (A.M. 1942), counselor, Y.W.C.A., Dayton, Ohio.

Hatheway, Hope (A.M. 1945), teacher of English and social studies, Georgetown School, Georgetown, Del.

Hehnle, Louise B., teacher of music, Samuel J. Preston School, East White Plains, N. Y.

Hill, Dorothy Miriam (AJVL 1945), teacher of physical education, P. S. No. 1, Passaic, N. J.

Hinton, E. M. (Ph.D. 1940), director of seventh and eighth grade unit, Menlo School and Junior College, Menlo Park, Calif.

[Continued in January RECORD]


FRANCIS T. Spaulding (A.M. 1926), was named New York Commissioner of Education November 15, to succeed Dr. George D. Stoddard, who will leave to become president of the University of Ohio.

Colonel Spaulding is at present chief of the Army Education Branch of the Information and Education Division of the War Department. In 1936, he was named by the Regents to direct the study of secondary education as a part of the Regents inquiry into the cost and character of public education.

From 1930 to 1932, he served as a specialist in school organization on the staff of the United States Department of Education, where he directed a study of junior and senior high schools throughout the country. The results of this study were published under the title "The Reorganized Secondary School."

For three years and a half, Colonel Spaulding was responsible for planning, organizing and supervising the educational program for the armed forces here and overseas. This program is widely known through the United States Armed Forces Institute and its overseas branches, which offer instruction, self-teaching courses and materials for class study for the troops in various theatres of operation.

His Doctor of Education degree was received from Harvard University. He became a member of the faculty of the Harvard Graduate School of Education in 1926, and in 1940 was named dean of the school, a position from which he has been on leave of absence since 1942 for military service. He will assume the Commissioner of Education office July 1 1946.

RUBY M. ADAMS (A.M. 1929) has recently been appointed director of elementary education for the Allegany County, Md., schools. Miss Adams comes to her present position from a similar post in the Schenectady, N. Y., schools.

HENRY GOLDWIRE (A.M. 1941) is the new director for the Phillips High School band, Stinett, Tex. While a student at Teachers College, Mr. Goldwire played in the Riverside Symphony Orchestra and the Columbia University Band.

FORREST H. KIRKPATRICK (A.M. 1931) has returned to the faculty of Bethany College as dean of students after having been on leave of absence during the war years. During this period, he served as personnel manager of the Indianapolis plant of the Radio Corporation of America, and later as manager of personnel administration for the seven plants and offices of the manufacturing division.

ESTHER ANSON, (A.M. 1938) was appointed to the faculty of Eastern Montana Normal School as an associate professor of education. Miss Anson was formerly a counselor for graduate students at Columbia University.

MILDRED PURDY, candidate for a doctor's degree at Teachers College and former dean of Bennett Junior College, Millbrook, N. Y., is now dean of the teacher education department of the Child Education Foundation, New York, N. Y. In 1942 she acted as liaison officer between the office of the Mayor of New York and the greater New York Office of Civilian Defense.

RAYMOND L. COLLINS, (Ed.D. 1945) has been appointed superintendent of schools at Manhasset, Long Island.

ALFRED S. CLAYTON, (Ph.D. 1941) associate professor of education at Western Illinois State Teachers College, Macomb, Ill., is the author of an article "The Function of Liberal Education—A Social and Psychological Approach" which appeared in the Journal of Higher Education for June, 1945.

DR. ISAAC BERKSON (Ph.D. 1919) who was given the Kilpatrick award last year by Teachers College for his work in the philosophy of education, has been appointed professor of education at the Dropsie College for Hebrew and Cognate Learning, Philadelphia, Pa.

ALMA LUEKE (A.M. 1945) is the new teacher of clothing and textiles in the Smith-Hughes home economics department at Carthage College, Carthage, Ill. In addition to her teaching schedule, Miss Lueke will direct the Carthage College program of off-campus teaching centers, and, with an associate, will conduct the work of the Carthage home economics practice house.

ESTHER LIPTON (A.M. 1944) was recently appointed state director of special education for physically handicapped children for the state of Maine.

HENRY EISENKRAMER (A.M. 1945) has been appointed director of music at Iowa Wesleyan College, Mt. Pleasant, Iowa.

MADELINE G. RITZ (M.S. 1928) is the new head of the art department of State College, Brookings, S. D.

WALTER W. ISLE (A.M. 1919) was recently elected to the presidency of the Eastern Washington College of Education, Cheney, Wash. From 1942 to 1945, Mr. Isle served as educational services specialist for the San Francisco Office of Price Administration.

ALICE SCHOWALTER, former graduate student in the nursing division, was recently named director of nursing at City Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio.

A. GLADYS JOHNSON (A.M. 1943) has been appointed director of guidance in the Hillside, N. J., Public Schools.

ELINORE B. BUMANN (A.M. 1943) is now instructing in freshman English and speech at Central College, Pella, Iowa.

ERWIN SASMAN, (A.M. 1942) was recently appointed professor of education and curriculum coordinator at Willimantic State Teachers College, Willimantic, Conn. Previous to this appointment, he was curriculum coordinator for the Horace Mann-Lincoln Elementary School of Teachers College.

CLARENCE A. NEWELL (Ph.D. 1943), assistant professor of education at the University of Alabama, University, Ala., will assist in the survey of the Mobile Public Schools, which is about to be undertaken by the University's Bureau of Educational Research.

ELIZABETH WALDEN (B.S. 1944) is now assistant librarian at Teachers College of Connecticut, New Britain, Conn.

LUCINA M. KEANE (A.M. 1931) is serving in the Alaska-Western Canada Theatre as an American Red Cross hospital recreation worker, having been transferred from duty in England. Previous to her Red Cross appointment, Miss Keane was associate professor of art at Morris Harvey College, Charleston, W. Va.

WILHELMINA HILL (Ed.D. 1939) was chairman of the education section of the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Science which met at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo., October 13.

SARAH THAMES (A.M. 1942) has been appointed acting manager and dietitian of the University of New Hampshire dining hall, Durham, N. H.

JACOB LOWENBACH (A.M. 1930) has accepted a position as associate professor of Hebrew literature at the Hebrew Theological College in Chicago, Ill. Previous to this position, he was principal of the Lynn, Mass., Hebrew School for the past 11 years.

HARRY A. BROWN (Ph.D. 1937), of Needham, Mass., is now working on a textbook, "Fundamental Principles in Education," which will be one of a series of books designed to serve as college and university textbooks in education as well as reference books for teachers, supervisors and superintendents. The next volume will be "The Practice of Teaching in the Elementary Schools."

ALFRED THATCHER (Ed.D. 1938) has been appointed head of the education department of State Teachers College, Potsdam, N. Y. Dr. Thatcher is also serving as chairman of the committee on admissions.

LESTER A. HALL (B.S. 1927) has recently been appointed supervisor of Wicomico County High Schools by the Board of Education of Wicomico County, Salisbury, Md. Mr. Hall was former principal of the Maryland High School at Delmar, Del.

LOUISE K. MATHERS (A.M. 1940) is now director of the contact department, Central Branch, New York City Y.W.C.A.

O. H. VOELKER (A.M. 1922) has been named acting president of State Teachers College, Potsdam, N. Y. He was formerly director of training there.

MARGARET E. G. BENTLEY, (B.S. 1943) is the new supervisor of the Ocean Front Office of the Visiting Nurse Association of Brooklyn. She has recently returned from Spartanburg, S. C., where she assisted for six months in the establishment of a new visiting nurse service under the auspices of American War Community Services.

FREDERICK H. BAIR (A.M. 1930) has been appointed executive assistant to the New York State Commissioner of Education, Albany, N. Y. Prior to this appointment, he was superintendent of schools in Bronxville, N. Y.

JENNINGS P. CHU (Ph.D. 1922) is now deputy director, Directorate of Statistics, for the National Government, Chungking, China, a position which he has held since 1933.

VICTOR JOHNSON (A.M. 1941), recently discharged from the Army Air Transport Command, is now a member of the English department of the Jamestown, N. Y., High School.

MARGARET HAMPEL (Ed.D. 1937) has been named director of the division of elementary education at State Teachers College, Milwaukee, Wis. Previous to her position at Milwaukee, Miss Hampel was granted a leave of absence from Ohio University, Athens, Ohio, to serve as consultant on school services in the United States Office of Education, Washington, D. C.

META SCHATTSCHNEIDER (A.M. 1943) is the new supervisor of weaving at the Arrow Craft Shop of the Pi Beta Phi Settlement School, Gatlinburg, Tenn. The shop provides work for over 100 mountain weavers, parents of the children who are enrolled in the school, which was founded by Pi Beta Phi thirty years ago.

LOUISE LINCOLN CADY, former graduate student in nursing at Teachers College and now tuberculosis consultant from the National Organization of Public Health Nursing, was one of a series of guest speakers for the Visiting Nurse Association of Bridgeport, Conn.

1 The Julius and Rosa Sachs Foundation Lectures for 1945-1946, delivered at Teachers College on November 14, 15, and 16, 1945.

2 Any student who is taking or has taken twelve points of work at Teachers College or any graduate of Teachers College may register with the Office of Field Relations and Placement. For initial registrations covering three years, no fee is charged. For information write to the Placement Office for its booklet, Employment of Teachers and Administrators.

Cite This Article as: Teachers College Record Volume 47 Number 3, 1945, p. 179-194
https://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 5503, Date Accessed: 5/27/2022 2:36:35 AM

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