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Designing Assessments for Instruction and Accountability: An Application of Validity Theory to Assessing Scientific Inquiry


by John R. Frederiksen & Barbara Y. White — 2004

This chapter is concerned with how assessments of students’ work in classrooms, although primarily intended to promote learning, can also become an important source of information for evaluating a school’s effectiveness within an accountability system (Shepard, 2000). On the face of it, formative assessment practices used in the classroom to support learning and summative assessments used for accountability purposes seem to be incompatible. In their classroom activities, students know ahead of time the tasks on which they will be assessed, and they can prepare for them and get help in doing them.


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This article originally appeared as NSSE Yearbook Vol 103. No. 2.


Cite This Article as: Teachers College Record Volume 106 Number 14, 2004, p. 74-104
http://www.tcrecord.org ID Number: 18585, Date Accessed: 12/11/2017 6:36:15 AM

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About the Author
  • John Frederiksen
    University of Washington, Seattle
    E-mail Author
    JOHN R. FREDERIKSEN is Professor of Science Education and Cognitive Studies at the University of Washington, Seattle.
  • Barbara White
    University of California at Berkeley
    E-mail Author
    BARBARA WHITE is Professor of Science, Math, and Technology Education at the University of California at Berkeley.
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