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Brownell, William A.
University of California, Berkeley
WILLIAM A. BROWNELL was the Dean of the School of Education at the University of California, Berkeley.

Fred T. Tyler & William A. Brownell — 1962
No matter what difficulties they make for schoolmen, individual differences are real, inevitable, ineradicable, desirable, and, indeed, essential. Throughout history, variability in talents, abilities, and temperaments has been recognized in all societies, and individuals have been dealt with practically in accordance with the degree to which they have possessed or lacked the characteristics most prized. Those with characteristics highly valued by their particular societies have been accorded special privileges. Those whose ideas and attributes have been disapproved frequently have been ostracized, imprisoned, banished, or executed.

William A. Brownell — 1951
This chapter deals with but two overlapping areas of educational research, namely, the areas of learning and of instructional methods. Were there pages enough, the yearbook might contain similar chapters devoted to other research areas all of them or at least the principal ones. Each chapter might serve, for the area under consideration, to identify crucial issues in need of investigation, to assess the quality of research already done, to describe promising new research techniques, and to offer proposals for the better training of research workers.

William A. Brownell & Gordon Hendrickson — 1950
When the child in the primary grades comes to recognize "cat" as the printed symbol for the animal he plays with, he engages in the kind of learning to be discussed in this chapter. So does he later in school, when he gains control over the meanings of numbers and the computational skills of arithmetic; when he masters the facts and relationships of history and geography and develops the ability to use them effectively in thinking and in communication; when he grasps the vocabulary, the facts, and the principles of biology and physics and becomes able to interpret more intelligently the scientific aspects of his culture.

William A. Brownell — 1946
Originally this yearbook, The Measurement of Understanding, was entitled "The Measurement of Meaning." Being unsatisfactory for a number of reasons, this first name was abandoned successively in favor of "The Measurement of Meaningful Learning," "The Measurement of Learning," and "Measuring the Higher Mental Processes in Education"—all before the present title was adopted. The Measurement of Understanding may or may not define the purpose and scope of the yearbook better than one of the previous titles; but this rehearsal of the committee's attempts to name its product should serve two ends. In the first place, it should illustrate the difficulty of arriving at precise and unambiguous terms in the area under consideration. In the second place, it should reveal, even if somewhat negatively, the nature of the task which the yearbook committee set for itself.

William A. Brownell & Verner M. Sims — 1946
When a geometry student sees the usefulness of the Pythagorean theorem for laying off the comers of a tennis court, we may be sure that he has some understanding of that theorem. When a fifth-grade pupil by means of his maps discovers for himself a probable connection between the physical features of a region and the manner of life of its inhabitants, we may be sure that he too has some understanding, in this case of the geographic principles involved. And when a primary-grade pupil translates the statement 5 + 2 = 7 into a concrete representation, by setting up one group of five objects and another of two objects and then' combining them into a new ,group of seven, we may be sure once again that he also has some understanding, this time of the abstract relationships in the statement.

William A. Brownell — 1942
One may define problem solving so broadly as to make the term synonymous with learning. To do so, one needs only to point out that all learning starts with some inadequacy of adjustment, some disturbance of equilibrium—and so, with a 'problem'—and that in the process of achieving adjustment and returning to a state of equilibrium one 'solves' the problem.

William A. Brownell — 1930
Exact and valid knowledge concerning the many problems of teaching and learning in arithmetic is to be had only from fundamental research studies which are carefully planned, painstakingly prosecuted, and wisely interpreted. In the last analysis the central issue in such studies consists in the development of a technique adapted to the type of problem which is to be investigated.

R. L. West, Charles E. Greene & William A. Brownell — 1930
The curriculum may be defined as the totality of subject matter, activities, and experiences which constitute a pupil's school life. A course of study is the material, usually in pamphlet form, which sets forth for tho teacher such items as tho objectives and eontent of a given subject, and the activities and books to be used to accomplish desired results. The present tendency to treat all these items in a course of study, in contrast to the earlier tendency to include only a brief outline of subject matter, is a recognition of the interrelationship between different phases of the educational process.

Author Index
Jump to lastname starting with:
A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
A.Boyce, George
A.Hanson, Abel
Aagaard, Lola
Abbate, Fred J.
Abbe, George
Abbot, Julia W.
Abbott, Allan
Abbott, Daniel H.
Abbott, Dorothy
Abbott, Forest L.
Abbott, Herbert V.
Abbott, Mary Allen
Abbott, Mary Ellen
Abbs, Peter
Abdi, Ali A.
Abdus-Sabur, Qadir
Abedi, Jamal
Abel, David A.
Abel, Emily K.
Abel, Jerian
Abel, Yolanda
Abeles, Harold F.
Abelmann, Nancy
Abelson, Harold H.
Aben, Patricia
Abernathy, Ruth
Abernathy, Scott F.
Abeson, Alan
Abney, Louise
Abo-Zena, Mona
Aboulafia, Mitchell
Abowitz, Kathleen Knight
Abrahams, Frank
Abrahams, Salie
Abram, Percy
Abrams, Alfred W.
Abrams, Lisa
Abrams, Samuel E.
Abrams, Sandra Schamroth
Abramson, David A.
Abrego, Michelle
Abu El-Haj, Thea
Acharya, Urmila
Achenbach, Thomas M.
Achilles, Charles M.
Achinstein, Betty
Achner, M. J.
Ackerman, Debra
Ackerman, John M.
Ackerman, Phillip L.
Ackerman, Winona B.
Acosta, Elda
Acosta, Melanie M.
Acosta, Rudy
Acosta , Vasthi Reyes
Acuff, Bette
Ada, Alma Flor
Adair, Jennifer Keys
Adair, Vivyan C.
Adam, Roy
Adamany, David
Adams, Arlene
Adams, Arthur S.
Adams, Curt M.
Adams, Donald
Adams, Hazard
Adams, Kathy
Adams, Kenneth R.
Adams, Margaret
Adams, Megan
Adams, Natalie Guice
Adams, Susan R.
Adamson, Susan C.
Adelson, Joseph
Adely, Fida J.
Adkins, Amee
Adkins, Dorothy C.
Adkins, Winthrop D.
Adkison, Judith
Adler, Chaim
Adler, Karlyn
Adler, Mortimer J.
Adler, Susan Matoba
Ado, Kathryn
af Malmborg, Nils M.
Afzal, Saima
Agans, Jennifer P.
Agee, Jane
Agirdag, Orhan
Agius, Kirsten
Agne, Russell M.
Agnew, Walter D.
Agosto, Vonzell
Agre, Gene P.
Agren, Raymond
Aguiar, Jeff
Aguilar, Jose V.
Aguirre, Julia
Aguirre Jr, Adalberto
Ahearn, Amy
Ahern, T. James
Ahern, Terence
Ahlberg, Mauri
Ahlstrom, Winton M.
Ahmad, Iftikhar
Ahmad, Nabeel
Ahn, June
Ahram, Roey
Ahrens, Maurice R.
Aiken, Henry David
Aikin, Wilford M.
Airasian, Peter W.
Airton, Lee
Aitchison, Alison E.
Aitchison, Gertrude M.
Aitken, Graeme
Aitken, Jenny
Aitken, Johanna
aka Don Trent Jacobs, Four Arrows
Akanbi , Linda
Akers, Milton E.
Akerson, Valarie L.
Akiba, Daisuke
Akiba, Motoko
Akin, Clayton
Akita, Kiyomi
Akkari, Abdeljalil
Akom, Antwi
Akrawi, Matta
Alarcon, Jeannette
Alatis, James E.
Alba, Richard
Albert, Gerald
Albert, Marta K.
Alberty, H. B.
Alberty, Harold
Albrecht, Arthur E.
Albrecht, Lisa
Albright, Julie M.
Albright, Kathy Zanella
Aldemir, Jale
Alden, Elizzabeth
Alden, Vernon R.
Alderfer, H.F.
Aldrich, Grace L.
Alessi, Jr., Samuel J.
Alexander, Carter
Alexander, Dameon V.
Alexander, Francie
Alexander, Gadi
Alexander, Herbert B.
Alexander, Jonathan
Alexander, Karl L.
Alexander, Leslie
Alexander, Nathan N.
Alexander, Neville
Alexander, Nicola A.
Alexander, Patricia A.
Alexander, Theron
Alexander, Thomas
Alexander, W. P.
Alexander, William M.
Alexander, M.D., Franz
Alfonso, Mariana
Alford, Harold D.
Alford, Schevaletta M.
Alfred, Mary
Alger, Chadwick F.
Alharthi, Ahmad A.
Ali-Khan, Carolyne
Alibutod, Marilyn
Alicea, Monica
Alishahi, Afsoon
Alkin, Marvin C.
Allegrante, John P.
Alleman, Janet
Allen, Anna-Ruth
Allen, Arthur
Allen, Ayana
Allen, C. R.
Allen, Clinton M.
Allen, Danielle
Allen, David
Allen, Forrest
Allen, Harvey A.
Allen, Ira Madison
Allen, Jan
Allen, Jane C.
Allen, Jennifer
Allen, Keisha McIntosh
Allen, R. V.
Allen, Richard D.
Allen, Tawannah G.
Allen, Virginia F.
Allen, W. Paul
Allen, Walter R.
Allen, Wendell C.
Allen, Willard Paul
Allen-Jones , Glenda L.
Allensworth, Elaine
Alleyne, Melissa L.
Alline, Anna L.
Allington, Richard
Allison, Valerie A.
Allport, Gordon W.
Allyn, David
Almack, John C.
Almeda, Victoria Q.
Almog, Tamar
Almy, Millie
Alonso, Harriet Hyman
Alonzo, Julie
Alpern, D. K.
Alperstein , Janet F.
Alpert, Augusta
Alridge, Derrick P.
Alsaedi, Najah
Alsbury, Thomas L.
Alson, Allan
Alston, Chandra
Altbach, Philip G.
Althouse, J.G.
Altman, James W.
Altman, William
Alvermann, Donna E.
Alviar-Martin, Theresa
Alvy, Harvey B.
Amanti, Cathy
Ambach, Gordon M.
Ambrosio, John
Ames, Carole A.
Amonette, Henry L.
Amory, Alan
Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey
Amsel, Eric
Amster, Jeanne E.
Amthor, Ramona Fruja
An, Sohyun
Anagnostopoulos , Dorothea
Anastasi, Anne
Ancess, Jacqueline
and Associates,
And His Students,
and others,
and others,
and others,
Anderegg, David
Anderman, Lynley H.
Anders, Patricia
Andersen, C. T.
Andersen, Erik A.
Andersen, Neil
Anderson, Archibald
Anderson, Barry D.
Anderson, Bernice E.
Anderson, Brett
Anderson, C. Arnold
Anderson, Celia Rousseau
Anderson, Celia M.
Anderson, G. Lester
Anderson, Gary L.
Anderson, Gina
Anderson, Gregory M.
Anderson, Haithe
Anderson, Harold A.
Anderson, Helen
Anderson, Homer W.
Anderson, Howard R.
Anderson, James D.
Anderson, James
Anderson, Jeffrey B.
Anderson, Jervis
Anderson, John E.
Anderson, Kate T.
Anderson, Kelly
Anderson, Kenneth Alonzo
Anderson, L. Dewey
Anderson, Lauren
Anderson, Lorin W.
Anderson, Michael L.
Anderson , Noel S.
Anderson, O. Rober
Anderson, Richard E.
Anderson, Richard C.
Anderson, Robert H.
Anderson, Rodino F.
Anderson, Rowland C.
Anderson, Roy N.
Anderson, Sir George
Anderson, Thomas H.
Anderson, W. P.
Anderson-Thompkins, Sibby
Andic, Martin
André, Aline B.
Andreescu, Titu
Andrei, Elena
Andress, Paul
Andrew, Thomas
Andrews, Alon
Andrews, Benjamin R.
Andrews, Gillian "Gus"
Andrews, Richard L.
Andrews-Larson, Christine
Andrianaivo, Solange
Andrus, Ruth
Andry, Robert C.
Andrzejewski, Carey E.
Angelis, Janet
Angoff, Charles
Angulo, A. J.
Angus, David L.
Annamma, Subini
Annenberg, Norman
Ansari, Sana
Ansell, Amy E.
Anthony, Albert S.
Anthony, Kate S.
Antia , Shirin
Antler, Joyce
Antler, Stephen
Antonelli, George A.
Antrop-González, René
Anyon, Jean
Aoudé, Ibrahim G.
Apfel, Nancy
Appell, Clara T.
Appiah, Kwame Anthony
Apple, Michael W.
Applebaum, Barbara
Applebee, Arthur N.
Appleman, Deborah
Aptheker, Herbert
Apugo , Danielle L.
Aquino-Sterling, Cristian
Araaya, Hailu
Arafeh, Sousan
Arbeit, Miriam R.
Arberg, Harold W.
Arbuckle, Dugald
Archibald, Sarah
Arcilla, Rene Vincente
Ardsdale, May B.
Areen, Judith
Arenas, Alberto
Arends, Jack
Arent, Emma
Ares, Nancy
Arey, Charles K.
Argyris, Chris
Arias, M. Beatriz
Arisman, Kenneth J.
Arlett, Elizabeth
Armbruster, Bonnie B.
Armentrout, W.D.
Armor, David J.
Arms, Emily
Armstrong, Denise E.
Armstrong, John A.
Armstrong, Louis W.
Armstrong, Willis C.
Arndt, C. O.
Arnesen, Arthur E.
Arnett, Alex Mathews
Arnheim, Rudolf
Arnold, David B.
Arnold, Katharine S.
Arnold, Noelle Witherspoon
Arnot, Madeleine
Arnspiger, V. C.
Arnstein, George E.
Arnstine, Barbara
Arnstine, Donald J.
Arntsine, Barbara
Aronowitz, Stanley
Arons, Stephen
Aronson, Brittany
Arrastia, Lisa
Arrington, Angelique Renee
Arrington, Ruth E.
Arrowsmith, Mary Noel
Arroyo, Andrew T.
Arsenian, Seth
Arshad, Rosnidar
Arshavsky, Nina
Artelt , Cordula
Artiles, Alfredo J.
Arzubiaga, Angela E.
Asby, Sir Eric
Asch, Adrienne
Aschbacher, Pamela R.
Ascher, Abraham
Ascher, Carol
Ash, Doris
Ashbaugh, Ernest J.
Ashby, Christine
Ashby, Lloyd W.
Ashcom, Banjamin M
Ashcraft, Catherine
Asheim, Lester
Asher, Nina
Ashford, Shetay N.
Ashida, K.
Ashley, Dwayne
Ashmore, Jerome
Ashton, Patricia E.
Ashworth, Delmer
Asil, Mustafa
Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis
Askeland, O.
Assouline, Susan G.
Assow, A. Harry
Assuncao Flores, Maria
Astelle, George E.
Aster, Samuel
Astin, Helen S.
Astin, John A.
Astor, Ron Avi
Astuto, Terry A.
Ata, Atakan
Atanda, Awo Korantemaa
Athanases, Steven Z.
Atherley, Marilyn
Atkin, J. Myron
Atkinson, Ruth V.
Attannucci, Jane S.
Atteberry, Allison
Attwood, Adam
Atwater, Mary
Atwater, Sheri
Atwell, Nancie
Atwell, Robert King
Atwood, Virginia Rogers
Atyco, Henry C.
Au, Wayne
Aubert, Adrianna
Aubrey, Roger F.
Audley-Piotrowski, Shannon
Auerbach, Susan
Auguste, Byron
Aultman, Lori
Aurini, Janice
Auser, Cortland P.
Austin, Ann E
Austin, David B.
Austin, Duke W.
Austin, Glenn
Austin, Jean
Austin, Mary C.
Austin, Mike
Austin, Theresa
Austin, Vance
Ausubel, David P.
Autin, David B.
Avalos, Mary A.
Avcioglu, Ilhan
Averch, Harvey
Averill, Hugh M.
Averill, Julia
Averill, W. A.
Avila, JuliAnna
Avila Saiter, Sean M.
Aviles, Ann M.
Avison, O. R.
Axelrod, Paul
Axelrod, Ysa
Axelson, Alfhild J.
Axline, Virginia M.
Axtelle, G. E.
Ayala, Jennifer
Ayalon, Hanna
Ayer, Adelaide M.
Ayer, Fred C.
Ayers , Bill
Ayers, David
Ayers, Leonard P.
Ayers, Richard
Ayers, Rick
Ayers, William
Azevedo, Roger
Azzam, Tarek
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