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Hess, Frederick M.
American Enterprise Institute
E-Mail author
FREDERICK M. HESS is director of education policy studies and a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute. His research interests include educational leadership, the politics of education, urban school reform, and educational accountability. His recent publications include Urban School Reform: Lessons from San Diego (Harvard Education Press, 2005) and “An Innovative Look, a Recalcitrant Reality: The Politics of Principal Preparation Reform” (Educational Policy, 2005).

Frederick M. Hess & Andrew P. Kelly — 2007
The study examines the content of instruction at a stratified sample of the nation’s principal-preparation programs. The findings suggest that these programs pay limited attention to considerations of accountability, aggressive personnel management, or the broader body of thinking on leadership.

Frederick M. Hess — 2003
Choice-based and contractual reforms offer a radical approach to addressing the problems that plague school governance. Proponents of choice argue that the traditional design of state-controlled public education tends to produce ineffective, unresponsive, and inequitable schools, and that democratic control and public bureaucracy have given rise to interest group dominance, institutional rigidity, insensitivity to the preferences of families, and weak systems of managerial control (Chubb and Moe, 1990). By introducing market mechanisms into education, choicebased reforms are designed to strike at the root of the problem by enhancing the power of individual consumers (families) at the expense of organized interests and public employees.

Frederick M. Hess & Patrick J. McGuinn — 2002
School choice proponents have hypothesized that market-based education reform will compel traditional public schools to become more effective. We explore this hypothesis by examining how the introduction of the Cleveland voucher experiment in 1995 affected the administration and leadership of the city’s public schools.

Frederick M. Hess — 2002

Frederick M. Hess — 2005
Ultimately, bringing school leadership into the twenty-first century will require that programs prepare principals to make hard choices relating to staffing, program effectiveness, and budgeting, while also cultivating the kinds of softer skills that will make them effective team- and bridge-builders. Such measures alone are insufficient, however. It will be equally necessary to rethink how we select leaders and reconfigure the authority they wield. Anything less is a blueprint for disappointment.

Frederick M. Hess — 2006
With the Democrats having just recaptured both chambers of Congress after a season of nasty and partisan campaigns, the media is primed for happy stories of post-election comity. NCLB will likely serve as exhibit A, just as it did when it first passed with bipartisan support in 2001. With the law’s champions, right and left, indicating that they are eager to move full speed ahead in the coming year, this well-intentioned law may be reauthorized without the hard scrubbing it needs.

Frederick M. Hess & Chester E. Finn Jr. — 2007
Representative George Miller’s declaration that NCLB is “not fair” and “not flexible” and his pledge to quickly bring a reauthorization bill forward provide an opportunity to move past the ill-conceived stances that have dominated the debate. Neither the administration’s reflexive defense of the law’s unworkable accountability system nor calls to “abolish” NCLB provide a promising path forward. Instead, sensible redesign starts by recognizing that today’s NCLB awkwardly welds together two disparate accountability models—rendering each dysfunctional.

Frederick M. Hess — 2008
In an election season marked by persistent references to JFK, Martin Luther King Jr., Ronald Reagan, and “big brother” surveillance, it would seem axiomatic that familiarity with the stuff of history is essential. Yet, it appears that students soon to graduate high school have, at best, an uncertain grasp of key historical and literary facts. In a new study, forty percent of the nation’s 17-year-olds could not identify the proper half-century in which the First World War took place.

Frederick M. Hess — 2009
Secretary of Education Arne Duncan has called for mayoral control in urban districts, charging that urban school boards are an obstacle to school improvement and "a huge part of the reason you don't see sustained progress and growth.” Is he right? Sort of. Mayoral control is s sensible first step for these systems, if pursued sensibly. It can facilitate coherent and disciplined leadership, but proposals should address concerns about transparency and be pursued with an eye to the future. Mayoral control is not a remedy in itself; it provides only an opportunity for smart reform.

Frederick M. Hess — 2009
Skepticism is warranted when considering Uncle Sam’s ability to directly address teacher distribution. Ill-conceived policies may encourage districts to move teachers from schools and classrooms where they are effective to situations in which they are less effective. Heavy-handed efforts to reallocate teachers may drive good teachers from the profession. And we are far less able to identify “effective” teachers in any cookie-cutter fashion than many who call for federal action might wish. For all these reasons, humility is in order.

Frederick M. Hess & Andrew P. Kelly — 2010
Education has a long tradition of bipartisanship in Washington. Politicians and pundits from President Obama on down are relying on this tradition to continue in order to attempt to reauthorize ESEA, extend Race to the Top, and enact other policy measures. Many contend that likely Republican gains in Congress will serve to bolster this legacy of bipartisanship. But a look at the upcoming midterm elections suggests that the odds that education bipartisanship will maintain its vaunted status in 2011 are looking bleak.

Frederick M. Hess — 2010
The author raises a number of concerns with NCATE's widely praised new vision for transforming teacher preparation by embracing a more clinical orientation.

Frederick M. Hess, Bruno V. Manno & Olivia Meeks — 2011
Entrepreneurship in K-12 schooling has generally focused on efforts to boost the supply of familiar things: more good schools, more talented teachers, and more effective school leaders. Consequently, the best known and most celebrated endeavors have tended to be "whole school" solutions. Too often missing, however, has been careful analysis of how differentiated solutions or innovative tools might enable education providers to meet the demands for schooling in smarter ways. This piece discusses how allowing an array of providers to play a more robust role in responding to consumers can dramatically reconfigure K-12 schooling and drive fresh thinking as to how communities, states, and the nation go about schooling.

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A.Boyce, George
A.Hanson, Abel
Aagaard, Lola
Abbate, Fred J.
Abbe, George
Abbot, Julia W.
Abbott, Allan
Abbott, Daniel H.
Abbott, Dorothy
Abbott, Forest L.
Abbott, Herbert V.
Abbott, Mary Allen
Abbott, Mary Ellen
Abbs, Peter
Abdi, Ali A.
Abdus-Sabur, Qadir
Abedi, Jamal
Abel, David A.
Abel, Emily K.
Abel, Jerian
Abel, Yolanda
Abeles, Harold F.
Abelmann, Nancy
Abelson, Harold H.
Aben, Patricia
Abernathy, Ruth
Abernathy, Scott F.
Abeson, Alan
Abney, Louise
Abo-Zena, Mona
Aboulafia, Mitchell
Abowitz, Kathleen Knight
Abrahams, Frank
Abrahams, Salie
Abram, Percy
Abrams, Alfred W.
Abrams, Lisa
Abrams, Samuel E.
Abrams, Sandra Schamroth
Abramson, David A.
Abrego, Michelle
Abu El-Haj, Thea
Acharya, Urmila
Achenbach, Thomas M.
Achilles, Charles M.
Achinstein, Betty
Achner, M. J.
Ackerman, Debra
Ackerman, John M.
Ackerman, Phillip L.
Ackerman, Winona B.
Acosta, Elda
Acosta, Melanie M.
Acosta, Rudy
Acosta , Vasthi Reyes
Acuff, Bette
Ada, Alma Flor
Adair, Jennifer Keys
Adair, Vivyan C.
Adam, Roy
Adamany, David
Adams, Arlene
Adams, Arthur S.
Adams, Curt M.
Adams, Donald
Adams, Hazard
Adams, Kathy
Adams, Kenneth R.
Adams, Margaret
Adams, Megan
Adams, Natalie Guice
Adams, Susan R.
Adamson, Susan C.
Adelson, Joseph
Adely, Fida J.
Adkins, Amee
Adkins, Dorothy C.
Adkins, Winthrop D.
Adkison, Judith
Adler, Chaim
Adler, Karlyn
Adler, Mortimer J.
Adler, Susan Matoba
Ado, Kathryn
af Malmborg, Nils M.
Afzal, Saima
Agans, Jennifer P.
Agee, Jane
Agirdag, Orhan
Agius, Kirsten
Agne, Russell M.
Agnew, Walter D.
Agosto, Vonzell
Agre, Gene P.
Agren, Raymond
Aguiar, Jeff
Aguilar, Jose V.
Aguirre, Julia
Aguirre Jr, Adalberto
Ahearn, Amy
Ahern, T. James
Ahern, Terence
Ahlberg, Mauri
Ahlstrom, Winton M.
Ahmad, Iftikhar
Ahmad, Nabeel
Ahn, June
Ahram, Roey
Ahrens, Maurice R.
Aiken, Henry David
Aikin, Wilford M.
Airasian, Peter W.
Airton, Lee
Aitchison, Alison E.
Aitchison, Gertrude M.
Aitken, Graeme
Aitken, Jenny
Aitken, Johanna
aka Don Trent Jacobs, Four Arrows
Akanbi , Linda
Akers, Milton E.
Akerson, Valarie L.
Akiba, Daisuke
Akiba, Motoko
Akin, Clayton
Akita, Kiyomi
Akkari, Abdeljalil
Akom, Antwi
Akrawi, Matta
Alarcon, Jeannette
Alatis, James E.
Alba, Richard
Albert, Gerald
Albert, Marta K.
Alberty, H. B.
Alberty, Harold
Albrecht, Arthur E.
Albrecht, Lisa
Albright, Julie M.
Albright, Kathy Zanella
Aldemir, Jale
Alden, Elizzabeth
Alden, Vernon R.
Alderfer, H.F.
Aldrich, Grace L.
Alessi, Jr., Samuel J.
Alexander, Carter
Alexander, Dameon V.
Alexander, Francie
Alexander, Gadi
Alexander, Herbert B.
Alexander, Jonathan
Alexander, Karl L.
Alexander, Leslie
Alexander, Nathan N.
Alexander, Neville
Alexander, Nicola A.
Alexander, Patricia A.
Alexander, Theron
Alexander, Thomas
Alexander, W. P.
Alexander, William M.
Alexander, M.D., Franz
Alfonso, Mariana
Alford, Harold D.
Alford, Schevaletta M.
Alfred, Mary
Alger, Chadwick F.
Alharthi, Ahmad A.
Ali-Khan, Carolyne
Alibutod, Marilyn
Alicea, Monica
Alishahi, Afsoon
Alkin, Marvin C.
Allegrante, John P.
Alleman, Janet
Allen, Anna-Ruth
Allen, Arthur
Allen, Ayana
Allen, C. R.
Allen, Clinton M.
Allen, Danielle
Allen, David
Allen, Forrest
Allen, Harvey A.
Allen, Ira Madison
Allen, Jan
Allen, Jane C.
Allen, Jennifer
Allen, Keisha McIntosh
Allen, R. V.
Allen, Richard D.
Allen, Tawannah G.
Allen, Virginia F.
Allen, W. Paul
Allen, Walter R.
Allen, Wendell C.
Allen, Willard Paul
Allen-Jones , Glenda L.
Allensworth, Elaine
Alleyne, Melissa L.
Alline, Anna L.
Allington, Richard
Allison, Valerie A.
Allport, Gordon W.
Allyn, David
Almack, John C.
Almeda, Victoria Q.
Almog, Tamar
Almy, Millie
Alonso, Harriet Hyman
Alonzo, Julie
Alpern, D. K.
Alperstein , Janet F.
Alpert, Augusta
Alridge, Derrick P.
Alsaedi, Najah
Alsbury, Thomas L.
Alson, Allan
Alston, Chandra
Altbach, Philip G.
Althouse, J.G.
Altman, James W.
Altman, William
Alvermann, Donna E.
Alviar-Martin, Theresa
Alvy, Harvey B.
Amanti, Cathy
Ambach, Gordon M.
Ambrosio, John
Ames, Carole A.
Amonette, Henry L.
Amory, Alan
Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey
Amsel, Eric
Amster, Jeanne E.
Amthor, Ramona Fruja
An, Sohyun
Anagnostopoulos , Dorothea
Anastasi, Anne
Ancess, Jacqueline
and Associates,
And His Students,
and others,
and others,
and others,
Anderegg, David
Anderman, Lynley H.
Anders, Patricia
Andersen, C. T.
Andersen, Erik A.
Andersen, Neil
Anderson, Archibald
Anderson, Barry D.
Anderson, Bernice E.
Anderson, Brett
Anderson, C. Arnold
Anderson, Celia Rousseau
Anderson, Celia M.
Anderson, G. Lester
Anderson, Gary L.
Anderson, Gina
Anderson, Gregory M.
Anderson, Haithe
Anderson, Harold A.
Anderson, Helen
Anderson, Homer W.
Anderson, Howard R.
Anderson, James D.
Anderson, James
Anderson, Jeffrey B.
Anderson, Jervis
Anderson, John E.
Anderson, Kate T.
Anderson, Kelly
Anderson, Kenneth Alonzo
Anderson, L. Dewey
Anderson, Lauren
Anderson, Lorin W.
Anderson, Michael L.
Anderson , Noel S.
Anderson, O. Rober
Anderson, Richard E.
Anderson, Richard C.
Anderson, Robert H.
Anderson, Rodino F.
Anderson, Rowland C.
Anderson, Roy N.
Anderson, Sir George
Anderson, Thomas H.
Anderson, W. P.
Anderson-Thompkins, Sibby
Andic, Martin
André, Aline B.
Andreescu, Titu
Andrei, Elena
Andress, Paul
Andrew, Thomas
Andrews, Alon
Andrews, Benjamin R.
Andrews, Gillian "Gus"
Andrews, Richard L.
Andrews-Larson, Christine
Andrianaivo, Solange
Andrus, Ruth
Andry, Robert C.
Andrzejewski, Carey E.
Angelis, Janet
Angoff, Charles
Angulo, A. J.
Angus, David L.
Annamma, Subini
Annenberg, Norman
Ansari, Sana
Ansell, Amy E.
Anthony, Albert S.
Anthony, Kate S.
Antia , Shirin
Antler, Joyce
Antler, Stephen
Antonelli, George A.
Antrop-González, René
Anyon, Jean
Aoudé, Ibrahim G.
Apfel, Nancy
Appell, Clara T.
Appiah, Kwame Anthony
Apple, Michael W.
Applebaum, Barbara
Applebee, Arthur N.
Appleman, Deborah
Aptheker, Herbert
Apugo , Danielle L.
Aquino-Sterling, Cristian
Araaya, Hailu
Arafeh, Sousan
Arbeit, Miriam R.
Arberg, Harold W.
Arbuckle, Dugald
Archibald, Sarah
Arcilla, Rene Vincente
Ardsdale, May B.
Areen, Judith
Arenas, Alberto
Arends, Jack
Arent, Emma
Ares, Nancy
Arey, Charles K.
Argyris, Chris
Arias, M. Beatriz
Arisman, Kenneth J.
Arlett, Elizabeth
Armbruster, Bonnie B.
Armentrout, W.D.
Armor, David J.
Arms, Emily
Armstrong, Denise E.
Armstrong, John A.
Armstrong, Louis W.
Armstrong, Willis C.
Arndt, C. O.
Arnesen, Arthur E.
Arnett, Alex Mathews
Arnheim, Rudolf
Arnold, David B.
Arnold, Katharine S.
Arnold, Noelle Witherspoon
Arnot, Madeleine
Arnspiger, V. C.
Arnstein, George E.
Arnstine, Barbara
Arnstine, Donald J.
Arntsine, Barbara
Aronowitz, Stanley
Arons, Stephen
Aronson, Brittany
Arrastia, Lisa
Arrington, Angelique Renee
Arrington, Ruth E.
Arrowsmith, Mary Noel
Arroyo, Andrew T.
Arsenian, Seth
Arshad, Rosnidar
Arshavsky, Nina
Artelt , Cordula
Artiles, Alfredo J.
Arzubiaga, Angela E.
Asby, Sir Eric
Asch, Adrienne
Aschbacher, Pamela R.
Ascher, Abraham
Ascher, Carol
Ash, Doris
Ashbaugh, Ernest J.
Ashby, Christine
Ashby, Lloyd W.
Ashcom, Banjamin M
Ashcraft, Catherine
Asheim, Lester
Asher, Nina
Ashford, Shetay N.
Ashida, K.
Ashley, Dwayne
Ashmore, Jerome
Ashton, Patricia E.
Ashworth, Delmer
Asil, Mustafa
Asimeng-Boahene, Lewis
Askeland, O.
Assouline, Susan G.
Assow, A. Harry
Assuncao Flores, Maria
Astelle, George E.
Aster, Samuel
Astin, Helen S.
Astin, John A.
Astor, Ron Avi
Astuto, Terry A.
Ata, Atakan
Atanda, Awo Korantemaa
Athanases, Steven Z.
Atherley, Marilyn
Atkin, J. Myron
Atkinson, Ruth V.
Attannucci, Jane S.
Atteberry, Allison
Attwood, Adam
Atwater, Mary
Atwater, Sheri
Atwell, Nancie
Atwell, Robert King
Atwood, Virginia Rogers
Atyco, Henry C.
Au, Wayne
Aubert, Adrianna
Aubrey, Roger F.
Audley-Piotrowski, Shannon
Auerbach, Susan
Auguste, Byron
Aultman, Lori
Aurini, Janice
Auser, Cortland P.
Austin, Ann E
Austin, David B.
Austin, Duke W.
Austin, Glenn
Austin, Jean
Austin, Mary C.
Austin, Mike
Austin, Theresa
Austin, Vance
Ausubel, David P.
Autin, David B.
Avalos, Mary A.
Avcioglu, Ilhan
Averch, Harvey
Averill, Hugh M.
Averill, Julia
Averill, W. A.
Avila, JuliAnna
Avila Saiter, Sean M.
Aviles, Ann M.
Avison, O. R.
Axelrod, Paul
Axelrod, Ysa
Axelson, Alfhild J.
Axline, Virginia M.
Axtelle, G. E.
Ayala, Jennifer
Ayalon, Hanna
Ayer, Adelaide M.
Ayer, Fred C.
Ayers , Bill
Ayers, David
Ayers, Leonard P.
Ayers, Richard
Ayers, Rick
Ayers, William
Azevedo, Roger
Azzam, Tarek
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