Mort, Paul R.
In the first few months' fruit of the impact of the new theory outlined in this article we have what appear to be strong leads in the new series of panels as to important administrative handles that need to be tested. Also, we have hopes that we at last have emerged with a technique for research in school administration which will prove to transcend many of the limitations we have suffered in the study of administrative problems in past years.
Work in schools is chiefly art and is destined to remain such. In education, as in other complex arts, the practitioner faces the challenge of a life of potentially increasing effectiveness. Here, as in engineering and medicine, no one person can ever really know enough to be satisfied fully that he has reached perfection. One can never really know enough to be a doctor or an engineer or a teacher.
THE area of school administration that we call "business management" is too self-contained. It finds justifications for its acts in custom and tradition within its own bounds or draws them from false analogies with true business enterprises. Since bureaucracy is defined as "believing in, supporting, or carrying on government by a narrow official routine," perhaps the situation I describe could be justly termed bureaucratic.
Money is one of the key factors that control the character of the educational program. In this discussion, money will be considered in conjunction with the other key factors.
Schools are better than we know and we must somehow or other find the means to discover what all of them (not just a sampling) are doing.
A review of Principles of School Administration, by Paul R. Mort.
Educational dynamics deals with the terrain that underlies progress in education. Progress, whether defined as moving ahead of the procession of change or merely as keeping up with its demands, requires that school systems be adaptable. The dynamics of school systems is a study of those factors which determine the adaptability of school systems.
The value of this book lies not only in its very apparent background of present-day best school practices but also in its basic philosophy that the main job of the schools is to improve society by providing sound development for those who will run that society in the next generation.
During the past twenty-five years the American school system has experienced profound modifications in depth. These changes in depth will be discussed in this article, with particular attention to the effect they promise to have in casting the classroom teacher in a strategic role far more important than the one he is now playing.
The first task to be faced in financing an educational project is to determine the nature of that educational project. This seems like a truism, but it is the most neglected phase of financing education. That our educational programs go along haltingly, inadequately financed, is too often a result of our failure to divest ourselves of more or less unconscious assumptions as to the limitations under which we must work.
A subject and a lecturer produce a lecture. If we may add in the premises the adjective "good," the result is good. Fortunately, the addition may be made in this case. The present reviewer sees in this little book, the Inglis Lecture of 1943—Secondary Education as Public Policy—a writing of outstanding significance and challenge.
The author deals with both aspects of our wartime task as teachers who have the urge to make the greatest use of our schools for the sake of America and the great objectives it represents.
A good educational program is not guaranteed by high expenditure alone any more than a good crop of corn is guaranteed by adequate rainfall alone; but good education is no more likely to occur under poor expenditure conditions than a good crop of corn under inadequate moisture conditions, regardless of the other desirable factors.
There has been some suspicion, even within the ranks, that the schools of America have been less responsive to improved practices than they should be. In recent months there has become available a series of studies bearing on the whole question of how improvement comes about. The purpose of this article is to give a few of the high spots of these studies, and to call attention to a few of the many questions which they raise.
This volume is an observational study of the fortunes of nine educational changes that have spread, to a greater or less degree, through the schools of Pennsylvania since 1900. The purpose was to clarify the conceptual pattern of how home rule works and to refine hypotheses bearing on the means for keeping schools up to date.
The seven articles in this issue are addresses presented before the Fifth and Sixth Conferences on Educational Policies held under the auspices of the Advanced School of Education, November 11, 1938, and February 22, 1939, on the general topic, How Should a Democratic People Provide for the Selection and Training of Leaders in the Various Walks of Life?
It is the purpose of this article: (1) to review the facts which compel the author to believe that extensive federal aid to education is a necessity, (2) to point out the methods of avoiding the dangers from increased federal aid, and (3) to propose a program of federal support to which certain researches point.
An address delivered February 23, 1935 before Section C of the American Educational Research Association meeting in Atlantic City, N. J.
This article gives a brief report of the methods used in a study of educational need and of the results obtained.
The time-honored practice of local initiative is being "put on the spot" by one force or another throughout the nation. This is a problem of far greater significance than the mere elimination of a right that has been held dear. It strikes at the very heart of educational progress.
IF THE current activities of pioneer educational workers both in the field and in the universities are any indication of the essential health of public education in America, the post-depression educational program will be different at a multitude of points from the pre-depression program.
THE reconstruction of the system of financing public schools now in process over the nation bids fair to play an important role in the whole movement for tax reform and tax relief.
The problem of reconstructing the educational half of state and local governments, with all its implications for educational opportunities for boys and girls, for school efficiency, and for equitable taxation, is a pressing problem that must be faced in every state in the Union.
THIS article is a report of the method of developing a rating scale recently published.1 The scale was developed by the present writer with the aid of students in school administration at Teachers College and of Dr. G. L. Hilleboe, Research Associate in Educational Administration for the year 1929-1930.2
This article is a report of the method of developing a rating scale recently published. The scale was developed by the present writer with the aid of students in school administration at Teachers College and of Dr. G. L. Hilleboe, Research Associate in Educational Administration for the year 1929-1930.
THE problem of financing junior colleges in those states that have JL assumed responsibility for higher education is complicated by the fact of state support of these higher institutions.
DEMANDS upon education have undergone as radical changes as our social life. The cost of public education to meet these demands has increased by leaps and bounds. To-day we are adjusting our schools to the variety of individuals in the community. We are providing more years of education for all the children in the community.
THERE has been no study that has brought out the inadequacy of the small high school more clearly than the study made by Dr. John Rufi of certain high schools in Pennsylvania. This study provides a challenge to school people to make those adaptations in school organization which will correct a most unsatisfactory situation. Here and there over the country experiments are cropping up which offer great promise for correcting this situation. Familiarity with the new individual-instruction techniques is leading school administrators to devise ways and means of using them to advantage.
There has been no study that has brought out the inadequacy of the small high school more clearly than the study made by Dr. John Rufi of certain high schools in Pennsylvania.
IN THE study of school organization connected with a recent city survey an important issue arose that has not been treated at any length in the discussion of the eleven-grade organization. It was the question as to whether it is possible to have a satisfactory junior high school in an eleven-grade school organization.
SCHOOL surveys as conducted by the Division of Field Studies1 have contributed abundantly to the discovery of problems that must be faced in the administration of school systems.
THE holding to a minimum of clerical work required of classroom teachers is an ever-present consideration in the development of school organization. Every proposal for progress must be investigated not only as to its possible educational results but also as to its probable cost in clerical work required of teachers.
THE Educational Finance Inquiry, in demonstrating that the use of state aid to reward effort is incompatible with its use for the equalization of educational opportunity, prepared the way for the clarification of a number of problems that were previously obscured by the attempts to use state funds to obtain two mutually exclusive results.1