This paper analyzes how research has been misused in debates about the future of teacher education and offers several specific suggestions for improving the quality of this debate.
This article examines the contemporary implications of the Milliken v. Bradley (1974) decision for educational inequality between school districts in U.S. metropolitan areas.
In this article, we draw on the concepts of place and race to understand interview data from three experts on education segregation and desegregation to shed light on the nature and complexity of Milliken that are under-explored in public and policy discourses and examinations.
Despite years of research on microaggressions, relatively little is known about how undocumented students experience episodes of microaggressions during their college choice process. Microaggressions are cumulative discriminatory acts delivered to marginalized groups via verbal, nonverbal, and environmental insults (Sue, 2010; Sue et al., 2007). Guided by Sue and colleagues’ (2007) and Sue’s (2010) microaggressions research, we analyzed the experiences of 15 undocumented immigrants who graduated from public high schools in New York City, and we identified nine types of microaggressions they encountered during their college choice process. Additionally, we extended Sue’s (2010) research on microaggressions to include and explain how undocumented students have experienced such episodes in their college choice process. Our research revealed incidents in which undocumented immigrants faced overt and multiple microaggressions in their college choice journeys, often delivered by seemingly well-intentioned institutional agents. We conclude with implications for future research on microaggressions in undocumented students’ college choice process and recommendations for practice in promoting college enrollment of undocumented students.
Students’ self-conscious emotions and coping strategies were examined in three classroom social/instructional contexts: private, small group, and whole class. The School Situations (SS) inventory, a pencil-and-paper measure of children’s self-conscious emotions in the classroom, was developed for this purpose and administered to students in grades 4 – 6 as part of a larger teacher professional development project in mathematics. SS was administered after the program pretest and posttest. Participants attended schools within a single district that varied in socio-economic status. Schools were labeled as high or moderate poverty density, defined by percentage of students receiving free or reduced lunch support. Findings revealed the importance of context—cultural (poverty density), social (classroom social/instructional format) and personal (readiness)—in the co-regulation of students’ self-conscious emotions and coping. Further, an exploratory factor analysis revealed five unique subscales that allow a more refined understanding of students’ emotional adaptation in the classroom. The five factor-derived scales—Distance and Displace, Inadequate and Exposed, Regret and Repair, Proud and Modest, and Minimize and Move On—inform how considerations of students’ emotional adaptation might be included in teacher education programs and how SS might be adapted for teacher classroom use.
Despite increasing popularity and mounting evidence for teacher collaboration as a lever for school improvement, reported changes in teaching associated with collaboration are often subtle and incremental, rarely involving substantial shifts in instructional practice called for by advocates of deeper learning and next generation standards. One reason more expansive teaching changes remain elusive is that existing “horizons of observation” constrain possibilities teacher teams consider and solutions they develop while collaborating to improve teaching and learning. This case study of two secondary school teacher teams, explored the potential of collaborative partnerships with outside content experts (OCEs) for infusing new resources and perspectives that move beyond persistent images of classroom instruction. The study context was the Learning Studios model from the National Commission on Teaching and Americas Future (NCTAF) where interdisciplinary teacher teams partnered with local scientists and researchers to develop and implement year-long project investigations with students. Meeting observations, teacher focus groups, and OCE interviews revealed several pivotal episodes of interaction with clear evidence of OCE influence on teacher instructional plans. Cross-case analyses point to three OCE facilitative actions that preceded these effects—adapting expertise to local needs, following-up between meetings, and judiciously applying pressure.
This article examines special education in one Canadian urban public school system, the Toronto system, from 1945 to the present. Prepared with a wide audience of historians and education researchers, policymakers, administrators, teachers, and others in mind, the article explains the many different change factors – as well as the significant continuity – that have been present in the historical development of special education policies. Change factors include school board decisions, parent lobbying, experts’ influence, funding changes, and shifts in the categories of disability that special education has used. Continuity has been present in the form of a longstanding reliance on separate educational settings for exceptional children and the ongoing recurrence of a medical or treatment approach to learning difficulties and disabilities.
The article covers major developments since 1945: system expansion in the 1950s and 1960s; criticism of dead-end special programs in the 1970s; reforms in the 1980s, including Ontario’s Bill 82; cutbacks in the 1990s; and the rise of integration, mainstreaming, and finally, inclusion. Developments in Toronto’s public schools since 1945, in many ways, have been typical of policy development in other jurisdictions, and comparisons are made to policy in other Canadian and American school systems.
This article examines the challenges and limitations of a research alliance—between a university research center, a high school, and one of its feeder K–8 school districts—focused on improving school climate.
This article analyzes the effects of mandated accountability testing, teachers' knowledge and beliefs, and teachers' milieu on the work of four social studies teachers in one middle school in Texas. The article argues that more comprehensive and holistic research efforts are needed for researches to be able to more fully understand and communicate to readers the combination of factors that impact teachers' work.
Combining literatures on social stratification and good practices in higher education, this study is guided by one overarching question: who has access to high quality instruction? Using data from the Wabash National Study, I explore how instructional quality is distributed across students, time and institutions. The results reveal a substantial amount of variability in students’ experiences of instructional quality. Notably, this variation is not systematically related to students’ sociodemographic characteristics. However, the results also reveal a considerable amount of path dependency, with approximately half of the students experiencing the same level of instructional quality at the beginning and end of college. Academic achievement is related to instructional quality in the first year, after which academic inertia carries students toward the end. Academic motivation, on the other hand, facilitates mobility over time, and is particularly beneficial for students who begin college in a low level of instructional quality. Institutional characteristics – including selectivity and type – also structure opportunities, at the beginning and end of college. I conclude by discussing implications of these findings for research and practice in higher education.
Starting from the common occurrence of teachers’ sharing stories about students, this paper examines collective storytelling in teacher communities in a racially and socioeconomically diverse elementary school. A critical discourse analysis reveals how a group of middle-class White women teachers jointly construct and repeat narratives about students of color, many of whom live in poverty. Teachers’ stories reveal intense ambiguity about, and social distance from, students. These conditions complicate the creation of professional knowledge and identity in this diverse, high-poverty school, particularly related to teachers’ conceptualizations of equity demands and school-family relationships. With interpretations drawing on a framework that connects critical Whiteness studies and intersectionality with learning in communities of practice, I pose questions about implications of the co-constructed narratives for both students and teachers, and for school leadership and teachers’ professional contexts.
The literature on collaborative inquiry is emerging in different fields of research, especially in adult education and teachers’ professional development. The studies show that an increasing number of teacher professional developers are structuring experiences around collaboration and inquiry, thus striving from one-time workshop approach towards a more embedded, long-term and reflective processes in professional and community development. Also within the arts both research and professional practices have undergone changes that reflect increased co-operative and collective participatory efforts.
While interesting and insightful articles on collaborative inquiry have been published little has been discussed about the subtleties of collective and collaborative knowledge generation within different contextual frames. By using the field of dance education in Finland as an example and by describing the critical incidents that occurred during the collaborative knowledge creation process amongst the participating dance professionals this article sheds light to a more general phenomenon of facilitating the creation of new knowledge in professional contexts, that are characterized by epistemic diversity or specificity. In so doing, the article offers some insights into how collaborative inquiry could offer a more practitioner-based and context-sensitive social space to enhance sensible meaning making and actionable knowledge creation.
This article investigates the relationship between child migration and educational attainment. Depending on age at migration, it examines whether there is an educational advantage for Mexican-born children who migrate to the United States relative to their non-migrant Mexican peers.
This article examines how first grade Latina/o emergent bilinguals interacted with a literacy curriculum that sought to value their transnational experiences and multilingual repertoires. Through a focus on the Laundromat, one of the transnational local spaces salient in the data, I explore how the children enacted what I refer to as literacies of interdependence—multilingual and multimodal literacy practices that both reflected and enacted their cultural practices of mutuality.
Despite the increased popularity of blended learning in K–12 contexts, relatively little research exists that examines teachers’ instruction in high-tech blended schools. Drawing on cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) to identify and explore the contextual factors influencing teachers’ work, this article traces how teachers' roles and instructional practices develop throughout the first year of a blended learning school.
This study examines dimensions of positive strategies for coping with the college environment among students from adverse backgrounds in relation to the different services and support systems students may access. The data analyzed was from a 2012 survey of enrolled college students who were recipients of a scholarship based on the severe adversity they had experienced prior to college and evidence of resilience.
This article explores the nature of the historical writing process by looking at the hallmark writing skills historians develop as they learn the craft.
Using a symbolic interactionist theoretical framework, the authors examine eleven persistently disciplined urban middle school students’ experiences with being labeled as “frequent flyers.”
This study explores how urban adolescents in a small, Northeastern city make meaning of available support services and providers and how they make decisions about when and where to access support.
In this article, we share results of a mixed methods study that examined the use of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol (CRIOP) model in elementary classrooms.