This study examines differences in instructional quality between two higher and two lower value-added high schools, as measured by the Classroom Assessment Scoring System—Secondary (CLASS-S). Based on data from classroom observations and teacher interviews, it explores (a) differences in levels of instructional quality, (b) differences in the proportions of students taking advanced courses, and (c) differences in the way teachers think and talk about their classroom challenges.
This study utilized a non-equivalent control group design and quantitative analyses to compare the association between classroom grades and standardized test scores. Results of the study identify the benefits of using standards-based grading practices as an element of high school reform. The article also notes the methodological limitations of prior grading research and suggests the need for more robust studies assessing grading practices, student achievement, and school performance.
This multi-method study explored the potential of virtual coaching as a means for providing sustained external assistance to principals and leadership teams engaged in collaborative instructional improvement. Findings reveal distinct benefits of virtual coaching for developing principal leadership capacity.
This article examines the educational initiatives of a large agrarian social movement, the Brazilian Landless Workers’ Movement (MST), by exploring the diverse pedagogies and theories activists have drawn on to develop their alternative educational proposals for rural schools. The article analyzes this process of grassroots educational innovation, while also discussing the tensions that arise when social movements with particular visions of societal transformation demand to participate in the public school sphere.
School districts in the United States increasingly allow students and their families to choose the schools they attend and even the courses they take. This article examines how the social capital of students who are able to exercise curricular choice is associated with the achievement outcomes associated with these choices. Using data derived from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009, results from multilevel models show that increases in social capital, operationalized as network diversity, are significantly associated with higher math achievement and that this relationship is moderated by students’ math interest.
This article specifies two models of mathematics instruction—dialogic and direct—based on a series of conversations with nationally recognized experts who hold opposing points of view, and provides a discussion of the sources that underlie ongoing debates.
This study examines if differences in achievement and socioemotional outcomes arise based on having attended center-based care in both prekindergarten and kindergarten years, versus in only one of those years, versus in neither of those years. The study finds that having attended center-based care in both years is associated with lowest socioemotional outcomes of the three attendance options (both years, one year, neither year).
In response to a shortage of highly-qualified teachers, states and school districts have enacted a number of policy innovations over the last two decades. While researchers have evaluated many of these reforms, little is known about another approach to improve the supply and quality of teachers—issuing initial licenses to those with prior teaching assistant experience. Conceptually, these teachers’ additional exposure to classroom practices may improve the quality of their teaching and persistence in the profession. Therefore, using data from North Carolina public schools we examine the characteristics, value-added effectiveness, and retention of those who were teaching assistants before becoming teachers-of-record. Overall, we find that teachers who began as teaching assistants are (1) older, more racially diverse, lower-scoring on licensure exams, and more likely to enter the profession alternatively; (2) more effective in elementary grades math and reading; and (3) more likely to remain as classroom teachers in North Carolina public schools. These findings indicate that former teaching assistants represent a quality labor source and call for continued research to understand how additional exposure to classrooms benefits early-career teacher performance.
Drawing on the history of research on teaching creativity and on arts education, the article argues that the best way to teach for creativity is to transform domain specific education, in each subject area. This requires schools to change the way each subject is taught, so that learning outcomes support the learner’s ability to create within each specific subject. The most effective learning environments are characterized by emergent, improvisational, and collaborative pedagogical structures.
Extrinsic incentives or constraints including the promise of a reward or the expectation of an evaluation have long been used by educators to motivate students. While extrinsic incentives do, in fact, help to ensure that work gets done and that it gets done on time, caution must be exercised when creativity is at stake. In teaching and learning situations where there is one “right” answer and one best path to solution, extrinsic incentives can be extremely effective. However, when more open-ended problems and activities are presented to students, these same extrinsic incentives have been shown to kill Western students’ intrinsic motivation and creativity. In the face of an expected reward or performance evaluation, students are unlikely to take risks and tend not to be fueled by an excitement about learning that would allow them to persist with challenging tasks until they achieve a creative outcome. The complexities of the relation between task motivation and performance outcomes are reviewed and cross-cultural implications are explored.
This article how human rights education can utilize creative and innovative approaches for meaningful learning among marginalized communities. Specifically, the approach of one non-governmental organization in India is reviewed and presented as an example of how educators and those interested in imparting knowledge of basic rights can advance a transformative form of human rights education through innovative curricula, pedagogy and co-curricular efforts.
The field of urban education knows little about the role of suburban mayors in political fragmentation, or division into smaller organizational units, of multi-city suburban school districts, particularly in relation to contemporary mayoral control activity in central cities. This article reports on a mixed method study that examined the interplay of political, fiscal and demographic dynamics that contributed to the split of a large, U.S., suburban school district. The authors found that rapid demographic and financial shifts in school districts shared by multiple suburban cities can catalyze secession activities. Strong city mayors were a key force propelling division and modifying district governance structures through heightening the prominence of city borders and local control, even when the threats were neighboring middle class cities. The authors conclude that these practices of division and appropriation by cities and their leadership will only diminish democratic process of school governance and exacerbate social-class and racial segregation.
The purpose of this research is to seek insights into teachers’ experiences as they implement garden-based learning. Our results add to existing frameworks describing the relationship between the teacher and the curriculum specifically in the garden-based learning context.
This article describes practices that distinguish elementary schools whose ethnically and linguistically diverse students consistently exceed expectations on English language arts assessments. Results of the multicase study show that higher achievement correlates with policies and practices that are coherently supported and sustained across classroom, school, and district levels.
This article develops the significance of James Baldwin’s thinking for teacher education. In particular, the article develops Baldwin’s thinking on three interrelated themes: white innocence, fear, and love. The article concludes by arguing that Baldwin’s thinking—particularly his thinking on love—should be given more sustained attention by educators, especially teacher educators.
This paper examines the influence of students’ self-efficacy and expectation, as well as the expectation and encouragement they received from parents and high school teachers on their decisions to major in, complete a degree, and pursue a career in STEMM.
To allay public concerns that state exit examination mandates might unfairly hinder some students’ educational attainment prospects, most states with exam requirements offer alternative routes to graduation for all students. This study probes the relationship between various exam difficulty-alternative route policy combinations and the subsequent attainment outcomes of tenth-graders.
This paper draws on a comparative case study of six classrooms in two International Baccalaureate schools to highlight conflicting teacher practices related to global education. One set of teacher practices demonstrated a fixed orientation to global education, acknowledging the global experiences, multiple languages, and variety of viewpoints that students brought into the classroom; other teacher practices exemplified a fixed orientation towards global education, ignoring the variety of student experiences, languages, and viewpoints in the classroom.
In this study, we use data from 2006 to 2010 to examine the impact of school-based financial incentives on patterns of teacher mobility, focusing on teachers' strategic moves. Our findings suggest program participants tend to make more strategic moves to high value schools than their non-participant peers. However, these moves tend to be to schools that have high performance and growth in achievement, and not to schools that receive incentives for serving low-income populations.
This mixed-methods study describes the changing social networks of adolescents participating in an extracurricular dual-language program.
The purpose of this autoethnography was to examine how school district-level administrators respond to investigations and findings of racism in their districts. We examined administrators’ responses to our requests about their districts’ racialized disciplinary data, and their responses to our sharing of these findings. We describe four technical–rational practices through which school district administrators maintain blindness toward racial inequities and thereby allow racism to continue in their districts.
This study investigates how underrepresented students experience the social contexts of their schools in relation to their college ambitions, and the particular attributes of schools’ social contexts that might facilitate their transition to four-year colleges.
This paper explores print media coverage of the early years of the charter school debate in the United States.
This study investigates the association between two aspects of organizational culture (professional community and teacher collaboration), teacher control over school and classroom policy, and teacher job satisfaction. The association between teacher collaboration and job satisfaction, as well as that between control over classroom policy and job satisfaction, is most pronounced in schools with weaker professional communities.
This study updates and extends the literature on how families financially prepare for college and examines socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in timing of college financial preparations. Using the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009, we find that socioeconomically privileged families have greater chances of financially preparing their children for college, and they often prepare very early in their child’s life.