After decades of research that repudiates the thesis of Asian Americans as model minorities, the visibility of Asian Americans in higher education continues to reinforce essentialist paradigms about their presumed success. This article presents the most recent educational pipeline for Asian Americans while examining disparities in attainment across race, class, gender, citizenship, and earning power as a method to further policy discussions on education and civil rights.
Educational researchers and policymakers have often lamented the failure of teachers to implement what they consider to be technically sound assessment procedures. Through a case study of New York City’s Central Park East Secondary School (CPESS), in the years when it served as a model for progressive American school reform, Duckor and Perlstein demonstrate the usefulness of an alternative to reliance of the technical characteristics of standardized tests for constructing and judging assessments: teachers’ self-conscious and reasoned articulation of their approaches to learning and assessment. They conclude that when teachers are given opportunities for genuine, shared reflection on teaching and learning and classroom practices are tied to this understanding, fidelity to what they call the logic of assessment offers a more promising framework for the improvement of schooling than current forms of high-stakes, standardized accountability. Thus, instead of expecting teachers to rely on data from standardized assessments or replicate features of standardized testing in their own assessment practices, researchers, policymakers and teacher educators should promote fidelity to the broader logic of assessment.
This study used Virtual Reality (VR) technology to simulate conceptual and perceptual analogies and examined their impact on the analogical thinking of kindergarten children enrolled in public education. It compared the effectiveness of immersive 3D VR to better enhance their ability to solve both kinds of analogies with the effectiveness of picture cards and found VR to be more effective.
This article examines the effects of elementary school home language, immigrant generation, school language context, and early language classification on Latinos’ probability of completing high school. The authors find that speaking Spanish at home in the early years, being born in the US, and having been reclassified as English Fluent before sixth grade serve as protective factors.
The authors employed multilevel and instrumental variables models to examine class size effects on fourth graders’ reading achievement in Greece. The results indicated a positive association between class size and reading achievement, but the association is overall insignificant, especially when classroom and school variables were taken into account.
The present study explored the value of systematic learning from success as a complementary reflective framework during the practicum phase in teacher preparatory programs. Results indicated greater performance improvement on pedagogical content knowledge measures and on sense of self-efficacy measures when contemplating both problematic and successful experiences than when focusing solely on problematic experiences.
Drawing upon the concept of interpretive flexibility, this study illuminates some of the sensemaking processes around teachers’ uses of data and computer data systems. Accordingly, it provides recommendations regarding how researchers, school, and district leaders might be more attentive to the “people problems” around data system implementation.
This article examines the relationship between district-focused education organizing efforts and parent-school relations in schools. Using a mixed-methods approach, the study found that schools with high organizing had more structural social capital than schools with little or no organizing, but limited teacher-parent trust in those schools highlighted tensions between dominant institutional scripts about the role of parents and organizing efforts to build more collaborative relationships in pursuit of educational equity.
In this article, the author describes the history of classroom research and notes that, despite potential for present day application, many of those who currently develop observational systems for evaluating teachers appear to be unaware of this literature. The author describes what we know about effective teaching, the limits of using this information, and the need for identifying new important outcomes of schooling that can be used in teacher evaluation.
This paper reviews the literature on teacher effects and focuses on value-added measures and their use in evaluating teachers. Suggestions about the use of value-added measures and about the future of teacher effects research are provided.
In this study, the researchers surveyed all 50 states and the District of Columbia to provide an inclusive national growth and value-added model overview.
This paper explores how state education officials and their district and local partners plan to implement and evaluate their teacher evaluation systems, focusing in particular on states’ efforts to investigate the reliability and validity of scores emerging from the observational component of these systems.
Teacher assessment using value-added models of teacher efficacy suffer from a fatal flaw, namely, that a myriad of exogenous (unaccounted for) variables affect student test score growth and result in unstable estimates of teacher competency from class to class and year to year.
This article discusses the intended and unintended consequences of high-stakes teacher evaluation. The potential for high-stakes teacher evaluation to meet the intended outcome of a better teacher workforce and improved student achievement is assessed, and the costs of doing so.
This study examines accountability in teacher education in an era of testing. It compares how multiple professions evaluate program outcomes and identifies concerns with overemphasis on value-added models as the basis for assessing the impact of teacher preparation program graduates. Suggestions are offered for possible alternative paths.
This article discusses the papers in the special issue of Teachers College Record addressing broad themes of reliability and validity that raise cautions regarding the usefulness of recent approaches to high-stakes evaluation of educators. Implications are drawn for the long-term health of the teacher labor market.
Foreword to the special issue on High-Stakes Teacher Evaluation.
This article presents and analyzes a variety of approaches that teachers in a struggling urban school used after a violent teacher attack ushered in a culture of chaos and fear throughout the school. As this paper suggests, many of these approaches failed to generate the authority necessary to restore student engagement and the relational trust between teachers and students that they had lost following this incident. At the same time, one teacher implemented an approach that allowed him to reclaim his authority, repair the teacher-student relationship, and increase student engagement in his classroom. Drawing on various theories about power and authority in schools, I argue that the degree to which these different approaches created engaging learning environments and restored a meaningful teacher-student relationship depended on whether students recognized a teacher’s authority as legitimate.
Non-tenure track faculty now make up two-thirds of the faculty, but we have very little research on this growing population. What little we know is that they often have poor working conditions. Some leaders are beginning to alter policies and practices on campus to better support these faculty. The question addressed in this particular article is: How do NTTF construct an understanding of support within their department? The results showcase individual and institutional conditions that uniquely shape their views, dispelling the notion that they are a mostly homogenous group. Practical implications for improving departmental and institutional life are also offered.
This document-based historical study focuses on history/social studies teacher education in the decades immediately preceding and following the National Education Association’s landmark report, The Social Studies in Secondary Education, which commonly is credited with establishing social studies as a school subject. The article interrogates how teacher preparation programs contributed and/or responded (or not) to this curriculum reform and to what effect. This study is the first of its kind to center primarily on the history of teacher education in the social studies.
This article presents findings from a qualitative metasynthesis that studied whether teachers and/or administrators were engaging in appropriate practices, and if so, how might such practices influence children’s cognitive development.
In this article, teacher education researchers examine growing concerns about teacher education programs in America, as well as growing concerns about how to evaluate the programs and hold them internally and externally accountable for the quality of the teachers they graduate. Researchers describe a multi-university, statewide initiative that approached this work, and what one college, representing one of the largest teacher education colleges in the nation, did to advance these examinations locally.
In the fairytale of US public education reform, the root of all evil has presumably been identified: the dragons of ineffectiveness. In this fairytale, The LA Times, a newspaper team of investigative reporters, hired statisticians, and other columnists have rode in on the back of Value-Added Measurement. In this paper, we present findings from a discourse analysis study examining what we have come to name a policy narrative centered on teacher evaluation and effectiveness. We conducted an analysis of 52 articles published between 2009 and 2011 that were from or related to a series on Value-Added Measurement initially published in 2010 by The LA Times. We sought to understand the ways in which discourse choices worked to construct a certain version of policy issues related to teacher quality, positioning some individuals and even national groups on one side of a polarized debate. We have given particular attention to the ways in which the media discourse functioned to politicize and (over)simplify issues related to educational policy and teacher evaluation.
This paper points out that the most popular current school reforms offered have failed to accomplish their goal because they fail to understand the fundamental problem of American schools, namely, income inequality and the poverty that accompanies such inequality. Prescriptions to fix our schools cannot work if the diagnosis about what is wrong with them is in error.