Because metacognitive knowledge includes knowledge about adequate learning strategies, and an effective use of learning strategies is associated with higher levels of performance, substantial relationships can be assumed between metacognitive knowledge, strategic behavior, and performance. However, such a pattern of results is rarely found in the research literature. In part, this may be due to inadequate indicators of strategy use. In a representative sample of 15-year-old students in Germany, Artelt and Neuenhaus (2010) showed that high scores on self-reported strategy use were mirrored in high levels of performance only when students had sufficient metacognitive knowledge. Taking data from PISA 2009, which used a similar measure of metacognitive knowledge and also included self-report data on students’ strategy use, the present study aimed to test the cross-country generalizability of the relationship between metacognitive knowledge, strategy use, and reading competence for a total of 34 OECD countries. Results showed consistently moderate to high correlations between metacognitive knowledge and reading competence. There were also lower, but still significant, relationships between strategy use and both reading competence and metacognitive knowledge. Testing a “mediator model” with strategy use as a mediator resulted in small but significant effects of strategy use as mediator. Assuming that metacognitive knowledge might be a necessary precondition for effective strategy use, the study tested whether it served as a moderator. Results confirmed this moderator effect for many but not all countries. However, across all countries, there was a consistently high effect of metacognitive knowledge on reading competence, independent of the level of self-reported use of strategies. The discussion considers the validity of metacognition indicators (knowledge and strategy use) and practical implications of the findings.
This article reports on a randomized controlled experiment examining the impact of a professional development intervention that helps teachers foster students’ historical thinking skills, social and ethical reflection, and civic learning.
This article analyzes the role of venture philanthropy in shaping teacher education policies in the United States, with a particular focus on the role of the New Schools Venture Fund in promoting the Growing Excellent Achievement Training Academies for Teachers and Principals Act (GREAT Act).
Reading attitude is an important element in students’ active engagement in reading. We examined how attitudes toward reading mediated the relationships between Korean adolescents’ reading environments and reading behaviors using a nationally representative sample from the PISA 2009 database. Gender, books and other types of literacy resources in the home, and parents’ attitudes toward reading functioned as consistent predictors of Korean students’ positive and negative attitudes toward reading. Whereas teachers’ use of instructional strategies in reading and literacy could not predict students’ reading behaviors directly, except for online reading, parents’ reading attitude, and parental support for reading directly as well as indirectly predicted students’ reading behaviors by predicting students’ reading attitude. Positive attitudes toward reading also predicted students’ use of memorization, elaboration, and control strategies during text processing. Parental support for reading and teachers’ reading instruction and assignment strategies directly predicted students’ use of these learning strategies as well. Reading attitude thus emerged as an important mediator between contextual factors and reading engagement of Korean adolescents.
This study examined whether microeconomic mechanisms can explain family and school inequalities and their relationships to students’ mathematics achievement. Multilevel analyses of 2009 PISA data from 475,760 fifteen-year-olds in 65 countries showed that students had lower mathematics achievement in countries with greater family inequality (GDP Gini) or school inequalities (of educational materials, teacher quality, or rich vs. poor schoolmates). Robustness testing of student subsamples (high vs. low socioeconomic status; high vs. low achievement) showed similar results; notably the richest students also had lower mathematics achievement in countries with greater family or school inequalities. The results suggest that these inequalities might operate through different mechanisms: (a) family inequality via fewer educational resources and via inefficient resource allocation, (b) school inequality of teacher quality via fewer educational resources, and (c) the school inequality of educational material results via inefficient resource allocation. These results suggest potential interventions to address each inequality mechanism.
performances for identifying the countries with the best education systems and (b) generating insights about effective policy and practice strategies that are associated with higher learning outcomes. Do country rankings really reflect the quality of education in different countries? What are the fallacies of simply looking to higher performing countries to identify strategies for improving learning in our own countries? In this article we caution against (a) using country rankings as indicators of better education and (b) using correlates of higher performance in high ranking countries as a way of identifying strategies for improving education in our home countries. We elaborate on these cautions by discussing methodological limitations and by comparing five countries that scored very differently on the reading literacy scale of the 2009 PISA assessment.
We investigated the relationship between illustration complexity and the difficulty of PISA 2009 science items for three participating jurisdictions. A negative correlation between the number of illustration features and item difficulty was observed for the United States and Mexico, whereas for Shanghai-China this correlation was negligible. Textual and object-and-background features shaped this correlation considerably. For the United States and Mexico, the magnitude of the negative correlation between illustration complexity and item difficulty was greater for larger numbers of different types of features. For Shanghai-China, this correlation was consistently close to zero. The pattern of magnitudes and directions of correlations observed parallels the three jurisdictions’ ranking in PISA 2009, which suggests that properly interpreting illustrations may play an important role in science achievement differences. However, given the exploratory nature of the study, this conclusion is tentative. We discuss the implications of our findings for systematically developing PISA science illustrated items.
Trying to understand PISA is analogous to the parable of the blind men and the elephant. There are many facets of the PISA program, and thus many ways to both applaud and critique this ambitious international program of assessment that has gained enormous importance in the crafting of contemporary educational policy. One of the facets discussed in this paper is the issue of the comparability of the cognitions elicited by items across national and linguistic cultures. Valid interpretations of PISA results cannot proceed without assurance that items across nations are interpreted in the same way. A second facet examined is the association of PISA with economic outcomes for nations, still an unsettled area of importance. A third facet discussed is the search in PISA data for universally applicable instructional techniques, a possible will-o-the-wisp. A fourth facet examined are differences in cross-national attitudes toward the PISA subjects and how those affect test scores. Given these many facets of the program, a fifth facet that is arguably the most important of all the issues associated with PISA is discussed, namely the interpretation of PISA scores.
A long-standing premise in test design is that contextualizing test items makes them concrete, less demanding, and more conducive to determining whether students can apply or transfer their knowledge. We assert, however, that despite decades of study and experience, much remains to be learned about how to construct effective and fair test items with contexts. Too little is known about how item contexts can be appropriately constructed and used, and even less about the relationship between context characteristics and student performance. The exploratory study presented in this paper seeks to contribute to knowledge about test design and construction by focusing on this gap. We address two key questions: (1) What are the characteristics of contexts used in the PISA science items? and (2) What are the relationships between different context characteristics and student performance? We propose a profiling approach to capture information about six context dimensions: type of context, context role, complexity, resources, level of abstraction, and connectivity. To test the approach empirically we sampled a total of 52 science items from PISA 2006 and 2009. We describe the context characteristics of the items at two levels (named layers): general (testlet context) and specific (item context). We provide empirical evidence about the relationships of these characteristics with student performance as measured by the international percentage of correct responses. We found that the dimension of context resources (e.g., pictures, drawings, photographs) for general contexts and level of abstractness for specific contexts are associated with student performance.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) was designed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to evaluate the quality, equity, and efficiency of school systems around the world. Specifically, the PISA has assessed 15-year-old students’ reading, mathematics, and science literacy on a 3-year cycle, since 2000. Also, the PISA collects information about how those outcomes are related to key demographic, social, economic, and educational variables. However, the preponderance of reports involving PISA data focus on achievement variables and cross-national comparisons of achievement variables. Challenges in evaluating achievement of students from different cultural and educational settings and data concerning students’ approaches to learning, motivation for learning, and opportunities for learning are rarely reported. A main goal of this themed issue of Teachers College Record (TCR) is to move the conversation about PISA data beyond achievement to also include factors that affect achievement (e.g., SES, home environment, strategy use). Also we asked authors to consider how international assessment data can be used for improving learning and education and what appropriate versus inappropriate inferences can be made from the data. In this introduction, we synthesize the six articles in this issue and themes that cut across them. Also we examine challenges associated with using data from international assessments, like the PISA, to inform education policy and practice within and across countries. We conclude with recommendations for collecting and using data from international assessments to inform research, policy, and teaching and learning.
Introductory essay for the three subsequent manuscripts that providing historical analysis since 1865 of In Loco Parentis as a legal, institutional, and social feature of the American college and university campus. I characterize my Introduction as that of a senior scholar who endorses and supports the original and related essays of three younger, new historians of higher education.
This article argues that the power to discipline students in loco parentis was limited by countervailing emphases on college access and due process well before the legal revolutions of the 1960s and 1970s.
This article argues that the doctrine of in loco parentis served as the justification for the sweeping reconstruction of undergraduate life in the 1920s, when administrators and faculty instituted a host of academic, social, and psychological programs and services to help keep students in college.
This article examines the student activism that led to the Fifth Circuit’s ruling in Dixon v. Alabama State Board of Education (1961). It explores how the students’ civil rights activism was transformed into a fight for students’ rights and analyzes the interplay of this transformation with future civil rights work.
Performance-based funding programs have become a popular state policy strategy for increasing college completions, among other things. This study asks, To what extent does the introduction of performance funding programs impact two-year degree completion among participating states? Using a difference-in-differences technique, we find that the program had no effect on average and mixed results for the individual states. We conclude that the policy is not a “silver bullet” for improving community college completions.
This article proposes a theory through which to better understand, evaluate, and scaffold the generative synthesis of knowledge in a web-mediated world. The theory is based on a review of literature from a diverse range of scholarly fields as well as an empirical investigation of advanced learners on the web.
This study examines the effects of metropolitan school district fragmentation―the proliferation of public school districts within a metropolitan area―on the trajectory of racial/ethnic school segregation between 2002 and 2010.
This article explains the idea of a neopragmatic postmodernist test theory and offers some thoughts about what changing notions concerning the nature of and meanings assigned to knowledge imply for educational assessment, present and future.
Reprinted with permission from Transitions in Work and Learning: Implications for Assessment, 1997, by the National Academy of Sciences, Courtesy of the National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.
This paper makes 13 claims about what educational assessment must do if it is to remain relevant in the face of rapid and potentially dramatic changes in education and society.
The article provides a rationale for the focus on assessment for learning, that is to assist and improve performance, as opposed to the prevalent approach of assessment of learning, focused on time constrained summative judgments. In the article, we also discuss the likely changes wrought by new and unstable knowledge, technology, and global competition, in the light of democratic educational approaches.
In the present offering we challenge the presumption that the educational testing of students provides objective information about such students. This presumption largely rests on an empiricist account of science. In light of mounting criticism, however, empiricist foundationalism has given way to a social epistemology. From this standpoint, empirical data are only objective for those who share assumptions and values that are themselves without foundations. Thus, the major questions to be raised about testing are not in terms of whether test results supply the truth about those who are evaluated, but concern the utility of the tests for the full range of stakeholders. Who gains and loses as a result of testing practices, and in what ways? In the present offering we focus in particular on a range of adverse consequences. We first note the neoliberalist and individualist ideologies carried by current testing practices. We then discuss the impact on societal well-being, including the fostering of social division and distrust, the creation of hierarchies of worth, and the diminution of pluralism. We turn then to the impact of testing on the educational system, including the sacrifice of curriculum and pedagogy for the production of higher test scores, and the diminution of teacher motivation and engagement. Finally, in terms of community, there is a disregard for local needs and values, a loss in student motivation, and an increase in family tensions. We complete the paper with a discussion of possible alternatives to current testing practices, and recommendations for future policies.
This paper considers future educational assessment in terms of principles of evidential reasoning, focusing the discussion on the changes to the claims our assessments must support, the types of evidence needed to support these claims, and the statistical tools available to evaluate our evidence vis-à-vis the claims. An expanded view of assessment is advanced in which assessments based on multiple evidence sources from contextually rich situated learning environments, including unconventional data regarding human competencies, improve our ability to make valid inferences and decisions all education stakeholders.
Assessments of what others have just done is an ongoing concern in everyday interaction. What we have learned about the working of these assessments might help us think through the consequences of the more formal assessments associated with teaching and learning in schools.
This article provides a framework for functions and purposes of assessment in K–12 education and advances the notion of purpose drift: the tendency of assessment purposes to evolve and multiply over time. The author argues that validation activities should be more proactive and less reactive to purpose drift, to the extent that this drift is easy to predict.
This article presents a working model of the formative assessment process that we believe will be essential for effective implementation of the Common Core State Standards. Assessment for learning rather than testing of achievement is presented as a way of guiding teachers and students through the progressions needed to achieve college and career readiness.