This paper analyzes how research has been misused in debates about the future of teacher education and offers several specific suggestions for improving the quality of this debate.
The purpose of this study was to examine the Response to Intervention (RTI) implementation process in two culturally diverse, urban schools. The authors sought to describe the process of large scale RTI implementation through the lens of Systems Change Theory. The authors report on the relationships among personnel preparation, practitioner assumptions about “non-responsive” culturally/linguistically diverse students, and external state and district pressures on RTI practice. This study of RTI in a naturalistic setting used grounded theory research methods to provide an in-depth description and analysis of challenges and successes experienced by RTI teams and teachers in schools required by state mandate to implement RTI.
In this article, a typology for an online Socrates Café discussion forum emerges from the theoretical framework of pedagogical and dispositional components guiding the pedagogy. The typology may assist instructors to create and sustain purposeful online discussion forums that engage students in deliberative discussion.
Maintaining rigorous and equitable classroom discourse is a worthy goal, yet there is no clear consensus of how this actually works in a classroom. This mixed-method study examines differences in discourse within and across classroom episodes (warm-ups, small group conversations, whole group conversation, etc.) that elevated, or failed to elevate, students’ explanatory rigor in equitable ways. Data include 222 secondary science lessons (1,174 episodes) from 37 novice teachers. Lessons were videotaped and analyzed for the depth of students’ explanatory talk and the quality of responsive dialogue. The findings support three statistical claims. First, high levels of rigor cannot be attained in classrooms where teachers are unresponsive to students’ ideas or puzzlements. Second, the architecture of lessons matters. Teachers and students engaged in highly rigorous and responsive lessons turned potentially trivial episodes of science activity into meaningful and connected learning experiences. Third, episodes featuring one or more of three responsive talk forms elevate rigor. Those talk forms are: building on students’ science ideas; attending to participation in the learning community; and developing students’ lived experiences. Small but strategic moves within these forms were consequential for supporting rigor. This paper challenges the notion that rigor and responsiveness are attributes of curricula or individual teachers.
Do teacher knowledge and instructional quality grow in the first two years of teaching? Are they related to each other? We examine these questions with a sample of 45 middle school math teachers in their first two years of teaching, from 11 districts in four states. We found teachers’ mathematics knowledge for teaching (MKT) grew significantly in the first two years, and emphasis on basic topics decreased significantly. There was no change in discussion quality, topic coverage or cognitive demand emphasis. The MKT weakly predicted instructional quality and was not a better predictor of instruction quality than distal knowledge measures; however, the MKT did explain part of the relationship between distal knowledge proxies and instruction. All relationships we detected were quite small. Policy implications are discussed.
This study examined whether the National Science Foundation’s (NSF) Discovery Research in K–12 (DR K–12) program has made a unique contribution to the research in the fields of science and mathematics education for English language learners (ELLs). We compared research from ELL science and mathematics projects that were funded by the DR K-12 program with other (non DR K-12-funded) research in these fields in terms of research topics, design, methods, outcomes, and researcher expertise. Findings indicated that the funding and the emphases of the DR K–12 program did influence and shape the research in these fields. In particular, DR K-12 projects were distinct from other non DR K-12-funded research in three areas: (a) their use of mixed methods, especially quantitative methods, and their larger scale; (b) their emphasis on instruction and teacher preparation; and (c) their focus on middle and high school students. These findings suggest that funding programs can shape research agendas by providing deliberate and targeted funding for priority areas. Federal agencies should continue to provide this funding to support much-needed research that is a necessary step to improving the quality of science and mathematics education for ELLs.
The present study examined the relationship between teacher-reported (N = 16) culturally responsive beliefs and behaviors and grade 3 – 5 Latino students’ (N = 244) reading outcomes. Teachers’ beliefs regarding the use of Spanish in instruction, funds of knowledge, and critical awareness were all positively related to students’ reading outcomes, with increases in reading achievement between .50 SD and 1.50 SD for each point increase in the beliefs subscales. Teachers’ reported behaviors in terms of the use of Spanish and cultural knowledge in instruction were both significantly and positively related to students’ reading outcomes. For each point teachers’ reported in each of the aforementioned dimensions, students’ reading scores were associated with more than 1 SD higher reading outcomes. The conceptualization of culturally responsive pedagogy and its role in teacher training is discussed.
This article analyzes the act of teacher political disclosure using both the democratic and interpersonal aspects of Foucault’s notion of parrhēsia.
Guided by Weidman’s (1989) Undergraduate Socialization Theory, this study explored factors influencing the educational expectations and progress of students at a public 2-year college in a Midwestern state. Data were collected using the Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE) and were linked with students’ administrative records and data from the National Student Clearinghouse. A structural equation model was employed to analyze the data. The study’s findings unfold intriguingly different socialization sources underlying transfer expectations and completion expectations, with transfer expectations largely subject to sources of socialization that emphasize academics and completion expectations depending on social ties and support in and out of the community college campus. Results also revealed that both transfer and completion expectations positively influenced educational progress, and educational expectations mediated the relationship between socialization sources and educational progress to a substantial extent.
Introduction to the Special Issue
At the turn of the 20th Century, a surprising series of events occurred in Spain, including the loss of its overseas colonies, which sent the country into a state of confusion and provoked strong political tensions within. Simultaneously its cultural scene developed a fascinating degree of momentum. Spain became the cradle of some of the world’s foremost painters, poets, writers, and intellectuals, including the Catalan pedagogue Ferrer i Guàrdia (1859-1909), who became a world figure with his educational project, the Modern School. This project was aimed at increasing access to quality education for the lowest social classes, developing their skills and using educational development to improve social conditions. This school and Ferrer i Guàrdia himself were persecuted and attacked until he was finally sentenced to death in October 1909.
For the more than 20,000 working-class women who participated in the Free Women movement in Spain, women’s sexuality was a key topic in both their process of empowerment and their claims and activities. The objective of this paper is to explore the ways in which this movement helped improve the personal lives of women in that period, and to analyze how it contributed to sexual education and encouraged other women to have sexual and affective relationships free of violence. The data reveals that thousands of women experienced personal transformations through their involvement in the libertarian movement. These women’s ideas on sexuality contributed to the creation of a society with more egalitarian and free relationships. The main features of Free Women are present in the preventive socialization of gender violence that is currently being developed in some educational projects in Spain.
The article analyses the democratic organization of the Adult School of La Verneda-Sant Martí in Barcelona, Spain. The school is a reference at the international level because of its trajectory and its contributions to the transformative movement in democratic education.
This article studies the origins of democratic adult education in Spain by examining historical educational experiences such as the libertarian movement and the influences of social and educational theories, including Paulo Freire’s work.
Introduction to the special issue on Milliken v. Bradley.
The purpose of this study is to examine the context and contradictions in Milliken. In doing so, we review select federal school desegregation cases that informed the judicial and plaintiff’s thinking in Milliken, and provide an in-depth description of the city of Detroit and Detroit Public Schools, prior to and during Milliken. We also analyze how the Milliken decision reinforced what we refer to as the “contours of privilege” as well as materialized property rights for white, suburban students and school districts at the expense of African American students in Detroit Public Schools.
This theoretical article examines the historical underpinnings of racialized policy discrimination in Detroit. With a backdrop of Detroit’s restrictive residential racial covenants, the Sweet Trials, the Detroit Race Riot of 1943, the destruction of Black Bottom, the refusal to place mass transit systems in Detroit, and more recently, the racialized implementation of Emergency Management Laws, we argue that White actions toward Detroit are based on deep-rooted and historical biases, stereotypes, and fears of Blacks. In this context, Milliken v. Bradley I concretized what had already been at play for decades in Detroit prior to the Milliken decision—racial marginalization and disinvestment of Black Detroit. Drawing on Milliken as a manifestation of continuous racial marginalization in Detroit, we use postcolonial theory to connect and critique urban policies that are informed by the White colonial mindset (Fanon, 1963; Said, 1978). This theoretical framework therefore offers a lens for deep analysis of 20th century White American behaviors and policy regarding Black urban spaces, specifically in Detroit. We pull from political , educational, and legal discourses surrounding Milliken I and critically examined prior research and policies related to the case. Our analysis suggests that Milliken had a long-term deleterious impact on Black students (and families) in the city of Detroit, including the resegregation of separate and inequitable schools and the (re)entrenchment of White fears and stereotypes about Black Detroiters.
This article examines the contemporary implications of the Milliken v. Bradley (1974) decision for educational inequality between school districts in U.S. metropolitan areas.
In this article, we draw on the concepts of place and race to understand interview data from three experts on education segregation and desegregation to shed light on the nature and complexity of Milliken that are under-explored in public and policy discourses and examinations.
In this article, I consider school desegregation as a form of social justice for blacks and racial equality for all, 40 years post-Milliken. Drawing from research on school desegregation as social justice and Bell’s theory of interest convergence, I argue that integration and equality in the post-Civil Rights Era requires attention to the competing visions of social justice I describe as black equality and white freedom.
The Honorable Judge Nathaniel Jones litigated the Milliken v. Bradley I case before the U.S. District Court and Supreme Court in 1971 and 1974. Nathaniel Jones was born May 12, 1926 in Youngstown, Ohio, and served as the general counsel for the NAACP from 1969-1979. In 1979, President Jimmy Carter nominated Nathaniel Jones to the U.S. Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals, and at eighty-seven years of age, he still serves as a retired senior judge for the court. Our conversation with Judge Jones entails his reflections about Milliken 40 years later, origins of his involvement in the case, and suggestions for school desegregation advocates in the 21st century. We organized our conversation around topical areas about the case, which reflect our interview questions. Our discussion with Judge Jones occurred on March 22, 2014 in Cincinnati, Ohio. This conversation concludes with Nathaniel Jones discussing what Detroit and other urban schools district could potentially be like if Milliken would have been upheld by the Supreme Court.
This research examines the experiences of 15 undocumented immigrants who graduated from public high schools in New York City and identifies nine types of microaggressions they encountered during their college choice process.
Students’ self-conscious emotions and coping strategies were examined in three classroom social/instructional contexts: private, small group, and whole class. The School Situations (SS) inventory, a pencil-and-paper measure of children’s self-conscious emotions in the classroom, was developed for this purpose and administered to students in grades 4 – 6 as part of a larger teacher professional development project in mathematics. SS was administered after the program pretest and posttest. Participants attended schools within a single district that varied in socio-economic status. Schools were labeled as high or moderate poverty density, defined by percentage of students receiving free or reduced lunch support. Findings revealed the importance of context—cultural (poverty density), social (classroom social/instructional format) and personal (readiness)—in the co-regulation of students’ self-conscious emotions and coping. Further, an exploratory factor analysis revealed five unique subscales that allow a more refined understanding of students’ emotional adaptation in the classroom. The five factor-derived scales—Distance and Displace, Inadequate and Exposed, Regret and Repair, Proud and Modest, and Minimize and Move On—inform how considerations of students’ emotional adaptation might be included in teacher education programs and how SS might be adapted for teacher classroom use.
This case study of two secondary school teacher teams explored the potential of collaborative partnerships with outside content experts (OCEs) for infusing new resources and perspectives that move beyond persistent images of classroom instruction. Findings reveal several pivotal episodes of interaction with clear evidence of OCE influence on teacher instructional plans.
This article examines special education in one Canadian urban public school system, the Toronto system, from 1945 to the present. Prepared with a wide audience of historians and education researchers, policymakers, administrators, teachers, and others in mind, the article explains the many different change factors – as well as the significant continuity – that have been present in the historical development of special education policies. Change factors include school board decisions, parent lobbying, experts’ influence, funding changes, and shifts in the categories of disability that special education has used. Continuity has been present in the form of a longstanding reliance on separate educational settings for exceptional children and the ongoing recurrence of a medical or treatment approach to learning difficulties and disabilities.
The article covers major developments since 1945: system expansion in the 1950s and 1960s; criticism of dead-end special programs in the 1970s; reforms in the 1980s, including Ontario’s Bill 82; cutbacks in the 1990s; and the rise of integration, mainstreaming, and finally, inclusion. Developments in Toronto’s public schools since 1945, in many ways, have been typical of policy development in other jurisdictions, and comparisons are made to policy in other Canadian and American school systems.