This paper analyzes how research has been misused in debates about the future of teacher education and offers several specific suggestions for improving the quality of this debate.
In this chapter, the authors identify a handful of promising approaches that can help to achieve the goal that all students will graduate from high school well-prepared for further learning, successful careers, and engaged citizenship. In particular, they focus on reforms targeted at the lowest performing high schools.
This introductory chapter frames the chapters in this volume on high school reform, implementation, and scale, and outlines why it is important to understand these perspectives. The four main sections of the volume are introduced and situated within the existing research literature.
This chapter describes the turnaround process for improved high schools that were part of North Carolina’s Turnaround Schools program. The turnaround process was not a matter of initial external design and subsequent implementation, but a non-linear process of planning, inventing, adjusting, and re-planning as well as a process of learning, doing, and learning from doing that generally began with the installation of new leadership and involved four main components: new commitment, climate, and culture; improved knowledge and skills; strategically organized and managed structures and supports for instruction; and strengthened external support.
The chapter describes the evolution of political, social, and economic environments that affect secondary education in the United States over four centuries. Historical analysis and an equilibrium model of organizational change are used to guide the discussion.
This chapter summarizes a set of research studies that focus on high school course offerings, takings, and effects. Courses, being the gateway to higher student performance and access to college, have been used as a policy lever to increase the rigor of students’ high school experiences.
This paper explores a distinctive aspect of International Baccalaureate’s effort to scale up in Title I schools. The effort reflects what we call mutual adaptation in action: Organizational learning took place on both sides, and designers incorporated what they learned from local implementations into the next iteration of their design, potentially strengthening not only the design, but also their capacity to go to scale.
Data from a 15-year, mixed-methods study of all 11 secondary schools in one British local authority demonstrate the value of adopting High Reliability Organization principles. In the High Reliability Schools (HRS) project, schools made substantial gains on national outcome measures during the four years of intervention and continued making dramatic gains for more than a decade afterwards. Qualitative follow-ups in the long-term case study schools indicate that the schools had both improved core processes during the intervention and learned how to achieve continuing improvement relative to national gains. Possible implications for future research are discussed.
We use data from the Hillsborough County Public Schools (HCPS) district in Florida to consider the consequences of particular characteristics of instruction and testing in high school for the modeling and estimation of value-added measures of school or teacher effectiveness. We show that the traditional value-added model used in NCLB grades and subjects can be generalized to the high school context.
This chapter presents implementation findings from a randomized, controlled trial of the Cognitive Tutor Geometry curriculum that found a statistically significant negative effect of the curriculum. The study found that the cognitive demands of the curriculum coupled with teachers’ poor implementation of learner-centered instructional practices seemed to hinder student achievement by limiting students’ ability to engage with the mathematical ideas.
This study explores how three organizations—Big Picture Learning, Expeditionary Learning, and Internationals Network—meet the challenges of growing effective teacher learning communities while also scaling their school designs across geographies.
This chapter highlights the early outcomes of the T STEM initiative in Texas⎯the largest investment in scaling up inclusive STEM-focused schools at the time—and describes the broad infrastructure undergirding T STEM academy development. Key factors that alternately supported and created tensions with T STEM policy goals and strategies are also discussed.
This analysis examines developmental evaluation as an approach to analyzing school improvement networks as “learning systems” able to produce, use, and refine practical knowledge in large numbers of schools.
This chapter describes the continuous improvement model used by the National Center on Scaling Up Effective Schools to boost performance among urban high schools. The model addresses well-known challenges faced by those attempting to scale up educational innovations, challenges such as building teacher buy-in and attending to the organizational context in which innovations are to be enacted.
An analysis using a nationally-representative dataset suggests that raising test scores by one standard deviation (SD) would substantially reduce the probabilities that black, Hispanic, Asian, and white students would drop out of high school and would increase the probabilities that students would compile a rigorous high school record, complete algebra 2 in high school, enroll at a 4-year institution, and attain a baccalaureate degree.
This article uses a case study of the Los Angeles Public School Choice Initiative (PSCI) to demonstrate how the political dynamics of complementary and competing policy issues in the same local arena affected the form and fate of a district reform. Drawing on three years of data, it finds that the interaction of electoral politics and education reforms (charter expansion, decentralization, union reform, accountability, academic rigor, community empowerment), the actors strategically pursuing these goals, and the environment shaped policy adoption, implementation, and adaptation over time.
This case study attempts to understand the contemporary challenges of implementing the collaborative web-based tool and its accompanying opportunities, as well as the contextual factors for its implementation within the district.
This mixed methods study explores the issue of adopting, adapting, and sharing of open educational resources in teacher practice and points out its potentials as well as barriers to diffusion that openness may face in light of economic and political realities of the classroom.
Drawing on three years of critical multi-sited ethnographic research, this article examines the ways of knowing of Mexican-origin transnational families whose primary residence was the Washington, DC area. The author examines the educational implications of their “chained knowing,” or being chained in their knowing to the Mexico–U.S. border and being chained as extended families and communities who cross and intersect with that border.
This study uses a social network perspective to explore how collaboration in 32 elementary schools in the Netherlands takes shape in the interactions among teachers as they engage in a data-based decision making reform project.
In a review of 42 neighborhood effects studies on youth-related outcomes conducted in the the 1990s, Leventhal and Brooks-Gunn find that only two articles examined neighborhoods and schools simultaneously. This paper updates their reviews, explores why it is important to consider neighborhoods and schools in combination and uses data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to empirically examine the effects of studying one context but ignoring the other.
This study evaluates the information significance of Oklahoma A–F school accountability grades relevant to the policy objective of achievement equity.
This study extends the "college-going culture" literature by providing a bilevel examination of organizational dimensions of efforts at an urban public charter school to promote Latina/o students' college-going.
The aim of this research project is to study how faculty members across different types of institutions understand and define legitimacy with regard to their academic careers.
This comparative case study investigates the role of context in learning to teach writing in two university-based post-baccalaureate preparation programs. The author uses a cultural-historical theoretical lens to identify differences in teacher candidates' experiences within and across methods course and field placement activities, which were consequential for their learning.